ISSN 1392-3196
Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 69, 3-13

UDK 631.416.8
AUKÐTAIÈIØ AUKÐTUMOS DÛKÐTO-KAJATØ MIKRORAJONO DIRVOÞEMIØ UÞTERÐTUMAS TOKSINËMIS MEDÞIAGOMIS
Algirdas MOTUZAS, Rimantas VAISVALAVIÈIUS

Lietuvos þemës ûkio universitetas
Noreikiðkës, Kauno rajonas

Santrauka

Analizuojamas Ignalinos AE aplinkoje esanèiø dirvoþemiø uþterðtumas radionuklidais ir sunkiaisiais metalais.
Nustatyta, kad radionuklidø 90Sr ir 137Cs aktyvumai nevirðija foniniø rodikliø, taèiau jie yra skirtingi dël nevienodos dirvoþemio granuliometrinës sudëties, karbonatingumo, drëg-numo, organinës medþiagos kiekio ir susiskaidymo laipsnio, gruntinio vandens gylio. Statis-tiðkai patikimas ir ið esmës didesnis 90Sr aktyvumas nustatytas miðko paklotëse, palyginus su mineraliniø dirvoþemiø 0-5 cm humusiniu sluoksniu.
Ilgametis ir daugkartinis sodø purðkimas pesticidais padidina bendruosius vario ir cinko kiekius sunkios granuliometrinës sudëties dirvoþemiø 0-20 cm sluoksnyje. Jø vidutiniai bendrieji kiekiai virðija etaloninius foninius rodiklius apie 1,6 karto, taèiau leidþiamo dirvo-þemio uþterðtumo sunkiaisiais metalais lygio (DLLn) nepasiekia.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: dirvoþemis, dirvoþemio apsauga, radionuklidai, sunkieji metalai.

ISSN 1392-3196
Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 69, 3-13

UDK 631.416.8
INVESTIGATIONS OF SOIL CONTAMINATION WITH TOXIC SUBSTANCES IN THE AUKÐTAITIJA HILLS REGION OF LITHUANIAA. Motuzas, R. Vaisvalavièius

Summary

Investigations of pollution with radionuclides and heavy metals of the prevailing soils in the zone affected by Ignalina nuclear power plant (NPP) were carried out.
It was stated that the action of 137Cs and 90Sr does not exceed background indices; however, they are different due to diverse soil texture, carbonate content, moisture, amount of organic matter/decomposition extent and ground water depth. Statistically reliable and essentially greater 90Sr activity was determined in the forest leaf litter in comparison with 0-5 cm humus layer of mineral soils.
It was ascertained that long-term and multiple spraying of gardens with pesticides noticeably increased the amount of total forms of copper and zinc in heavy textured soil. Their average total amounts exceeded standard-background indices 1.6 times. However, they did not reach the permissible level of soil pollution with heavy metals.

Key words: soil, soil conservation, radionuclides, heavy metals.


ISSN 1392-3196
Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 69, 14-32

UDK 633.853.494«321»:[631.84:631.816]:581.19

PASËLIO TANKUMO, AZOTO NORMØ IR JØ IÐBËRIMO LAIKO ÁTAKA VASARINIØ RAPSØ (BRASSICA NAPUS) SËKLØ DERLIUI, ÞALIØ BALTYMØ IR RIEBALØ IÐEIGAI

Gvidas ÐIDLAUSKAS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas
Akademija, Dotnuvos sen., Këdainiø rajonas

Santrauka

Lauko bandymai su vasariniais rapsais (Brassica napus) ‘Star’ vykdyti 1993-1997 me-tais Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute Dotnuvoje velëniniame glëjiniame lengvo priemolio dirvoþemyje. Tirta azoto tràðø normø, jø áterpimo laiko ir pasëlio tankumo átaka sëklø derliui bei baltymø ir riebalø iðeigai. Daugiausiai sëklø, baltymø ir riebalø, priklausomai nuo pasëlio tankumo, buvo gauta sëjant 7 kg/ha sëklø. Paaiðkëjo, kad vasariniø rapsø sëklø ir riebalø gausëjo didinant azoto normà iki 120 kg/ha. Tolesnis azoto normos didinimas beveik neturëjo átakos ðiems rodikliams. Tuo tarpu baltymø gausëjo net ir beriant didþiausià tirtà – 240 kg/ha azoto normà. Kadangi vasariniai rapsai augo pakankamai turtingoje maisto medþiagø dirvoje, jø sëklø ir þaliø baltymø gausëjo vëlinant azoto tràðø áterpimo laikà – træðiant 4-5 lapø vystymosi tarpsnyje ar þydëjimo pradþioje, palyginus su træðimu azoto tràðomis prieð sëjà. Þaliø riebalø kiekiui azoto tràðø áterpimo laikas þymesnës átakos neturëjo. Vasariniø rapsø þaliø baltymø ir riebalø kiekis labiausiai priklausë nuo sëklø derliaus, o sëklø derliaus dydá koreguojantys veiksniai turëjo silpnesná poveiká baltymø ir riebalø gausumui. Didþiausias vasariniø rapsø sëklø ir þaliø baltymø derliaus priedas uþ 1 kg azoto buvo gautas azoto tràðomis patræðus augalus þydëjimo pradþioje 60 kg/ha azoto norma. Tuo tarpu daugiausiai þaliø riebalø uþ 1 kg/ha azoto gauta rapsus patræðus 60 kg/ha azoto norma prieð jø sëjà.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: vasariniai rapsai, sëklø derlius, þaliø baltymø ir riebalø iðeiga, azoto norma, træðimo azotu laikas, pasëlio tankumas.

ISSN 1392-3196
Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 69, 14-32

UDK 633.853.494«321»:[631.84:631.816]:581.19

THE INFLUENCE OF STAND POPULATION DENSITY, NITROGEN RATES AND TIMING ON SPRING OILSEED RAPE (BRASSICA NAPUS) SEED, PROTEIN AND FAT YIELD
G. Ðidlauskas

Summary

Field trials were conducted at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in Dotnuva on a light loamy soddy-gleyic soil in 1993-1997. Spring oilseed rape cv. ‘Star’ was seeded to investigate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer rates and timing, stand population density, seed, protein and fat yield. It was found that the highest seed, protein and fat yield was harvested at 7 kg/ha seed rate. The yield of spring oilseed rape seed and fat was increasing with the increase of nitrogen rate till 120 kg/ha. Further increase of nitrogen rate did not affect the seed and fat yield. Meanwhile the yield of protein was increasing with the increase of nitrogen rate till 240 kg/ha. As spring oilseed rape was grown on a rich soil the seed and protein yield was increasing with the delay of nitrogen application time. When nitrogen was applied at 4-5 leaf stage or at the beginning of flowering the yield of seed and protein was higher compared to nitrogen application at sowing. However, nitrogen application time did not show more obvious effect on spring oilseed rape fat yield. In general, spring oilseed rape protein and fat yield mostly depended on the size of seed yield. The factors affecting seed yield showed weaker effect on protein and fat yield. The highest spring oilseed rape seed and protein yield increase for 1 kg nitrogen was achieved when nitrogen fertilizer was applied at the beginning of flowering at 60 kg/ha nitrogen rate. Meanwhile, the highest fat yield increase was found when nitrogen fertilizer was applied at sowing at 60 kg/ha nitrogen rate.

