I skyrius. DIRVOÞEMIO RÛGÐTUMAS IR KALKINIMAS

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 71, 3-20

UDK 631.415.1(474.5)

LIETUVOS DIRVOÞEMIØ RÛGÐTUMAS

(Lietuvos dirvoþemiø rûgðtumo þemëlapio sudarymas)

Jonas MAÞVILA, Leonas EITMINAVIÈIUS, Tomas ADOMAITIS,Antanas ANTANAITIS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Agrocheminiø tyrimø centras

Savanoriø pr. 287, Kaunas

El. paðtas: lzi_atc@komdera.lt

Santrauka

Straipsnyje pateikti apibendrinti 1985-1993 m. atskirø dirvoþemio reakcijos grupiø duomenys (po intensyvaus kalkinimo) apskritimis, o apskrityse – rajonais. Dirvoþemio reakcijos kitimas (atskiromis rûgðtumo grupëmis) pateiktas dirvoþemio zonomis, lyginant su ankstyvesnio (1963-1967 m.) tyrimo duomenimis. Atskirai iðnagrinëtas dirvoþemio rûgðtumas tirtuose ûkininkø ûkiuose apskritimis, o apskrityse rajonais, ir dirvoþemio atskirø rûgðtumo grupiø kitimas – paskutiniu metu (1990-1997 m.) tirtuose rajonuose bei 15-oje rajonø parinktuose 75-iuose apie 200 ha dydþio agromonitoringo stebëjimams vykdyti plotuose.

Nustatyta, kad Lietuvoje (1985-1993 m. tyrimo duomenimis) yra 618 908 ha, arba 18,7 % sàlygiðkai rûgðèiø (pH 5,5 ir maþiau) dirvoþemiø. Ið jø labai rûgðèiø – 1,5 %, vidutinio rûgðtumo – 7,0 %, maþo rûgðtumo – 10,2 %. Daugiausiai sàlygiðkai rûgðèiø dirvoþemiø yra Vilniaus (34,1 %) ir Klaipëdos (31,0 %), o maþiausiai – Ðiauliø (6,3 %) ir Marijampolës (6,7 %) apskrityse. Rûgðèiausi Varënos (45,3 %), Ðalèininkø (45,2 %), Ðilutës (41,4 %), Tauragës (40,1 %), Vilniaus (35,9 %) ir Ðilalës (35,3 %) rajonø dirvoþemiai. Ûkininkø dirvoþemiai 3,6 % yra rûgðtesni negu Lietuvos dirvoþemiai. Kalkinimo dëka nuo 1963-1967 m. sàlygiðkai rûgðèiø dirvoþemiø sumaþëjo 22 %. Ypaè jø daug sumaþëjo Vakarø Lietuvoje (37,7 %), maþiau jø sumaþëjo Rytø Lietuvoje (25,3 %). Taèiau pastaruoju metu, labai sumaþëjus kalkinimo darbø apimtims, dirvoþemiai intensyviai rûgðtëja. Naujausiais tyrimais (1991-1997 m.), rûgðèiø dirvoþemiø Plungës rajone padaugëjo 7,7 %, Vilniaus rajone – 5,2 %, Panevëþio – 1,4 %. Iki 8,2 % padaugëjo ir rûgðtokos (pH 5,6-6,0) reakcijos plotø. Ávairiuose dirvoþeminiuose rajonuose taip pat neretai padidëja rûgðtokos reakcijos, o seniau, ir ypaè smëlio, kalkintuose plotuose – ir sàlygiðkai rûgðèiø dirvoþemiø.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: dirvoþemis, dirvoþemio reakcija, rûgðtumas, kalkinimas, kalkiø norma, þemëlapis.

 

Chapter 1. SOIL ACIDITY AND LIMING

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 71, 3-20

UDK 631.415.1(474.5)

ACIDITY OF LITHUANIAN SOILS

J. Maþvila, L. Eitminavièius, T. Adomaitis, A. Antanaitis

Summary

This article presents summarized research data of 1985-1993 of the soils of different groups of acidity after intensive liming by administrative regions and districts of Lithuania.

The data of changes of soil acidity in different zones of Lithuania are presented and compared with the data of 1963-1967.

The acidity of soils of farmers’ soils was analysed by administrative regions and districts. The changes in soils of different acidity groups were analysed in the districts, investigated in 1993-1997 and also in seventy five monitoring key objects in the area of about 200 ha in comparison with the data of the previous research.

According to the agrochemical research data of 1985-1995 there are 618 908 hectares or 18.7 % of conditionally acidic (pH 5.5 and less) soils, 1.5 % of them are very acidic (pH 4.5 and less), 7.0 % – of average acidity (pH 4,6-5,0) and 10.2 % – of low acidity. The biggest area of conditionally acidic soils is in Vilnius (34.7 %) and Klaipëda districts, the smallest one – in Ðiauliai (6.3 %) and Marijampolë districts. The most acidic soils are in Varëna (45.3 %), Ðalèininkai (45.1 %), Ðilutë (41.4 %), Tauragë (40.1 %), Vilnius (35.9 %) and Ðilalë (35.3 %) districts.

The soils of farmers’ land are by 3.6 % more acidic than on average in Lithuania. Comparison of agrochemical research data of 1985-1993 with the data of 1963-1967 shows that the amount of conditionally acidic soils owing to liming decreased by 22 %. The largest reduction was in the West of Lithuania (37.7 %), less – in the East of Lithuania (25.3 %).

According to the latest investigations of 1991-1997, the amount of conditionally acidic soils in Plungë district has increased by 7.7 %, in Vilnius – 5.2 %, in Panevëþys – in 1.4 %. The amount of acidulous (pH 5.6-6.0) soils in different soil districts often increases and in earlier limed, especially sandy areas the amount of conditionally acidic soils increases too.

Key words: soil, soil reaction, acidity, liming, lime rate, map.

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ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 71, 21-31

UDK 631.415.1:631.417.2:631.559

DIRVOÞEMIO RÛGÐTUMO RYÐYS SU AUGALØ DERLIUMI IR MITYBOS LYGIU

Alfonsas ÐVEDAS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuvos sen., Këdainiø rajonas

El. paðtas: agrochemija@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Tirta dirvoþemio rûgðtumo átaka dirvodaros procesui ir þemës ûkio augalø derliui. Nustatyta, kad dirvoþemio rûgðtumas koreliaciniais ryðiais susietas su dirvoþemio humusingumu ir azotingumu bei kitø augalø maisto medþiagø judrumu. Daugiausia azoto humuse bûna, kai dirvoþemio pH yra artimas 6,1. Didþiausias judriojo fosforo santykis su bendru jo kiekiu buvo esant pH apie 7,6, kalio – 5,6. Judriojo vario santykis su bendru jo kiekiu didëjo didëjant dirvoþemio rûgðtumui.