Key words: spring oilseed rape, seed, protein, fats yield, nitrogen rate, nitrogen application time, stand population density.


ISSN 1392-3196
Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 69, 33-55

UDK [623.358+633.16]:631.84:631.559:581.19

ÞIRNIØ, MIEÞIØ IR JØ MIÐINIØ DERLINGUMAS BEI SËKLØ IR GRÛDØ BALTYMINGUMO PRIKLAUSOMUMAS NUO AZOTO TRÀÐØ IR NITRAGINO

Albinas AUÐKALNIS, Vytautas DOVYDAITIS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas
Akademija, Dotnuvos sen., Këdainiø rajonas

Santrauka

Bandymai daryti Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute Dotnuvoje 1995-1997 m., kuriuose palyginta pusiau belapiø þirniø ‘Odin’ ir mieþiø ‘Roland’ derlius su jø miðiniais, taip pat tirta azoto tràðø bei nitragino átaka þirniø sëklø derliui. 1995 m. tik miðiniai, sudaryti ið 150 kg/ha þirniø ir 50 kg/ha mieþiø, neiðgulë ir buvo derlingesni negu gryni þirniai, o 1996 ir 1997 m. derlingesni buvo þirniai. Nuo azoto tràðø þirniø derlius nepadidëjo, o mieþiø derlius be azoto tràðø buvo menkas (2,39 t/ha). Patræðus N60, mieþiø grûdø gauta 3,40 t/ha, virðkinamøjø proteinø – 221 kg/ha, o þirniø – atitinkamai 3,83 t/ha ir 640 kg/ha. Toks pat þirniø derlius gautas nenaudojant azoto tràðø. Þirniø sëklà apvëlus nitraginu derlius nepakito.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: mieþiai, miðiniai, proteinai, piktþolës, þirniai.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 69, 33-55

UDK [623.358+633.16]:631.84:631.559:581.19

PRODUCTIVITY OF PEA, BARLEY AND THEIR MIXTURES AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE GRAIN PROTEIN CONTENT AND NITROGEN FERTILISER AND NITRAGINE
A. Auðkalnis, V. Dovydaitis

Summary

Field experiments were carried out at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture at the Department of Soil Management over the period 1995-1997. The objective of the experiments was to investigate the variation of barley cv. ‘Roland’ and pea cv. ‘Odin’ seed yield and pro-tein content in relation to the rates of ammonium nitrate applied to these crops. Furthermore, we compared the performance of semileafless pea cv. ‘Odin’ and spring barley cv. ‘Roland’ mixtures with the performance of the same pea and barley cultivars grown in pure stands.

Average data of 1995-1997 suggest that pea-barley mixture was not superior to pure peas. In 1995 peas were significantly affected by lodging, and mixtures were harvested with smaller seed losses. Seed and protein yield was higher than that of pure peas. Barley grain grown in mixture with peas had by 0.5-1.4 percent unit higher protein content than pure barley.

Fertilisation of barley with N90 increased protein content in grain by 0.6 percent unit, grain yield by 55.6 % and digestible protein content by 70.5 %. Peas without nitrogen fertilisers were by 62.8 % more productive than barley, and digestible protein content was 4.4 times higher. Only a moderate nitrogen fertiliser rate N30 increased protein content in pea seed by 1.1 percent unit, but as compared with barley, pea seed contained 2.8-3.6 times more protein. Nitragine did not increase the pea seed yield either.

Key words: pea, barley, mixture, protein, weeds.



ISSN 1392-3196
Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 69, 56-70

UDK 631.472.71:631.41:633.16:631.559

ARMENS STORIO ÁTAKA DIRVOS SAVYBËMS IR VASARINIØ MIEÞIØ DERLIUI
Mykolas ARLAUSKAS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas
Akademija, Dotnuvos sen., Këdainiø rajonas

Santrauka

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute, Dotnuvoje, 1975-1997 m. daryti armens (humusin-gojo) sluoksnio tyrimai. Stacionariame maþø laukeliø bandyme ið derlingos lengvo priemolio þemës, paimtos ið ilgametës ganyklos, buvo dirbtinai sudarytas armuo 10, 20, 30 ir 40 cm storio. Tyrimai daryti dviejuose fonuose: netræðtame ir træðtame mineralinëmis tràðomis N90P90K90. Vasariniai mieþiai auginti po cukriniø runkeliø.

Skirtingo armens (humusingo) storio átaka nustatyta: mieþiø derliaus struktûros ele-mentams, mieþiø grûdø ir ðiaudø derliui, grûdø kokybei ir jø sëklinëms savybëms, taip pat dirvos fizikinëms bei cheminëms savybëms netræðtame ir træðtame NPK tràðomis fonuose.

Ilgameèiais tyrimais nustatyta, kad sëjant naujø produktyviø veisliø mieþius storesnis ariamasis (humusingas) sluoksnis (net iki 40 cm) esminiai didina derliø, kai mieþiai auginami netræðiamose arba maþai maisto medþiagø turinèiose dirvose. Gausiai træðiamose (N90P90K90) dirvose optimalus armens storis vasariniams mieþiams yra 30 cm.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: armens (humusingo) sluoksnio storis, NPK tràðos, mieþiai, der-lius, derliaus struktûros elementai, grûdø kokybë, dirvos fizikinës ir agrocheminës savybës.

ISSN 1392-3196
Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 69, 56-70

UDK 631.472.71:631.41:633.16:631.559

EFFECT OF ARABLE LAYER THICKNESS ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND SPRING BARLEY YIELD
M. Arlauskas

Summary

Investigations of arable layer thickness were carried out at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture (Dotnuva) over the period 1975-1997. A long-term small-plot experiment was established by composing a 10, 20, 30 and 40 cm arable soil layer from fertile loamy textured soil, brought from a long-term grassland. The experiment was set up on two backgrounds, not fertilised and fertilised with N90P90K90. Spring barley was grown after sugar beets.

In both backgrounds we determined the components of barley yield, straw and grain, quality of grain and seed properties, as well as soil physical and chemical properties.

The findings of the long-term experiment revealed that when new high yielding barley varieties were sown the yield significantly increased after the plough soil layer was increased down to 40 cm, and especially when the crop was sown in a poor soil, or in the soil which had not been fertilised for a long time. The optimal arable soil layer was revealed to be about 30 cm when high rates of fertilisers (N90P90K90) had been used.

Key words: arable soil layer, mineral NPK fertiliser, spring barley, yield, component of barley yield, grain quality, soil physical and chemical properties.