Pavasario mineralinio azoto sankaupos dirvoþemyje yra tiesiai proporcingos dirvoþemio pH, humusingumui ir azotingumui.

Natûralios augalø mitybos sàlygos, kintant dirvoþemio rûgðtumui, kinta parabolës dësningumu. Palankiausios augalams jos bûna, esant dirvoþemio pH artimam 6,1, o didþiausias þemës ûkio augalø derlius – esant pH 6,2 ± 0,20.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: dirvoþemis, rûgðtumas, ryðys, humusingumas, azotingumas, elementø judrumas, derlius.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 71, 21-31

UDK 631.415.1:631.417.2:631.559

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOIL ACIDITY AND CROP YIELD AND LEVEL OF NUTRITION

A. Ðvedas

Summary

The present article deals with the problem of the effect of soil acidity on the process of soil formation and agricultural crop yield. It was determined that soil acidity correlated with the content of humus and nitrogen in the soil and with the mobility of other nutrients. The highest nitrogen content in humus was found at soil pH value close to 6.1. The highest mobile phosphorus rates with its total amount was at pH value of around 7.6 and that of potassium – at 5.6. The ratio of mobile copper with its total amount increased with an increase in soil acidity.

Accumulation of mineral nitrogen in the soil in spring was directly proportional to soil pH, humus and nitrogen content.

Natural conditions of crop nutrition varied in a parabolic way at varying soil acidity. The most suitable crop nutrition conditions were at a pH value of the soil close to 6.1. The highest crop yield was obtained at pH 6.2 ± 0.20.

Key words: soil, acidity, relationship, humus content, nitrogen content, mobility of elements, yield.

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ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 71, 32-48

UDK 631.445.24:631.41:631.415.1:631.432.33

AGROCHEMINIØ RODIKLIØ IR MAISTO MEDÞIAGØ MIGRACIJOS KITIMAI ÁVAIRIAI KALKINTAME IR TRÆÐTAME DIRVOÞEMYJE

Dalija ÈIUBERKIENË, Valensas EÞERINSKAS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filialas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

El. paðtas: filialas@gargzdai.omnitel.net

Santrauka

Straipsnyje pateikiami ilgalaikio stacionarinio lauko bandymo (1976-1996 m.) duomenys apie dirvoþemio reakcijos ir kitø agrocheminiø savybiø kitimà, maisto medþiagø migracijos dësningumus skirtingo rûgðtumo bei ávairaus træðimo dirvoþemiuose.

Áterpus á labai rûgðtø dirvoþemá 1,9 ir 3,3 t/ha klintmilèiø, dirvoþemio reakcija, træðiant dviguba ir triguba NPK tràðø normomis (N90P78K114 ir N135P117K171), gráþo á pradiná lygá, t.y. tà, koks buvo prieð árengiant bandymà, atitinkamai po 10 ir 15 metø, o áterpus 5,8 t/ha – po 20 metø. Dirvoþemio, kalkinto 14,7 t/ha klintmilèiø, reakcija ir po keturiø sëjomainos rotacijø negráþo á tà lygá, koks buvo prieð árengiant bandymà.

Per keturias rotacijas nevienodai keitësi ir kitos ávairiai kalkinto ir træðto dirvoþemio agrocheminës savybës.

Nekalkintame ir kalkintame 1,9 ir 3,3 t/ha klintmilèiø dirvoþemyje judriojo Al po 20 metø rasta daugiau nei jo buvo prieð árengiant bandymà. Kalkintame didesnëmis kalkiniø tràðø normomis dirvoþemyje, judriojo Al ir po 20 metø rasti labai maþi kiekiai. Po kiekvienos rotacijos judriojo fosforo dirvoþemyje daugëjo nepriklausomai nuo reakcijos lygio, ypaè træðiant triguba mineraliniø tràðø norma. Judrusis kalis per tà patá laikotarpá, netræðtame ir træðtame vienguba mineraliniø tràðø norma dirvoþemyje, sumaþëjo visuose reakcijos lygiuose, o patræðus dirvoþemá triguba mineraliniø tràðø norma – padaugëjo. Kuo dirvoþemio reakcija buvo neutralesnë, tuo daugiau fosforo ir kalio sukaupë augalai, ypaè dirvoþemá træðiant triguba mineraliniø tràðø norma.

Dël kalkinimo ir træðimo padidëjo áterpiamø junginiø ir kitø dirvoþemyje esanèiø elementø migracija ir iðplovimas. Parûgðtëjus dirvoþemio reakcijai vienu pH vienetu, Ca ir Mg iðplovimas padidëjo 20 % .

Reikðminiai þodþiai: dirvoþemio rûgðtumas, agrocheminës savybës, maisto medþiagø iðsiplovimas.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 71, 32-48

UDK 631.445.24:631.41:631.415.1:631.432.33

THE CHANGE OF AGROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND NUTRIENT MIGRATION IN DIFFERENTLY LIMED AND FERTILIZED SOIL

D. Èiuberkienë, V. Eþerinskas

Summary

This paper presents summarized results from the long-term field trial about the changes of soil reaction and other agrochemical properties in the soils differing in acidity and fertilization level.

After incorporation in very acid soil 1.9 and 3.3 t/ha limestone as well as double and threefold rates of mineral fertilizers (N90P78K114 and N135P117K171) the soil reaction returned to initial level which was before the field trial establishment after 10 and 15 years. While after incorporation of 5.8 t/ha limestone – after 20 years. Reaction of the soil limed with 14.7 t/ha limestone did not return to its initial level after 4 rotations.

During the four crop rotations changes in limed and fertilized soil agrochemical properties were diverse.

The content of mobile Al in the unlimed and limed with 1.3 and 1.9 t/ha limestone soil after 20 years was found higher comparing with the initial level. In the soil limed with higher rates of limestone the amount of mobile Al after 20 years was found very low. After each crop rotation the amount of mobile phosphorus increased irrespective of the soil reaction level. Especially it was evident applying double and threefold rates of mineral fertilizers. Amount of mobile potassium during this period decreased in all soil reaction levels in the unfertilized and fertilized with one rate of mineral fertilizers. However, when the soil was fertilized with a threefold rate of mineral fertilizers, the amount of mobile potassium in the soil increased. Plants accumulated larger amounts of phosphorus and potassium in more neutral soils. Especially it was evident applying a threefold rate of mineral fertilizers.

Migration and leaching of incorporated and other soil elements increased under the influence of liming and fertilization. An increase in pH by one unit increased leaching of Ca and Mg by 20 %.

Key words: soil acidity, soil agrochemical properties, nutrient leaching.

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ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 71, 49-61

UDK 631.821.1:631.442.4:631.41

KALKINIØ TRÀÐØ VEIKIMO TRUKMË IR ÁTAKA DIRVOÞEMIO AGROCHEMINËMS SAVYBËMS

Adelë Kristina PLESEVIÈIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filialas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

El. paðtas: filialas@gargzdai.omnitel.net

Santrauka

Straipsnyje pateikiami penkiasdeðimt metø Samaliðkëje vykdyto stacionarinio lauko bandymo ir laboratoriniø tyrimø duomenys.

Nustatyta keturiø rûðiø kalkiniø tràðø: gesintø kalkiø, defekato, klintinio tufo ir karbonatingo priemolio – veikimo dinamika. Nustatytas ðiø tràðø 1 normos pagal hidroliziná rûgðtumà poveikis septyniø rotacijø þemës ûkio augalø derliui. Iðtirta ðiø tràðø átaka labai rûgðtaus, smarkiai pajaurëjusio velëninio jaurinio lengvo priemolio armens agrocheminëms savybëms.

Vidutiniðkai kalkinimas (1 norma pagal hidroliziná rûgðtumà) duoda tiek papildomos produkcijos, kurià iðauginti nekalkinant viename hektare prireiktø vienuolikos metø.

Priklausomumà tarp reakcijos (pHKCl kalkinant gesintomis kalkëmis (y1) ir kitomis karbonatinëmis kalkëmis (y2)) ir po kalkinimo praëjusio laiko (x, metai) nusako ðios lygtys:

y1 = 0,0012x2 - 0,0827x + 5,634; h = 0,867, Sh = 0,073,

y2 = 0,0013x2 - 0,0976x + 6,2887; h = 0,911, Sh = 0,060.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: gesintos kalkës, defekatas, klintinis tufas, karbonatingas priemolis, dirvoþemio rûgðtumas.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 71, 49-61

UDK 631.821.1:631.442.4:631.41

DURATION OF LIME FERTILIZER ACTION AND IMPACT ON SOIL AGROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES

A. K. Plesevièienë

Summary

Investigations were carried out in 1948-1998 at the former Samaliðke Research Station or presently named the Veþaièiai Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture. Soil: strongly podzolized Dystric Podzoluvisol (according to FAO – Unesco 1990) light loam.

The goal of the investigations was to study the duration of four kinds of lime (hydrated lime, lime sludge, tuffaceous limestone and calcareous loam) effect as well as the influence of them on crop yield and soil agrochemical attributes. A long-term field trial was established in the seven course crop rotation (fodder beets, spring barley, perennial grasses of the first year of use, perennial grasses of the second year of use, winter wheat, barley-peas mixture for grain, oats). The crop rotation was replicated 7 times during 49 years. The soil of the first treatment was unlimed. The soil of the other treatments was limed in the autumn 1948 by one rate of Ca CO3 according to the hydrolytic soil acidity. The soil of the second treatment was limed by 8.6 t ha-1 of hydrated lime from the Akmenë-Menèiai quarry, the third one by 28.77 t ha-1 of lime sludge from the Pavenèiai sugar factory, the fourth one by 26.6 t ha-1 of tuffaceous limestone from the deposits of Gribþenai village, Klaipëda district, the fifth one by 72 t ha-1 of calcareous loam from Gargþdai town.

It was determined that hydrated lime during the first two rotations (14 years) revealed 72 % of its efficiency, lime sludge – 52 % and tuffaceous limestone and calcareous loam – 37 %. An essential positive influence of caustic lime on crop yield was felt during two rotations of lime sludge during six rotations and of other limes-during all the seven rotations. One ton of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) increased crop yield during all the duration of lime effect in such a manner: hydrated lime by 1909, lime sludge – 2169, tuffaceous limestone – 3233 and calcareous loam – 4286 feed units.

The slowest acidification of soil was under liming by tuffaceous limestone and calcareous loam. The acidification was more intensive in the soil limed by lime sludge and most intensive in the soil limed by hydrated lime.

The strong dependence of index pHKCl (y) upon the years after liming (x) was found.

The relationship between the index pHKCl and years after liming of soils by hydrated lime can be described by the following equation:

y1 = 0.0012x2 - 0.0827x + 5.634; h = 0.867; Sh = 0.073; and after liming by carbonate limes:

y2 = 0.0013x2 - 0.0976x + 6.288; h = 0.911; Sh = 0.060;

These equations may be used for the prognosis of acidification of strongly podzolized Dystric Podzoluvisols.

Key words: hydrated lime, lime sludge, tuffaceous limestone, calcareous loam, soil acidity.

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ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 71, 62-72

UDK 631.415.2:631.821.1

MAÞO RÛGÐTUMO VELËNINIØ JAURINIØ PRIESMËLIO DIRVOÞEMIØ KALKINIMO INTENSYVUMAS

Liudmila TRIPOLSKAJA, Saulius MARCINKONIS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filialas

Trakø Vokë, Vilnius

El. paðtas:voke@takas.lt

Santrauka

1987-1998 metais LÞI Vokës filiale buvo atlikti maþo rûgðtumo velëninio jaurinio dirvoþemio kalkinimo tyrimai. Dirvoþemis buvo kalkintas dulkiais klintmilèiais po 0,5, 1,0, 1,5 2,0, 3,0 ir 6,0 t/ha CaCO3. Klintmilèiø áterpimo periodiðkumas – kasmet, kas antri, treti ar ðeðti metai. Klintmilèiø kiekis per rotacijà – 1,5, 3,0 ir 6,0 t/ha CaCO3. Prieð bandymo árengimà dirvoþemio rûgðtumas pHKCl buvo 5,5 ± 0,8, H – 22 ± 1,5 mekv/kg, S – 58 ± 1,8 mekv/kg, judriøjø aliuminio – 2,4 ± 0,4 mg/kg, fosforo – 194 ± 9,2 mg/kg, kalio – 176 ± 13,4 mg/kg. Karbonatø putojimo pradþia – 90-120 cm.

Nustatyta, kad maþo rûgðtumo dirvoþemio reakcijos tolesnis neutralizavimas iki neutralokos ar rûgðtokos reakcijos neturëjo esminës átakos þieminiø rugiø, mieþiø, daugiameèiø þoliø ir bulviø derliui bei sëjomainos produktyvumui. Reguliarus kalkinimas turëjo teigiamà átakà dirvoþemio fizikinëms-cheminëms savybëms. Nedidelis klintmilèiø kiekis (1,5 t/ha CaCO3 kas ðeðeri metai) leidþia palaikyti maþo rûgðtumo reakcijà tame paèiame lygyje, o didesni kiekiai (3,0-6,0 t/ha CaCO3 per 6 metus) maþina mainø rûgðtumà iki neutralokos arba artimos neutraliai reakcijos. Taip pat maþëja hidrolizinis rûgðtumas ir didëja sorbuotø baziø kiekis. Reguliariai kalkinant sumaþëjo ne tik ariamojo sluoksnio, bet ir giliau slûgsanèiø horizontø iki 40 cm rûgðtumas.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: dirvoþemis, rûgðtumas, kalkinimas.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 71, 62-72

UDK 631.415.2:631.821.1

INTENSITY OF LIMING ON SODDY-PODZOLIC LOW ACIDITY SANDY LOAM SOIL

L. Tripolskaja, S. Marcinkonis

Summary

The present paper reports results of the investigations of the efficiency of periodic liming on soddy-podzolic low acidity sandy loam soil, executed in 1987-1998 at the Vokë Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture. The objective of the experiments was to define the expediency of regular liming on low acidity soils and scientifically to validate liming periodicity and optimum rates of lime.