ISSN 1392-3196
Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 69, 71-84

UDK 631.51.022:633.358:631.442.4

PRIEÐSËJINIO DIRVOS DIRBIMO BÛDAI IR SËJOS GYLIS ÞIRNIAMS SUNKIAME PRIEMOLYJE
Stanislava MAIKÐTËNIENË, Antanas SATKUS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Joniðkëlio bandymø stotis
Joniðkëlis, Pasvalio rajonas

Santrauka

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Joniðkëlio bandymø stoties velëniniame glëjiðkame sunkiame priemolyje 1995–1997 m. atlikti du bandymai: lauko bandymo metodu tirta prieð-sëjinis dirvos ádirbimas ir sëjos bûdai, lauko mikrolaukeliø metodu – sëjos gylis þirniams. Prieðsëjinio dirvos ádirbimo ávairiais padargais bûdai (kultivatoriumi, virbalinëmis ir peilinë-mis akëèiomis, freza bei kombinuotu germinatoriaus tipo agregatu) tirti dviejuose fonuose: viename þirniai sëti sëjamàja su diskiniais, kitame – su pleiðtiniais noragëliais. Optimaliam sëjos gyliui iðaiðkinti mikrolaukeliø bandyme þirniai sëti nuo 1 iki 10 cm gyliu, gilinant 1 cm. Lauko mikrolaukeliø bandyme dirva sëjai ruoðta rankiniais árankiais ir þirniai pasëti rankomis tiksliai nurodytais skirtingais gyliais. Abiejuose bandymuose auginti olandiðki pusiau belapiai þirniai ‘Odin’.

Tyrimais nustatyta, kad þirniø sudygimui ir derliui prieðsëjinio ádirbimo bûdai didesnæ átakà turi tada, kai sëjama sëjamosiomis su pleiðtiniais noragëliais. Ðitaip sëjant þymiai dides-nis derlius buvo ten, kur dirva prieð sëjà ruoðta intensyviau ir giliau spyruokliniu kultiva-toriumi, peilinëmis akëèiomis, freza ar kombinuotu (germinatoriaus tipo) agregatu. Palyginus su sekliu (5-6 cm gyliu)purenimu vien virbalinëmis akëèiomis, derliaus priedo gauta atitin-kamai 14,1, 16,3, 13,0 ir 9,2 %. Tais paèiais agregatais purentoje dirvoje, þirnius pasëjus sëjamosiomis su diskiniais noragëliais, derliaus priedas nuo intensyvesnio purenimo buvo maþesnis ir, palyginus su vien akëtu variantu, sudarë atitinkamai tik 8,9; 10,0; 0,8 ir 4,6 %.

Sëjos gylis taip pat svarbi agrotechninë sàlyga þirniø sudygimui ir derliui. Jo átaka þirniø pasëlio produktyvumui ir derliui priklausë nuo dirvos drëgnumo. Pasëjus á sausesnæ dirvà, geriau sudygo þirniai, jø sëklas áterpus giliau – 6 cm gyliu, taèiau pasëjus á drëgnesnæ dirvà, geriau dygo sekliau pasëti – 1-3 cm gyliu. Sunkaus priemolio dirvoje þirniø sëklas áter-pus giliau negu 7 cm, jø derlius sumaþëja vidutiniðkai 18,0-44,2 %, palyginus su sekliu áterpimu.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: sunkûs priemoliai, prieðsëjinis dirvos dirbimas, sëjos gylis, þirniai.
 

ISSN 1392-3196
Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 69, 71-84

UDK 631.51.022:633.358:631.442.4

INVESTIGATION OF PRE-SOWING SOIL TILLAGE AND SOWING DEPTH FOR PEAS ON A CLAY LOAM SOIL
S. Maikðtënienë, A. Satkus

Summary

Pre-sowing soil tillage and sowing methods and sowing depth investigations for peas ‘Odin’ were carried out over the period 1995-1997 at the Joniðkëlis Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture on a clay loam soil. Pre-sowing soil tillage methods (by cultivator, tooth and knife harrow, rototiller and by combined spring – tooth harrow unit) were investigated on two sowing backgrounds: peas sown by grain seeder with a disc and by wedge-shaped shares. Peas were sown every 1 cm from 1 to 10 cm for the determination of optimum sowing depth in micro-field trials.

Experimental findings showed that sowing methods predetermined the yield of peas more, than pre-sowing tillage methods. When the soil was prepared more itensively by a cultivator, knife harrow, rototiller or combined unit and peas were sown by a seeder with disc shares, the yield of peas was respectively 8.9; 10.0; 0.8 and 4.6 % higher, as compared with shallow soil tillage by a tooth harrow. When the soil was tilled by the same implements and peas were sown by a seeder with wedge-shaped shares, the crop yield increase was more marked and amounted to 14.1; 16.3. 13.0 and 9.2 % respectively as compared with tillage by a tooth harrow.

Sowing depth was an important growing condition for germination and yield of peas. Optimum sowing depth on a clay loam soil for peas was 1-6 cm, and when sowing them deeper than 7 cm, the yield decreased by 18.0-44.2 %, as compared with shallow sowing.

Key words: clay loam, pre-sowing soil tillage, sowing depth, peas.



ISSN 1392-3196
Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 69, 85-95

UDK 633.427:631.531.048:631.84:631.559
SËKLOS NORMOS, TARPUEILIØ PLOÈIO IR TRÆÐIMO AZOTU ÁTAKA SËKLAI AUGINAMIEMS ALIEJINIAMS RIDIKAMS

Algirdas NEDZINSKAS, Teresë NEDZINSKIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filialas
Trakø Vokë, Vilnius

Santrauka

1994-1997 m. Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filiale priesmëlio ant rupaus smë-lio ir þvyro dirvoþemyje tirtas aliejiniø ridikø auginimas sëklai. Ridikai pasëti 12,5 ir 25 cm tarpueiliais, iðberiant 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 kg/ha sëklos, patræðta N60P60K60. Træðimo azotu ban-dyme aliejiniai ridikai træðti P60K60 ir atitinkamai azotu – N0, N30, N60, N90, N120.
Nustatyta, kad aliejiniø ridikø sëklø derlius daug priklausë nuo meteorologiniø sàlygø. Palankiausiais 1995 metais, iðsëjus 20 kg/ha sëklos, prikulta viena tona ðvariø, iðvalytø sëklø, o sausringais 1994-aisiais, iðsëjus tokià paèià normà, derlius tesiekë 0,63 t/ha.
Aliejinius ridikus geriausia buvo sëti 12,5 cm tarpueiliais. Vidutiniais bandymø duo-menimis, iðsëjus 20 kg/ha sëklos 12,5 cm tarpueiliais, gauta 0,81 t/ha sëklø, pasëjus 25 cm tarpueiliais, derlius buvo 13,6 % maþesnis. Sëjant aliejinius ridikus 12,5 ir 25 cm tarpueiliais geriausia sëklos norma – 15-20 kg/ha. Padidinus sëklos normà, augalai maþiau ðakojosi, ma-þëjo ankðtarø kiekis. Træðiant fosforo ir kalio tràðomis, tinkamiausia azoto norma buvo N90. Normà padidinus iki N120, aliejiniø ridikø sëklø derlius maþëjo, augalø vegetacijos laikotarpis pailgëjo 4-8 dienomis. Pasëlis daugiau iðgulë.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: aliejiniai ridikai, sëklos norma, tarpueiliø plotis, træðimo azotu norma, sëklø derlius.