The experiments were established on low acidity sandy loam soil, well supplied with mobile phosphorus and potassium. The crop rotation involved the following crops: potatoes, barley with perennial grasses, perennial grasses of the Ist and IInd year of usage, winter rye, spring wheat. Liming was carried out by dust limestone at rates 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0 and 6.0 t/ha CaCO3. Periodicity of liming was as follows: annually, everyone second, third and sixth year. Rates applied for the crop rotation were 1.5, 3.0 and 6.0 t/ha CaCO3.

Experimental findings show that during two crop rotations further neutralisation of low acidity soil reaction up to close to neutral or neutral does not render any significant influence on the yield of winter rye, barley, perennial grasses, or potatoes and on efficiency of crop rotation as a whole.

Regular liming renders a positive influence on physical-chemical properties of soil. The lowest rates (1.5 t/ha) allow to maintain a stable acidity level (pH 5.5), and higher rates (3.0-6.0 t/ha CaCO3 for rotation) reduce acidity close to neutral or neutral reaction, reduce hydrolytic acidity and increase amount of the exchange bases.

Regular liming reduced acidity not only in the arable layer, but also in the layers up to the 40 cm depth.

Key words: soil, acidity, liming.

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ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 71, 73-87

UDK 633.2.033:631.415.2:631.821.1

GANYKLØ KALKINIMO TYRIMAI RÛGÐÈIUOSE DIRVOÞEMIUOSE

Nijolë DAUGËLIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filialas

Gargþdø 29, Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

El. paðtas: filialas@gargzdai.omnitel.net

Santrauka

Straipsnyje apibendrinti 1963-1999 metø buvusioje Samaliðkës bandymø stotyje, vëliau LÞI Vëþaièiø filiale daryti ganyklø kalkinimo tyrimai. Duomenys rodo, kad ilgalaikis intensyvus dirvoþemio kalkinimas praturtina fosforu ir kaliu ne tik virðutiná (0-5 cm) ariamojo sluoksnio gylá, bet ir visà jo horizontà. Èia gerai auga ankðtinës þolës, o ganyklø, træðiamø vien tiktai fosforo ir kalio tràðomis, derlius siekia 5,06-5,21 t/ha sausøjø medþiagø. Fosforo turtingesniuose dirvoþemiuose geriau plinta baltieji dobilai (h = 0,52), o kalis svarbesnis pievinëms miglëms (h = 0,59). Pirminis labai rûgðèiø dirvoþemiø kalkinimas ar træðimas pagerina dirvoþemio savybes tiktai virðutiniame 0-10 cm ariamojo sluoksnio gylyje, o racionalumo ribà (fosforo atþvilgiu) retai tepasiekia, todël èia neauga arba skursta baltieji dobilai, o derliaus priedas nuo kalkinimo sudaro tiktai 0,55 t/ha. Tokius plotus patartina naudoti ekstensyviai arba konservuoti, apsëjant raudonaisiais eraièinais.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: kultûrinë ganykla, dirvoþemio agrocheminës savybës, kalkinimas, træðimas, derlius ir jo kokybë, botaninë sudëtis.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 71, 73-87

UDK 633.2.033:631.415.2:631.821.1

LIMING INVESTIGATIONS IN ACID SOILS OF PASTURES

N. Daugëlienë

Summary

Results of liming investigations carried out in the pastures of the former Samaliðkë Experimental Station and later in the Vëþaièiai Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during 1963-1999 were generalised in this article. Results of the investigations showed that under the influence of the intensive long-term liming the amount of mobile phosphorus and potassium in the upper (0-5 cm) and the whole soil arable layer increased. Leguminous grasses perform quite well on such soils. The dry matter yield of the pastures fertilised with only phosphorus and potassium fertilisers was 5.05-5.21 t/ha. In the soils with a higher amount of mobile phosphorus white clover (h = 0.52) performs well, while mobile potassium is more important for Kentucky blue-grass (h = 0.59). Primary liming or fertilization of very acid soils improve soil agrochemical properties only in the upper (0-10 cm) soil arable layer and the limit of rationality (for phosphorus) is seldom achieved, therefore in these soils white clover grows badly and the yield increase in these soils is as low as 0.55 t/ha. It is advisable to use such plots extensively or conserve them by sowing red fescue.

Key words: pasture, liming, fertilization, yield, botanical composition.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________

II skyrius. DIRVOTYRA IR AUGALØ MITYBA

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 71, 88-98

UDK 631.416.8(474.5)

SUNKIEJI METALAI VAKARØ LIETUVOS LAUKØ DIRVOÞEMIUOSE

Jonas MAÞVILA, Tomas ADOMAITIS, Leonas EITMINAVIÈIUS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Agrocheminiø tyrimø centras

Savanoriø pr.287, Kaunas

El. paðtas: lzi_atc@komdera.lt

Santrauka

Straipsnyje pateikti apibendrinti 1993-1997 m., parinktø pagal bendrà agromonitoringo programà, skirtingø Vakarø Lietuvos dirvoþemio rajonø vyraujanèiuose dirvoþemiuose 180 20 x 20 m dydþio aikðteliø 0-20, 20-40, 40-60 cm sluoksniø sunkiøjø metalø (Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn) bei 40-ties aikðteliø po 5-eriø metø (1998 m.) pakartotini jø tyrimø duomenys.

Visø tirtø sunkiøjø metalø vidutinis kiekis kiek didesnis yra Þemaitijos – Vakarø Kurðo aukðtumø ir maþesnis – Smalininkø senøjø deltø lygumos (iðskyrus Cd) dirvoþemiuose. Didþiausià átakà jø kiekiams Vakarø Lietuvos laukø dirvoþemiuose turi fizinio molio (< 0,01 mm) daleliø suma, þymiai maþesnæ – humuso kiekis, neþymià átakà – pH. Esant dirvoþemyje labai maþai judriojo kalio, maþiau jame yra ðvino, nikelio, vario, cinko, negu gausesnius kalio kiekius turinèiuose dirvoþemiuose. Tirtø sunkiøjø metalø suma per penkerius metus (1993-1998 m.) neþymiai sumaþëjo. Daugumoje aikðteliø 1998 m. truputá maþiau rasta ðvino, nikelio, vario ir cinko.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: dirvoþemio rajonai, sunkieji metalai, dirvoþemis, granuliometrinë sudëtis, agrocheminës savybës.