ISSN 1392-3196
Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 69, 85-95

UDK 633.427:631.531.048:631.84:631.559
EFFECT OF SEED RATE, INTERROW WIDTH AND NITROGEN FERTILISATION ON OIL RADISH GROWN FOR SEED
A. Nedzinskas, T. Nedzinskienë

Summary

Over the period 1994-1997 investigations of oil radish cultivation for seed were carried out at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s Vokë Branch on a sandy loam soil lying on coarse sand and gravel. Oil radish was sown at 12.5 and 25 cm interrow widths at seed rates of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 kg/ha and fertilised with N60P60K60. In the N fertilisation experiment oil radish was fertilised with P60K60 and N0, N30, N60, N90 and N120.

It was determined that the seed yield of oil radish was to a great extent dependent on weather conditions. In 1995, which was the most favourable year, oil radish sown at a seed rate of 20 kg/ha gave one ton of clean seed, while in the droughty year of 1994 the same seed rate gave a seed yield of 0.63 t/ha.

The best interrow width was proved to be 12.5 cm. Average experimental findings show that when oil radish was sown at a seed rate of 20 kg/ha, at an interrow width of 12.5 cm the seed yield was 0.81 t/ha, while at an interrow width of 25 cm the seed yield was 13.6 % lower. When sowing oil radish at 12.5 and 25 cm interrow widths the best seed rate was 15-20 kg/ha. Higher seed rates resulted in a lower branching of plants and a lower number of pods. When fertilising with phosphoric and potash fertilisers the most suitable rate of nitrogen was N90. Having increased the rate up to N120 the seed yield of oil radish tended to go down, the vegetative growth period lengthened by 4-8 days and the crop was more affected by lodging.

Key words: oil radish, seed rate, interrow width, N rates, seed yield.


ISSN 1392-3196
Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 69, 96-107

UDK 633.521:631.531.048:631.55
SËMENINIØ LINØ AGROTECHNIKA
Stasys MIKELIONIS, Algimantas ENDRIUKAITIS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Upytës bandymø stotis
Upytë, Panevëþio rajonas

Santrauka

1995-1998 m. Upytës bandymø stotyje daryti bandymai, kuriø tikslas – nustatyti ‘LU-5’ veislës sëmeniniø linø optimalià sëklos normà, parinkti tinkamus herbicidus nuo piktþoliø sëmeniniø linø pasëlyje, tirti ðiø linø nuëmimo javø kombainu galimybes bei ypatumus.

Lauko bandymai árengti Upytës bandymø stoties bandymø lauke, velëniniame glë-jiðkame priesmëlio dirvoþemyje. Laboratoriniai tyrimai atlikti Upytës bandymø stotyje, Lie-tuvos þemdirbystës institute bei Agrocheminiø tyrimø centre.

Tyrimø duomenys rodo, kad didþiausias ‘LU-5’ veislës sëmeniniø linø sëmenø derlius (vidutiniðkai 1,59-1,71 t/ha) uþaugo pasëjus 5,0-8,0 mln/ha daigiø sëklø.

Efektyviausiai dviskiltes piktþoles sëmeniniø linø pasëlyje naikino 2,7 l/ha bazagrano M ir 20 g/ha harmonio miðinys (piktþoliø skaièius sumaþëjo 64,6 %, jø masë – 71,5 %) bei 30 g/ha harmonio su 0,1 % citoveto priedu (piktþoliø skaièius sumaþëjo 64,4 %, jø masë – 82,1 %). Nupurðkus ðiais herbicidais, sëmenø derlius padidëjo atitinkamai 104-86 %.

Esant sausiems orams, sëmeninius linus nuimant javø kombainu “SAMPO 500” tiek tiesioginiu kombainavimu, tiek dvifaziu bûdu, iðkultø sëmenø kokybës rodikliai buvo gana aukðti ir nepriklausë nuo derliaus nuëmimo bûdo. Desikavimas reglonu arba raundapu 2,5 l/ha 10-20 dienø prieð derliaus nuëmimà, ypaè lietingais metais, þymiai paspartino ir palengvino kombaino darbà (linai maþiau vyniojosi ant kombaino darbiniø daliø). Nenustatyta neigiamos desikavimo átakos sëmenø kokybës rodikliams.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: sëmeniniai linai, sëklos norma, piktþolëtumas, derliaus nuëmi-mas, desikavimas, sëmenys, pluoðtas.

ISSN 1392-3196
Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 69, 96-107

UDK 633.521:631.531.048:631.55
LINSEED GROWING TECHNOLOGY
S. Mikelionis, A. Endriukaitis

Summary

Over the period 1995-1997 three field trials were carried out on linseed (oilseed flax) variety ‘LU 5’ at the Upyte Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture. The trials involved investigation of: 1) – linseed seed rate – 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 million seed per hectare; 2) – herbicide treatment – MCPA 1,2 kg/ha, harmony 30 g/ha + citovett 0.1 %, MCPA 1.2 kg/ha + lontrel 0.3 kg/ha, bazagran M 2.7 l/ha + harmony 20 g/ha, MCPA 0.8 kg/ha + harmony 20 g/ha, MCPA 0.8 kg/ha + bazagran M 2.7 l/ha, comparing with untreated plots; 3) – linseed harvesting methods: switching and thrashing by harvester-thresher, treating linseed before harvesting with one of desiccants (reglone, basta, roundup) at rate 2.5 l/ha and after some time switching and thrashing by harvester-thresher, switching linseed into windrows letting to dry and after thrashing by harvester-thresher.
The experiments were set up on a soddy-gleyic sandy loam laying on loam containing 1.94-2.4 % of humus, with medium phosphorus and potassium supply. The soil reaction was weakly alkaline.
It was established that the highest linseed seed yield was obtained when sowing 5-8 million seeds per hectare. The influence of seed rate on the seed quality was slight.
The mixtures of herbicides – bazagran M 2.7 l/ha and harmony 20 g/ha as well as the harmony 30 g/ha and citowett 0.1 % had the biggest effect killing the dycotyledon weeds. They reduced the number of weeds by 64.4-64.6 %, the weed weight – by 71.5-82.1 %, increased the seed yield by 104.1-86.3 %.
There was not established a significant influence of different linseed harvesting methods on linseed seed yield and its quality. The treatment of linseed by reglone or roundup before harvesting, especially in rainy years, made the work of harvester-thresher easier. Switching linseed into windrows letting to dry and after thrashing by harvester-thresher get the similar effect only in dry weather.

Key words: linseed (oilseed flax), seed, fibre, seed rate, weeds, herbicides, harvesting, desiccation.


ISSN 1392-3196
Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 69, 108-120

UDK 632.937:633.1:631.531.027.2
BIOPREPARATØ, NAUDOTØ SËKLAI APVELTI, ÁTAKA VARPINIØ JAVØ LIGOTUMUI IR DERLIUI
Roma SEMAÐKIENË, Zenonas DABKEVIÈIUS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas
Akademija, Dotnuvos sen., Këdainiø rajonas

Santrauka

Biologiniø preparatø, skirtø augalø apsaugai nuo ligø, efektyvumas buvo tirtas þie-miniuose kvieèiuose ir rugiuose bei vasariniuose mieþiuose. Javø sëklos beicuotos biopre-paratais trichoderminu (Trichoderma lignorum, ðtamas istokskij), Kaelsi-Micros (bakterijos Pseudomonas aureofaciens H16, biostimuliatoriai ir kt.) ir simbiontu (endofitiniai grybai ir augimà skatinanèios medþiagos).
Gausiai iðplitus 1995-1996 metø þiemà pavasariniam pelësiui þiemkenèiuose, naudo-tas trichoderminas ið dalies apsaugojo rugius ir kvieèius nuo ðios ligos – biologinis efekty-vumas buvo atitinkamai 27,4 ir 12,7 %, o Kaelsi-Micros veikë tik kvieèiuose (31,0 %). Kitais tyrimø metais ðie biopreparatai pavasarinio pelësio neveikë.
Panaudojus biopreparatus ir standartiná preparatà baitanà universalà, visais tyrimø metais þieminiai kvieèiai þydëjimo metu buvo ið dalies maþiau paþeisti septorioze. Kitoms lapø ligoms tirtos priemonës átakos neturëjo, neapsaugojo ir nuo kietøjø kûliø.
Tirtos biologinës priemonës javø grûdø derliui didelës átakos neturëjo, nes gautas derliaus padidëjimas ar sumaþëjimas, pavartojus tirtas priemones, buvo paklaidos ribose.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: biopreparatai, þieminiai kvieèiai, þieminiai rugiai, vasariniai mieþiai, pavasarinis pelësis, perþiemojimas, varpiniø javø lapø ligos, kietosios kûlës, derlius.

ISSN 1392-3196
Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 69, 108-120

UDK 632.937:633.1:631.531.027.2

THE INFLUENCE OF BIOLOGICAL SEED TREATERS AGAINST CEREAL DISEASES AND ON GRAIN YIELD
R. Semaðkienë, Z. Dabkevièius

Summary

Until recently, the diseases have largely been controlled by chemical seed treatment, but as concern for the environment increases, more attention is being given to alternative methods as biological control by antagonistic microorganisms. One of the main objectives of this work was to search for antagonistic fungi and bacteria to control seed-borne diseases of cereals.
Studies were done in field plots at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture from 1994 to 1997. Prior to sowing the naturally infected seeds of winter wheat ‘Ðirvinta 1’, winter rye ‘Rûkai’ and spring barley ‘Roland’ were treated with the biological seed treaters trichodermin (Trichoderma lignorun strain istokskij) at a rate of 8.0 kg/t, Kaelsi-Micros (Pseudomonas aureofaciens strain H16) at a rate of 200 ml/t, simbiont (growth stimulant) + CuSO4 at a rate of 1.0+0.2 g/t and the chemical seed treater baitan universal at a rate of 1.5 kg/t.
Trichodermin was partly effective against snow mould in winter wheat (12.7 %) and winter rye (27.4 %) during the winter of 1995-1996, when the infection of this disease was very strong. Kaelsi-Micros reduced the severity of snow mould 31.0 % only in winter wheat.
When seeds of winter wheat were coated with biological seed treaters, the incidence of bunt did not differ from the untreated control. Baitan universal gave an excellent control against this disease.
Biological seed treaters did not have any effect on grain yield of cereals, because the increase or decrease of grain yield wasn not significant.

Key words: biological seed treaters, winter wheat, winter rye, spring barley, snow mould, diseases of cereals, bunt, grain yield.


ISSN 1392-3196
Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 69, 121-131

UDK 631.51:633.358:632.954:631.44:551.435.446

AKËJIMO LAIKAS IR HERBICIDAI ÞIRNIAMS KALVOSE
Irena KINDERIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Kaltinënø bandymø stotis
Kaltinënai, Ðilalës rajonas

Santrauka

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Kaltinënø bandymø stoties kalvose, velëniniame jauri-niame priemolyje 1995-1997 m. buvo tirtas herbicidø stompo (3, 4 ir 5 l/ha), harneso (1,5, 2,0 ir 2,5 l/ha), topogardo (2 ir 3 l/ha), bazagrano M (3,0 l/ha) gezagardo 2 kg/ha ir akëjimo átaka pusiau belapiams þirniams ‘Odin’.
Tyrimai rodo, kad net du kartus akëti þirnius lengvomis akëèiomis (prieð sudygimà ir 3-5 lapeliø tarpsnyje), buvo nepakankamai veiksminga.
Iðpurðkus herbicidus, þirniø piktþolëtumas sumaþëjo (47,2-89,8 %) labiau, negu juos akëjant (2,9-15,9 %). Herbicidams jautresnës buvo vienametës dviskiltës piktþolës, o akëjimui – vienametës vienaskiltës. Geriau nei kiti herbicidai veikë stompas 4 l/ha. Þirniø sëklø derliui nei herbicidai, nei akëjimo laikas átakos neturëjo.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: pusiau belapiai þirniai, herbicidai, akëjimas, piktþolës, derlius.
 

ISSN 1392-3196
Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 69, 121-131

UDK 631.51:633.358:632.954:631.44:551.435.446

THE EFFICIENCY OF HARROWING AND HERBICIDES OF PEA GROWING ON SOILS IN HILLY RELIEF
I. Kinderienë

Summary

The effectiveness of herbicides (Stomp 3, 4 and 5 l/ha, Harnes 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 l/ha, Topo-gard 2 and 3 kg/ha, Gesagard (standard) 2 kg/ha Basagran M and time of harrowing in the stand of semi-leafless pea variety ‘Odin’ was investigated at the Kaltinënai Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture on soddy-podzolic loamy soils of hilly relief over 1995-1997.
The results show, that even twice harrowing the stand of pea, as an ecological measure, was not sufficiently effective in controlling weeds, because of the low ability of the crop to compete. Twice harrowing the stand of pea, i.e. before emergence and in the stage of 3-5 leaves, reduced the weediness evidently, but not enough.
All the herbicides used have reduced weediness (47,2-89,8 %) better than harrowing (2.9-15.9 %). The most sensitive weeds to herbicides were the annual dicotyledonous ones. The best action on killing of weeds and yield of pea increase was registered Stomp 4 l/ha application.

Key words: semi-leafless pea, herbicides, harrowing, weeds, yield.