 

Chapter 2. SOIL SCIENCE AND CROP NUTRITION

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 71, 88-98

UDK 631.416.8(474.5)

HEAVY METALS IN WEST LITHUANIA’S FIELD SOILS

J. Maþvila, T. Adomaitis, L. Eitminavièius

Summary

In the article we summarized experimental data on heavy metals Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn in West Lithuania’s field soils was chosen according to the general programme of agromonitoring during the period 1993-1997 from 180 plots (area 20 x 20 m) in the layers: 0-20, 20-40, 40-60 cm and also repeatedly investigated the data from 40 plots after five years (1998).

Average amount of all heavy metals is a little higher in the soil of hills in Þemaitija – West Kurðas and lower (except Cd) – in the soil of plain of old delta in Smalininkai. The most marked influence on the amount of heavy metals has the sum of particles of physical clay (< 0.01 mm), much lower – amount of humus, negligible – pH. The amount of lead, nickel, copper and zinc is lower in the soils with a low content of available potassium than in the soils rich in potassium. The sum of investigated heavy metals slightly decreased during the period (1993-1998). The amount of lead, nickel, copper and zinc was a little lower in the majority of plots in 1998.

Key words: soil region, heavy metals, soil texture, agrochemical properties.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 71, 99-119

UDK 633.14:631.55:631.41

RUGIØ DERLIAUS PRIKLAUSOMUMAS NUO DIRVOÞEMIO IR APLINKOS SÀLYGØ

Alfonsas ÐVEDAS, Daiva JANUÐAUSKAITË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuvos sen., Këdainiø rajonas

El. paðtas: agrochemija@lzi.lt

Santrauka

1994-1998 m. Dotnuvoje, Vëþaièiuose ir Vokëje buvo daryti lauko bandymai, siekiant nustatyti þieminiø rugiø derliaus priklausomumà nuo dirvoþemio savybiø ir træðimo intensyvumo. Bandymø dirvoþemiai buvo skirtingi savo kilme, fizikinëmis, fizikinëmis-cheminëmis savybëmis, todël skyrësi ir naðumu.

Atskirais metais maksimalus þieminiø rugiø ‘Rûkai’ derlius Dotnuvoje buvo 4,9-7,8 t/ha, Vëþaièiuose – 3,7-5,3 t/ha, Vokëje – 2,8-3,4 t/ha. Derliaus dydþio svyravimai priklausë nuo vegetacijos periodo orø, dirvoþemio agrocheminiø savybiø, træðimo lygio ir augalø apsaugos priemoniø naudojimo. Derliaus dydþio ir kokybës priklausomumas nuo dirvoþemio humusingumo, azotingumo, fosforingumo, kalingumo ir azoto tràðø kiekio iðreikðtas regresijos lygtimis. Jos rodo, kad tos paèios vietovës bandymuose, kur atskirø laukeliø dirvoþemio savybiø reikðmës ávairuoja nedideliame diapazone, derliø lemia træðimo, ypaè azotu, ir augalø apsaugos lygis. Dirvoþemio savybës ir træðimo lygis derliaus kokybei didesnës átakos nedaro.

Remiantis derliaus dydþiu ir chemine sudëtimi, apskaièiuoti azoto, fosforo ir kalio iðnaudojimo ið dirvoþemio bei tràðø koeficientai ir maisto medþiagø reikmë grûdø vienetui iðauginti. Vienai tonai grûdø uþauginti þieminiai rugiai sunaudoja 22,2± 2,0 kg N, 10,9± 2,0 kg P2O5 ir 30,0± 3,3 kg K2O.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: þieminiai rugiai, derlius, cheminë sudëtis, maisto medþiagø iðnaudojimo koeficientai.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 71, 99-119

UDK 633.14:631.55:631.41

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RYE YIELD AND SOIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

A. Ðvedas, D. Januðauskaitë

Summary

During 1994-1998 field experiments were carried out in Dotnuva, Vëþaièiai and Vokë to determine the relationship between winter rye yield soil properties, and fertilizing intensity. The soil types under experiments were diverse: soddy – gleyic, light in Dotnuva, soddy – podzolic, gleyic light loam in Vëþaièiai, soddy – podzolic, sandy loam in Vokë.

It was established that, in separate years the maximum winter rye cv. ‘Rûkai’ yield was 4.9-7.8 t/ha in Dotnuva, 3.7-5.3 t/ha in Vëþaièiai, 2.8-3.4 t/ha in Vokë. The variations in yield size depended on the weather during the growing season, soil agrochemical properties, fertilization level and the use of plant protection measures. The relationship between the yield size and quality, and soil humus, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium content and the amount of nitrogen fertilizers is expressed by the regression equations.

Soil properties and fertilization level do not have any more marked effect on the yield quality.

On the basis of yield size and chemical composition a partial balance of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was calculated as well as coefficients of their uptake from the soil and fertilizers, and demand of nutrients for the growing of one grain unit.

It has been calculated that for the growing of 1 t grains plants use 22.2± 2.0 kg N, 10.9± 2.0 kg P2O5 and 30.3± 3.3 kg K2O.

Key words: winter rye, yield and yield chemical composition, coefficients of their uptake from the soil and fertilizers, demand of nutrients for the growing of one grain unit.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 71, 120-134

UDK 633.1:631.81.095.337:633.853.494

BORO ÁTAKA ÞIEMINIAMS RAPSAMS KALKINTOJE DIRVOJE

Stasys BERNOTAS, Elena Vanda MINEIKIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filialas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

El. paðtas: filialas@gargzdai.omnitel.net.

Santrauka

Vëþaièiø filiale 1994-1997 m. daryti lauko bandymai, siekiant iðaiðkinti þieminiø rapsø, auginamø pakalkintame velëniniame jauriniame lengvo priemolio dirvoþemyje træðimo boru reikalingumà ir ávertinti efektyviausià boro panaudojimo bûdà. Iðaiðkinta, kad auginant þieminius rapsus pakalkintose iki pHKCl 5,5-6,0 dirvose, kuriose maþai boro, tikslinga træðti boru, iðpurðkiant já ant dirvos pavirðiaus prieð sëjà (6,0 kg/ha boro rûgðties, iðtirpintos 300 l vandens) ir áterpiant kultivatoriumi bei apipurðkiant augalus vegetacijos metu (iðtirpinus 1,0 kg/ha boro rûgðties, iðtirpintos 300 l vandens).