ISSN 1392-3196
Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 69, 132-147

UDK 633.24:631.531.01:

SKIRTINGO VYSTYMOSI RITMO PAÐARINIØ MOTIEJUKØ REPRO-DUKTYVUS DAUGINIMASIS, PASËJUS SU ANTSËLIU IR BE JO
Aldona KRYÞEVIÈIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas
Akademija, Dotnuvos sen., Këdainiø rajonas

Santrauka

Bandymai atlikti 1991-1997 m. Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute Dotnuvoje velëni-niame glëjiðkame lengvo priemolio dirvoþemyje, kuriame humuso buvo vidutiniðkai 2,25 %, judriøjø P2O5 – 233 ir K2O – 170 mg/kg, pH – 7,0. Tirtas skirtingo vystymosi ritmo paðariniø motiejukø (Phleum pratense L.) derlingumas ir jautrumas mieþiø antsëliui. Ið Lietuvoje augi-namø varpiniø þoliø trijuose bandymuose palyginti vëlyviausio vystymosi ritmo paðariniai motiejukai ‘Vëlenis’ (plaukëjimo pradþia – birþelio 21 (±6) d., sëklø kietoji branda – rugpjû-èio 29 (±4) d. bei ankstyvesnio uþ standartinæ veislæ ‘Gintaras II’ perspektyvaus selekcinio numerio 1532, augimas ir vystymasis sëjos ir derliaus metais.

Nustatyta, kad ankstyvesnio vystymosi ritmo paðariniai motiejukai sausringø metø laikotarpiu suformavo tik vidutinio derlingumo sëklinius pasëlius. Paðariniai motiejukai ‘Gin-taras II’ per trejus derliaus metus subrandino sëklø vidutiniðkai 1387 kg/ha, perspektyvinis selekcinis numeris – 1522 kg/ha. Vëlyvi paðariniai motiejukai ‘Vëlenis’ turëjo apie 3 kartus maþesnes reproduktyvaus dauginimosi potencines galimybes negu ankstyvesniø veisliø motie-jukai, kai sëklø gauta tik 434 kg/ha. Mieþiø antsëlio poveikis vidutinio derlingumo anksty-vesnio vystymosi ritmo paðariniams motiejukams buvo nereikðmingas. Vëlyvøjø paðariniø motiejukø ‘Vëlenis’ pasëliø formavimui sëjos ir pirmais derliaus metais antsëlis turëjo ryðkø neigiamà poveiká, nors maþam vidutiniam 3 metø sëklø derliui jis taip pat nebuvo reikðmingas.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: paðariniai motiejukai, vystymosi ritmas, reproduktyvus daugini-masis, sëklø derlius, antsëlis.

ISSN 1392-3196
Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 69, 132-147

UDK 633.24:631.531.01:

REPRODUCTIVE PROPAGATION OF COMMON TIMOTHY DIFFERING IN THE DEVELOPMENT RATE, SOWN WITH AND WITHOUT A COVER CROP

A. Kryþevièienë

Summary

Experiments were conducted in 1991-1997 at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in Dotnuva, on a soddy gleyic, light loamy soil with a humus content of 2.25 %, available P2O5 – 233 and K2O – 170 mg/kg, pH – 7.0. We investigated the productivity of common timothy (Phleum pratense L.) differing in the development rate and its sensitivity to barley as a cover crop. Growth and development in the sowing and harvest years of the common timothy ‘Vëlenis’, characterised by the latest development rate of all the grasses grown in Lithuania (beginning of heading – June 21 (±6) days, seed hard ripeness – August 29 (±4) days) and a promising breeding number 1532, earlier than the standard variety ‘Gintaras II’ were compa-red in three experiments.
It was determined that the timothy of an earlier development rate produced only medium-productive seed stands during the droughty period of the year. The seed yield of the common timothy ‘Gintaras II’ during three harvest years was on average 1387 kg/ha, and that of the promising breeding number – 1522 kg/ha. Late common timothy ‘Vëlenis’ had 3 times lower potential possibilities of reproductive propagation than the timothy of earlier varieties, and the seed yield was as low as 434 kg/ha. The effect of barley as a cover crop on medium-productive common timothy with an earlier development rate was intangible. The cover crop had a marked negative effect on the formation of late common timothy ‘Vëlenis’ stands in the sowing and first harvest year, however its effect on a low average 3 years’ seed yield was not significant either.

Key words: common timothy, development rate, reproductive propagation, seed yield, cover crop.


ISSN 1392-3196
Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 69, 148-163

UDK 633. 2.033(255):633.2/.3

ÞOLIØ RÛÐIØ BIOLOGINIØ SAVYBIØ IR AGROTECHNINIØ VEIKSNIØ SÀVEIKOS ÁTAKA ÞOLYNO FORMAVIMUISI ÁVAIRIAI UÞLIEJAMOSE NEMUNO ÞEMUPIO PIEVOSE
Vytautas GIPIÐKIS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Nemuno pievø sektorius
Ðilutës rajonas

Santrauka

Þoliø tarprûðinë kova tirta þolyne, susidedanèiame ið 14 varpiniø þoliø rûðiø. Tyrimai atlikti gausiai træðtame fone, aukðto (potvyniø nebuvo), vidutinio (potvynio trukmë iki 28 die-nø) ir þemo (iki 48 dienø) lygmens pievose, jas pjaunant 2, 3, 4, ir 5 kartus. Nustatyta varpiniø þoliø atsparumas potvyniui, ilgaamþiðkumas, pirmos pjûties ir atolø augimo trukmës átaka þolyno botaninës sudëties kaitai, þoliø rûðiø tarpusavio keitimasis vegetacijos laikotarpiu, beginkliø dirsiø, paprastøjø ðunaþoliø, paprastøjø migliø, baltøjø smilgø, nendriniø dryþuèiø ir kupstiniø ðluotsmilgiø agrobiologiniai ypatumai, padedantys joms ásigalëti arba bûti nustelb-toms. Fitosocialiniø santykiø esmë yra þoliø tarprûðinë kova uþ vietà po saule, prisitaikymas prie aplinkos sàlygø. Derinant þoliø rûðiø biologines savybes su agrotechnikos priemonëmis, galima pagal pageidavimà keisti þolyno botaninæ sudëtá.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: salpa, potvynis, pieva, fitocenozës, pjûtys, botaninë sudëtis, þolyno kaita.
 

ISSN 1392-3196
Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 69, 148-163

UDK 633.2.033(255):633.2/.3

EFFECT OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF HERBAGE SPECIES AND FACTORS OF CULTIVATION TECHNIQUES ON THE FORMATION OF SWARDS IN THE MEADOWS OF THE LOWER NEMUNAS AT VARIOUS LEVELS OF FLOODING
V. Gipiðkis

Summary

Competition between herbage species was investigated in the sward composed of 14 grass species on a heavily fertilised background, on high (no floods), medium (duration of the flood 28 days) and low (up to 48 days) lying meadows cut 2, 3, 4 and 5 times. The following was determined: tolerance of grasses to floods, longevity, effect of the first cut timing and duration of aftermath growing on the variation of botanical composition of the sward, changes in the specific composition of grass species during the vegetative growth season, agro-biological peculiarities of Bromus inermis Leyss., Dactylis glomerata L., Poa pratensis L., Agrostis stolonifera L., Phalaroidesarundinacea L., Deschampsia cespitosa L. enabling them either to get established or to be suppressed. The essence of phytosocial relations is the struggle among grass species for existence, adjustment to environmental conditions. It is possible to achieve a desirable botanical composition of the sward by matching cultivation techniques to biological properties of grass species.