Reik.miniai codciai: cieminiai rapsai, boras, kalkinimas, dirvocemis.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 71, 120-134

UDK 633.1:631.81.095.337:633.853.494

EFFECT OF BORON ON WINTER OILSEED RAPE IN LIMED SOIL

S. Bernotas, E.V. Mineikienë

Summary

Field experiments were conducted at the Vëþaièiai Branch with a view to ascertaining the necessity of boron application to winter oilseed rape grown on a limed soddy podzolic light loamy soil and to determine the most efficient boron application method. It was revealed that when growing winter oilseed rape on the soil limed to pHKCl 5.5-6.0 with a low boron status in the soil it is expedient to spray boron on the soil surface before sowing (6.0 kg/ha of boric acid dissolved in 300 l of water) and to incorporate it in the soil by a cultivator, and to spray plants during the vegetative growth period (having dissolved 1.0 kg/ha of boric acid in 300 l of water).

Key words: winter oilseed rape, boron, liming, soil.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 71, 135-153

UDK 633.853.494”321”:581.19:631.84:631.816.1/.2

AZOTO NORMØ IR TRÆÐIMO LAIKO ÁTAKA AZOTO, FOSFORO IR KALIO KIEKIUI VASARINIUOSE RAPSUOSE (BRASSICA NAPUS) SKIRTINGAIS JØ VYSTYMOSI TARPSNIAIS

Gvidas ÐIDLAUSKAS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuvos sen., Këdainiø rajonas

El. paðtas: gvidas@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Lauko bandymai su vasariniais rapsais (Brassica napus) ‘Star’ daryti 1993-1997 metais Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute Dotnuvoje velëniniame glëjiniame lengvo priemolio dirvoþemyje. Tyrimai rodo, kad azoto, fosforo ir kalio koncentracijai vasariniuose rapsuose 4-5 lapø vystymosi tarpsnyje, þydëjimo tarpsnio pradþioje ir pabaigoje, sëklø brendimo tarpsnyje bei sëklose ir ðiauduose átakos turëjo augalø iðsivystymo laipsnis, metø meteorologinës, augimo ir vystymosi sàlygos, taip pat azoto tràðø normos ir træðimo jomis laikas. Didþiausia – 57 % azoto, 0,701 % fosforo ir 5,50 % kalio – koncentracija augaluose buvo nustatyta jiems esant 4-5 lapø vystymosi tarpsnyje. Augalams augant, maisto medþiagø koncentracija juose maþëjo ir sëklø brendimo tarpsnyje azoto buvo rasta 1,02 %, fosforo – 0,180 % ir kalio – 1,89 %. Sparèiausiai maisto medþiagø koncentracija augaluose maþëjo jiems þydint. Be to, tyrimai iðryðkino, kad, priklausomai nuo metø meteorologiniø, augalø augimo ir vystymosi sàlygø, azoto, fosforo ir kalio koncentracija augaluose ir jø derliuje gali gerokai ávairuoti.

Atlikti tyrimai parodë, kad didëjanèios azoto tràðø normos didino ar bent jau turëjo tendencijà didinti azoto ir kalio koncentracijà augaluose jø vegetacijos metu bei derliuje – sëklose ir ðiauduose. Beriant net ir didþiausià tirtà 240 kg/ha azoto normà, maisto medþiagø didþiausia koncentracija augaluose nebuvo pasiekta. Fosforo koncentracijos kitimas, priklausomai nuo azoto tràðø normø, nebuvo dësningas ir vienareikðmis. Patræðus azoto tràðomis vëliau, t.y. 4-5 lapø vystymosi tarpsnyje ar þydëjimo pradþioje, maisto medþiagø koncentracija vasariniuose rapsuose vegetacijos metu, taip pat sëklose ir ðiauduose padidëjo. Sëklose vasariniai rapsai daugiau sukaupë azoto ir fosforo, o kalio daugiau buvo rasta ðiauduose. Maisto medþiagø kitimo dësningumai buvo apraðyti koreliacinëmis lygtimis, nurodant ryðio stiprumà bei patikimumà.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: vasariniai rapsai, azoto norma, træðimo azotu laikas, azoto, fosforo ir kalio koncentracija.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 71, 135-153

UDK 633.853.494”321”:581.19:631.84:631.816.1/.2

THE INFLUENCE OF NITROGEN RATES AND TIMING ON NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS AND POTASSIUM CONTENT IN SPRING OILSEED RAPE (BRASSICA NAPUS) AT DIFFERENT GROWING STAGES

G. Ðidlauskas

Summary

Field trials were conducted at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in Dotnuva on a light loamy soddy-gleyic soil in 1993-1997. Spring oilseed rape cv. ‘Star’ was sown to investigate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer rates and timing on the variation of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in plants. It was found that the content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in spring oilseed rape plants at 4-5 leaf stage, at the beginning and end of flowering, at the seed development stage as well as in seed and straw was influenced by the degree of plant development, meteorological and growth conditions, nitrogen rates and application time. The highest content of nitrogen – 5.57 %, phosphorus – 0.701 % and potassium – 5.50 % was found in the plants at 4- 5 leaf growth stage. With the growth of plant the content of nutrients steadily declined and at the seed development stage the content of nitrogen in plant was 1.02 %, phosphorus – 0.180 % and potassium – 1.89 %. It was determined that the fastest decrease in the nutrient content in the plants during the vegetative growth period occurred at flowering. Moreover, it was investigated that the content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the plant can differ very obviously in relation to agrometeorological and growth conditions.

The investigation showed that with the increase of nitrogen rates the content of nitrogen and potassium in the plant during the vegetative growth period as well as in seed and straw increased or at least tended to increase. With the application of even the highest investigated nitrogen rate 240 kg/ha N the content of nutrients did not reach the maximum level. The changes of phosphorus content in relation to nitrogen rates were not regular and monosemantic. The delay of nitrogen application time when ammonium nitrogen was applied at 4-5 leaf stage or at the beginning of flowering increased the content of nutrients in the plant during the vegetative growth period as well as in mature seed and straw. The regularity of nutrients content changes in the plant were expressed with correlation equations indicating the strength and reliability of relationships.

Key words: spring oilseed rape, nitrogen rate, nitrogen application time, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 71, 154-163

UDK 633.853.494”321”:631.582:631.41

VASARINIØ RAPSØ PLOTO SËJOMAINOJE ÁTAKA DIRVOÞEMIO AGROCHEMINËMS SAVYBËMS IR HUMUSO SUDËÈIAI

Rimantas VELIÈKA, Marija RIMKEVIÈIENË, Kostas TREÈIOKAS

Lietuvos þemës ûkio universitetas,

Akademija, Kauno rajonas

El. paðtas: afze@nora.lzua.lt

Santrauka

Priklausomai nuo vasariniø rapsø ploto sëjomainoje, nustatytas velëninio glëjiðko lengvo priemolio dirvoþemio agrocheminiø savybiø, tarp jø ir humuso sudëties pokytis. Po pirmosios ketveriø metø rotacijos dirvoþemio hidrolizinis rûgðtumas padidëjo 40-50 %, pasotinimo bazëmis laipsnis sumaþëjo 12-14 %, sumaþëjo 10-16 % humuso kiekis bei augalams prieinamos maisto medþiagos: P2O5 36-40 %, K2O 30-36 %, !aO 14-15 %, MgO 8-12 %, B 3-6 %, Zn 8-47 %, Co 6-7 %, o SO4 padidëjo 3-4,1 karto. Vasariniø rapsø ploto dydis sëjomainoje esminiø pokyèiø minëtiems rodikliams neturëjo, iðskyrus sierà ir cinkà. Sëjomainoje, kurioje vasariniai rapsai uþëmë 25 % ploto, po pirmos rotacijos judriosios sieros dirvoþemyje padidëjo 3 kartus, o cinko sumaþëjo 8 %. Sëjomainoje vasariniø rapsø plotà padidinus iki 75 %, judriosios sieros dirvoþemyje rasta 4 kartus daugiau, negu prieð bandymø árengimà ir 47 % maþiau cinko.

Sëjomainose su skirtingu vasariniø rapsø plotu po ketveriø pirmos rotacijos metø pakito humuso sudëtis: huminiø ir fulvorûgðèiø santykis sumaþëjo nuo 0,69 (prieð bandymø árengimà) iki 0,60-0,66. Persigrupavo huminiø ir fulvorûgðèiø frakcijos. Didþiausià huminiø rûgðèiø dalá (55,2-58,0 %) sudarë tvirtai su dirvoþemio mineraline dalimi suriðtos rûgðtys (treèioji frakcija), o maþiausià – suriðtos su kalciu (antroji frakcija) – 14,2-19,9 %. Po pirmos sëjomainø rotacijos kalcio humatø sumaþëjo 2,8-3,7 karto ir tuo daugiau, kuo sëjomainose buvo didesnis vasariniø rapsø plotas. Ypatingai pagausëjo antrosios frakcijos fulvorûgðèiø (75-90 % daugiau) ir 4-6 kartus daugiau, negu analogiðkos frakcijos huminiø rûgðèiø. Tuo tarpu treèios frakcijos (maþiausiai judriø) huminiø ir fulvorûgðèiø pasiskirstymas buvo atvirkðèiai proporcingas antrajai (su kalciu suriðtøjø) frakcijai. Tai rodo, kad vyko intensyvus organinës medþiagos humifikacijos bei mineralizacijos procesas. Kuo maþesná sëjomainos plotà uþëmë vasariniai rapsai (25 %), tuo geriau buvo subalansuoti dirvoþemio organinës medþiagos humifikacijos bei mineralizacijos procesai. Didinant vasariniø rapsø plotà sëjomainoje iki 75 %, organinës medþiagos mineralizacija turëjo tendencijà intensyvëti, o humifikacija – lëtëti.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: vasariniai rapsai, sëjomaina, dirvoþemio agrocheminës savybës, humusas.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 71, 154-163

UDK 633.853.494”321”:631.582:631.41

INFLUENCE OF THE SPRING RAPE AREA IN A CROP ROTATION ON SOIL AGROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND COMPOSITION OF HUMUS

R. Velièka, M. Rimkevièienë, K. Treèiokas

Summary

Subject to the spring rape area in a crop rotation, the change of the sod gley light loam agrochemical properties among them the composition of humus was established. After the first four years rotation the hydrolytic soil acidity increased by 40-50 %, degree of base saturation decreased by 12-14 %, the humus amount decreased by 10-16 % and the nutrients availabe to the plants decreased: P2O5 by 36-40 %, K2O by 30-36 %, CaO by 14-15 %, MgO by 8-12 %, B by 3-6 %, Zn by 8-47 %, Co by 6-7 %, and SO4 increased 3-4.1 times. The degree of crop rotation saturation by spring rape didn,t have reliable changes for the mentioned indeces, except sulphur and zinc. In the crop rotation in which spring rape took 25 % of the area after the first rotation the amount of mobile sulphur in the soil increased 3 times and the amount of zinc decreased by 8 %. After the increased of spring rape area in the crop rotation up to 75 % the amount of the mobile sulphur in the soil increased 4 times in comparison with the amount before the arranging of the tests and the amount of zinc decreased by 47 %.

In the crop rotations with different area of spring rape after four first rotation years the humus composition changed the ratio of humic and fulvic acids decreased from 0.69 (before arranging of tests) to 0.60-0.66. The fractions of humic and fulvic acids regrouped. The acids firmly bound with the mineral part of soil (third fraction), made the biggest humic acids part (55.2-58.0 %), and the acids bound with calcium (second fraction) – made the smallest part – 14.2-19.9 %. After the first crop rotation the amount of calcium humates decreased 2.8-3.7 times and the more to such an extent as bigger area of spring rape was in the crop rotations. The amount of second fraction fulvic acids increased especially (75-90 %) and 4-6 times more than the humic acids of the analogous fraction. At the same time the distribution of the third fraction (least mobile) humic and fulvic acids was inversely proportional to the second (bound with calcium) fraction. That indicates that intense organic substance humification and mineralization process took place. The less crop rotation area the spring rape took (25 %), the better soil organic substance humification and mineralization processes were balanced. In the case of increase of the spring rape area in the crop rotation up to 75 % the organic substance mineralization had a tendency to intensity and the humification to slow down.

Key words: spring rape, crop rotation, soil agrochemical properties, humus.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 71, 164-178

UDK 631.811.633.5

LINØ DERLIAUS PRIKLAUSOMUMAS NUO DIRVOÞEMYJE ESANÈIO MINERALINIO AZOTO IR AZOTO TRÀÐØ NORMØ

Nijolë EÞERINSKIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filialas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

El. paðtas: filialas@gargzdai.omnitel.net

Zofija JANKAUSKIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Upytës bandymø stotis

Upytë, Panevëþio rajonas

El. paðtas: lzi.upyte@post.omnitel.net

Kristijonas MATUSEVIÈIUS, Jonas ARBAÈIAUSKAS, Antanas ANTANAITIS, Jadvyga LUBYTË,

Titas TAMULIS, Zigmas VAIÐVILA

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Agrocheminiø tyrimø centras

Savanoriø pr. 287, Kaunas

El. paðtas: lzi_atc@komdera.lt

Elena Vanda MINEIKIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filialas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

Santrauka

Linø derliaus ir azoto tràðø efektyvumo priklausomumas nuo dirvoþemyje esanèio mineralinio azoto kiekio tirtas 1994- 1997 m. pagal vienodà tyrimø schemà trijose Lietuvos agroklimatinëse dirvoþeminëse zonose: Vidurio (Upytë) – velëniniame jauriniame glëjiðkame priesmëlyje, Vakarø (Vëþaièiai) – velëniniame jauriniame glëjiðkame lengvame priemolyje ir Pietvakarinëje dalyje (Kriûkai, Ðakiø r.) iðplautajame velëniniame glëjiðkame vidutinio sunkumo limnoglacialiniame priemolyje.