Key words: flood land, flood, meadow, phytocenose, cuts, botanical composition, sward changes.


ISSN 1392-3196
Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 69, 164-179

UDK 633.2/.3:581.14:633.2.032(255)
PJÛÈIØ DAÞNUMAS, LAIKAS IR MODELIAVIMAS NEMUNO ÞEMUPIO PIEVOSE
Vytautas GIPIÐKIS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Nemuno pievø sektorius
Ðilutës rajonas

Santrauka

Tyrimai daryti Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute 1982-1985 m. Nemuno þemupio aukð-to, vidutinio ir þemo lygmens pievose atlikti 5 pievø naudojimo lauko bandymai teoriniams þoliapjûtës pagrindams paruoðti. Pateikiami duomenys apie tai, kaip þolyno derlingumà ir paðaro kokybæ átakoja vidutinis ir ilgas uþliejimas, pjûèiø daþnumas, pirmos þolës, atolø ir paskutinës pjûties laikas bei pjûèiø kaita. Þolës augimo ir kokybës dinamikà lemia trys veiksniai: reljefas, vegetacijos laikotarpis ir þolës augimo trukmë. Grafinis modelis – nomo-grama apjungia ðiuos veiksnius á visumà: planuojama þoliapjûtë – pjûèiø skaièius ir pjovimo laikas norimam derlingumui bei þolës kokybei pasiekti.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: uþliejamos pievos, pjûtys, derlius, þali proteinai, modeliavimas.

ISSN 1392-3196
Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 69, 164-179

UDK 633.2/.3:581.14:633.2.032(255)
FREQUENCY, TIME AND MODELLING OF CUTS IN THE MEADOWS OF LOWER NEMUNAS
V. Gipiðkis

Summary

1982-1985 5 field trials were conducted in the meadows of the Lower Nemunas to prepare the theorethic fundamentals of grass cutting. Main principles: in comparison with the upper part, a flood goes away from the lower meadows and growth period is late by 10 days – so a natural conveyer of grass cutting occurs; meadow grass of the lowlands is more foliate and has higher protein content by 3 % and lower fibre tissue content by 3 %; in spring the first grass grows vigorously, later the growth gradually weakens and after the 10th of August the cut grass doesn’t regrow as much as for mechanical harvesting; while the duration of the first grass and summer aftermath lengthens, yield in creases as well, but nutritiousness reduces; in autumn it is in reverse – the productivity reduces, but the quality improves; three or four cuts correspond the ecological and fodder quality reguirements of meadow grass; after renewal of growth period the first grass matures in 30 days, the second – in 35-45, the third one may continue up to 60-70 days; the last cut in September doesn’t have any negative effect.
Three factors predetermine grass growth (productivity) and its quality during growth period: relief, growth poeriod and duration of grass growth. Graphic diagrams connect these factors into the whole. Using them allows the planning of grass harvesting in accordance with desirable productivity and nutritive value.

Key words: relief, grass, growth period, cuts, duration of growth, productivity, quality, model, grass cutting.


ISSN 1392-3196
Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 69, 180-200

UDK 633.2.032(255):633.2/.3:631.559
POTVYNIO VANDENS ÁTAKA ÞOLYNØ SUSIFORMAVIMUI NEMUNO ÞEMUPYJE
Kazimieras KATUTIS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Nemuno pievø sektorius
Ðilutës rajonas

Santrauka

1987-1997 m. Nemuno pievose atlikti tyrimai, kuriø tikslas nustatyti uþliejimo átakà dirvoþemio derlingumui ir þoliø botaninei sudëèiai.
Tyrimø metu stebëta Nemuno þemaslënyje nusëdusio dumblo kiekis ir kokybë, N, P, K, Ca, Mg jonø pokytis natûraliame ir atveþtame dirvoþemyje bei ávairiose slënio vietose susiformavusio þolyno sudëtis bei derlingumas.
Atlikus daugiafaktorinius tyrimus nustatyta, kad þolynai skyrësi priklausomai nuo potvynio trukmës ir gruntinio vandens lygio vegetacijos metu. Pavaginëje upës dalyje augo smiltyniniai lendrûnai ir ðaukðèiai, toliau nuo upës augo paprastosios ðunaþolës bei beginklës dirsës, toliau – pieviniai paðiauðëliai, pereinantys á nendriniø dryþuèiø bendrijas. Prieþemyni-nëje slënio dalyje, ðlapiose vietose augo viksvø, vandeniniø monaþoliø ir vilkdalgiø þolynai.
Nemuno þemupio pievø derlingumas priklausë nuo potvynio metu atneðtø augalams reikalingø maisto medþiagø kiekio. Þoliø potencinis derlingumas svyravo nuo 2 t/ha durpyne iki 7 t/ha derlingame priemolyje. Þoliø derliui apskaièiuoti pagal dirvoþemio agrochemines savybes naudotos empirinës lygtys /2, 3, 4/.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: uþliejimas, derlingumas, þolyno botaninë sudëtis.

ISSN 1392-3196
Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 69, 180-200

UDK 633.2.032(255):633.2/3:631.559
EFFECT OF FLOOD WATER ON THE FORMATION OF GRASSLANDS IN THE LOWER NEMUNAS
K. Katutis

Summary

In 1987-1997 at the Nemunas sector of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture expe-riments were carried out with a purpose to determine the efficiency of flood water concen-tration on the yield and biogenic matter of flood meadows, soil agrochemical properties and metabolism of biogenic matter in flooded soils. Tests were carried out on various types of soils in the Lower Nemunas.
The formation of grasslands in the lowland of the river Nemunas was dependent on the hydrodynamic regimes of the flood in these areas and on the depth of ground water during the vegetative growth season. In the area near the riverbed grow wood small-reed and butter-bur, further from the riverbed – cocksfoot and smooth brome-grass and still further – foxtail and reed canary grass. Sedge, reed sweet-grass and iris grow in the wet part of the lowland.
The productivity of flood meadows was from 2 to 7 t/ha. An empirical formula can be used for the calculation of the productivity of different parts of flood meadows in the lowland of the Nemunas [2, 3, 4].

Key words: flood water, grassland productivity, botanical composition.


ISSN 1392-3196
Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 69, 201-206

UDK 631.58:631.461

ÁVAIRIØ ÞEMDIRBYSTËS SISTEMØ ÁTAKA MIKROORGANIZMØ PAPLITIMUI KALVOTO RELJEFO DIRVOÞEMIUOSE
Vladislava ÐIDLAUSKIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Dûkðto bandymø stotis
Dûkðtas, Ignalinos rajonas

Santrauka

Mikrobiologiniai tyrimai atlikti velëniniame jauriniame silpnai ir vidutiniðkai nuardy-tame priesmëlio ir smëlingo priemolio dirvoþemyje 1996-1998 m. Tirtas mikroorganizmø paplitimas taikant biologinæ, integruotà ir intensyvià þemdirbystës sistemas.
Nustatyta, kad didþiausià átakà mikroorganizmams plisti turëjo intensyvi þemdirbystës sistema; bendras mikroorganizmø skaièius buvo beveik 1,5 karto didesnis, negu taikant bio-loginæ þemdirbystës sistemà. Daugiausia mikroorganizmø nustatyta visø þemdirbystës siste-mø apatinës ðlaito dalies dirvoþemyje.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: þemdirbystës sistemos, amonifikuojantys mikroorganizmai, mi-neraliná azotà asimiliuojantys mikroorganizmai, mikromicetai.
 

ISSN 1392-3196
Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 69, 201-206

UDK 631.58:631.461
THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT CROPPING SYSTEMS ON THE SPREAD OF MICROORGANISMS IN THE SOIL OF HILLY RELIEF
V. Ðidlauskienë

Summary

Microbiological investigations were carried out during 1996-1998 at the Dûkðtas Research station. The soil was soddy podzolic lightly and moderately eroded and moderately podzolized sandy loam and light loam formed on moraine loam soils. We investigated the spread of microorganisms in different cropping systems biological integrated and intensive.
It was established that intensive cropping system had the greatest effect on the spread of microorganisms. The number of microorganisms in this treatment was 1.5 times higher than in the biological cropping system.

Key words: cropping systems, ammonifying microorganisms, microorganisms assimi-lating mineral nitrogen, micromycetes.


ISSN 1392-3196
Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 69, 207-216

UDK 575.143.6
GENETINË ÁVAIROVË IR FERTILUMAS KRYÞMINANT GAUSIAÞIEDES SVIDRES IR NENDRINIUS ERAIÈINUS
Izolda PAÐAKINSKIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas
Akademija, Dotnuvos sen., Këdainiø rajonas

Santrauka

Atlikti kryþminimai tarp vienuolikos veisliø gausiaþiedþiø svidriø (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) ir nendriniø eraièinø (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) genotipo 870, kilusio ið olandiðkos veislës ‘Barundi’. Hibridiniø uþuomazgø daþnumas svyravo nuo 18,3 % iki 45,8 %. Gauti tetrapoidiniai gemalai (2n=4x=28) buvo veikiami kolchicinu, siekiant atstatyti chromosomø skaièiaus balansà ir gauti fertilius F1C0 oktaploidus (2n=6x=56). Fertiliø individø daþnumas F1C0 populiacijose svyravo nuo 5,8 % iki 47,7 %. Nustatyta, kad fertilumo atstatymas prik-lausë nuo kryþminamø gausiaþiedþiø svidriø veisliø, taip pat nuo atskiro motininio genotipo. Iðtyrus chromosomø skaièiø ‘Prima Roskilda’ x ‘Barundi’ F1C0 populiacijoje, aptikta 49,5 % oktaploidø, taèiau pastebëta, kad ne visi jie yra fertilûs: 78,7 % jø iðlieka sterilûs, nepaisant padvigubëjusio chromosomø rinkinio. Taip pat nustatyta, kad dalis F1C0 hibridø turëjo nevi-siðkai padvigubëjusá chromosomø rinkiná: heksaploidø (2n=6x=42) aptikta 10,5 % ir pentap-loidø (2n=5x=35) 5,3 %. Heksaploidø fertilumo rodikliai buvo þymiai geresni nei oktaploidø, net 50,0 % heksaploidiniø hibridø turëjo atsidaranèias dulkines. Prieita prie iðvados, kad gausiaþiedþiø svidriø ir nendriniø eraièinø hibridai, turintys heksaploidiná chromosomø skai-èiø, turi pranaðumø, todël ima vyrauti hibridinëje populiacijoje. F2 kartoje buvo ávertintas hibridø fenotipas ir atrinkti individai, turintys rekombinantiná svidriø ir eraièinø poþymiø rinkiná. Du heksaploidiniai rekombinantai, t.y. F2 3-18 ir F2 4-33 buvo iðtirti fluorescencinio diferencialinio chromosomø daþymo metodu. Nustatyta, kad F2 3-18 genome vyravo svidrið-kosios chromosomos, 21 iðtisinë ir 3 rekombinantinës, o F2 4-33 – eraièiniðkosios, 23 iðtisinës ir 4 rekombinantinës. Tikëtina , kad F2 3-18 mejozëje dël nesubalansuoto svidriðkøjø chromo-somø rinkinio formuosis gausus naujø rekombinantiniø chromosomø skaièius, todël ðis hibridas yra ypaè perspektyvus genø introgresijai atlikti.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: gausiaþiedës svidrës, nendriniai eraièinai, tarpgentiniai hibridai, chromosomø skaièiaus padvigubinimas, fertilumo atstatymas, diferencialinis chromosomø daþymas.
 

ISSN 1392-3196
Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 69, 207-216

UDK 575.143.6
GENETICAL VARIABILITY AND FERTILITY OF HYBRIDS BETWEEN ITALIAN RYEGRASS AND TALL FESCUE
I. Paðakinskienë

Summary

Crosses were made between eleven varieties of Italian reygrass and a single genotype of tall fescue No.870 selected from var. ‘Barundi’. Embryos setting varied between 18.3 % and 45.8 %. Tetraploid hybrid embrios (2n=4x=28) were treated with colchicine to balance chromosome number and to produce fertile F1C0 octaploids (2n=8x=56). The number of fertile individuals in F1C0 population varied between 5.8 % and 47.7 %. Fertility character was found to be in relation to the variety of Italian ryegrass and also depending on individual female genotype. Cytological analysis reaveled 49.5 % octaploid hybrids in the F1C0 population of ‘Prima Roskilda’ x ‘Barundi’, however it was found that not all octaploids were fertile, a great number (78.7 %) remained sterile despite having a doubled chromosome number. Also it was found that some of the F1C0 hybrids contained incompletely doub- led chromosome set: 10.5 % were hexaploids (2n=6x=42) and 5.3 % were pentaploids (2n=5x=35). Fertility of hexaploids was found to be superior to that of octaploids, dehiscant anthers were found in 50.0 % of hexaploids. That leads to the conclusion that hexaploid hybrids of Italian ryegrass x tall fescue have advantages wich makes them prevalent in the population. Further, F2C1 population was screened for distinct recombinative phenotypes combaining features of ryegrass and fescue. Two recombinat hexaploids, F2 3-18 and F2 4-33, were analysed using GISH (genomic in situ hybridization) technique. Ryegrass’ chromo-somes (21 whole and 3 recombinant) dominated in the genome of F2 3-18, while fescue’s chromosomes (23 whole and 4 recombinant) dominated in F2 4-33. Apparently, a high number of new recombinant chromosomes will be produced in meiosis of F2 3-18, because of the triploid number of ryegrass chromosome content which makes this hybrid a useful component for introgression breeding.

Key words: Italian ryegrass, tall fescue, hybrids, chromosome doubling, fertility resto-ration, GISH (genomic in situ hybridization) analysis.


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