Nustatytas patikimas koreliacinis ryðys tarp linø stiebeliø ilgo pluoðto derliaus priedo nuo azoto tràðø ir N-NO3 bei Nmin. kiekio (h = 0,465-0,555) 0-40 cm dirvoþemio sluoksnyje.

Dësningesni derliø rodikliø pasikeitimai, træðiant azotu, priemolio dirvoþemiuose gauti suskirstant dirvoþemius á grupes pagal mineralinio azoto kieká.

Linø derlingumas priklausë nuo dirvoþemio tipo, granuliometrinës sudëties ir Nmin. kiekio prieð sëjà.

Nustatyta, kad, priklausomai nuo mineralinio azoto kiekio prieð sëjà, linus geriausia træðti N30. Jei dirvoþemyje maþai Nmin., linams esant eglutës tarpsnyje reikëtø patræðti papildomai N15.

Linø apsikrëtimà bakterioze, polisporoze ir fuzarioze lengvame priemolyje daugiau átakojo meteorologiniai veiksniai, nei dirvoþemio ir tràðø azotas. Antraknozës plitimas azoto tràðø átakoje maþëjo.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: pluoðtiniai linai, azoto normos, dirvoþemio mineralinis azotas, dirvoþemio tipas ir granuliometrinë sudëtis.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 71, 164-178

UDK 631.811.633.5

DEPENDENCE OF FIBER FLAX YIELD ON MINERAL SOIL NITROGEN AND NITROGEN FERTILIZER RATES

N. Eþerinskienë, Z. Jankauskienë, K. Matusevièius, J. Arbaèiauskas, A. Antanaitis, J. Lubytë, T. Tamulis,

Z. Vaiðvila, E.V. Mineikienë

Summary

The efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer rates and additional fertilization at the stage of “little fir-tree” on fibre flax yield depending on soil supply with N-NO3 and Nmin. (N-NO3 + N-NH4) were investigated during 1995-1997 at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in three agroclimatic zones of the republic in different textured soils: sandy loam, light loam and medium loam. A reliable correlation was determined between the efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer and the amount of Nmin in the 0-40 cm soil layer.

Depending on the amount of mineral nitrogen in the soil it was recommend spreading 0-30 kg/ha of nitrogen. In the sandy loam soil low in mineral nitrogen it is recommended applying additional 15 kg/ha of nitrogen at a flax stage “little fir-tree”.

Disease occurrence (Fusarium oxysporum Schl lini, Bacillus macerans Schard, Polyspora lini Laff) in fiber flax was more strongly influenced by meteorological conditions rather than soil and nitrogen fertilizer. The spread of Colletptrichum lini Balley under the influence of nitrogen fertlizer declined.

Key words: fibre-flax, nitrogen rate, soil mineral nitrogen.

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ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 71, 179-187

UDK 633.854.54:631.559:631.41

SËMENINIØ LINØ DERLIAUS PRIKLAUSOMUMAS NUO PAGRINDINIØ DIRVOÞEMIO AGROCHEMINIØ SAVYBIØ

Zofija JANKAUSKIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Upytës bandymø stotis

Upytë, Panevëþio rajonas

El. paðtas: lzi.upyte@post.omnitel.net

Santrauka

Darbe apibendrinti 1995-1997 m. Upytës bandymø stotyje darytø træðimo bandymø duomenys. Ðiame straipsnyje aptariamas sëmeniniø linø sëmenø, stiebeliø ir pluoðto derliaus priklausomumas nuo pagrindiniø dirvoþemio agrocheminiø savybiø – pH, mineralinio azoto (nitratinio ir amoniakinio), humuso, judriøjø P2O5 ir K2O kiekiø.

Kreivinë (II laipsnio polinomo) koreliacija geriau atspindëjo sëmeniniø linø derliaus priklausomumà nuo dirvoþemio agrocheminiø savybiø negu tiesinë. Vidutiniais trejø metø duomenimis, sëmeniniø linø sëmenø derlius priklausë nuo dirvoþemio agrocheminiø savybiø: didëjant mineralinio azoto bei humuso kiekiams, sëmeniniø linø derlius didëjo, o didëjant dirvoþemio pH ir gausëjant dirvoþemyje judriøjø fosforo bei kalio – maþëjo.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: sëmeniniai linai, sëmenys, stiebeliai, pluoðtas, derlius, koreliacija, dirvoþemio agrocheminës savybës.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 71, 179-187

UDK 633.854.54:631.559:631.41

LINSEED YIELD IN RELATION TO MAJOR SOIL AGROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Z. Jankauskienë

Summary

Linseed fertilisation trial was carried out in 1995-1997 at the Upytë Research Station. The aim of this investigation was to establish the influence of the main soil agrochemical properties on linseed seed, stem and fibre yield.

Linseed was grown in a 7-field rotation after winter wheat. The soil type was soddy gleyic drained loam. Depth of arable layer – 30 cm.

Agrochemical soil properties of the trial were fluctuating as follows: pHKCl – 7.3 ± 0.12 – 7.6 ± 0.14, content of mineral nitrate nitrogen (N-NO3) – 6.95 ± 2.063 mg/kg, content of mineral ammonium nitrogen (N-NH4) – 2.67 ± 0.626 – 4.40 ± 2.110 mg/kg, content of total mineral nitrogen (Nmin.) – 11.32 ± 4.088 mg/kg, humus content – 1.86 ± 0.186 – 3.21 ± 0.496 %, content of available phosphorus – 105 ± 18.7 – 164 ± 38.4 mg/kg, content of available potassium – 110 ± 35.2 - 166 ± 35.6 mg/kg of the soil.

According to the average data of three years, the yield of linseed was under weak influence of the soil agrochemical properties. With increasing amount of mineral nitrate nitrogen from 5.7 up to 7.9 mg/kg of the soil, linseed seed yield decreased insignificantly (approximately 30 kg/ha), while stem and fibre yield slightly increased (30-40 kg/ha). Mineral ammonium nitrogen (2.3-4.17 mg/kg of the soil) content had a positive effect on seed and stem yield. An increasing amount of total mineral nitrogen (8.5-11.6 mg/kg of the soil) increased stem and fibre yield. With increasing humus content (1.7-3.3 %) in the soil linseed yield increased. Only stem yield was significantly dependent on the pH level. It declined in line with a pH increase from 7.26 to 7.6. The seed, stem and fibre yield was under the influence of the amount of available P2O5 (107-190 mg/kg of the soil). The yield was higher at lower level of available P2O5. An increase in available K2O content from 105 to 187 mg/kg of soil resulted in a reduction of linseed stem yield.

Key words: linseed, seed, stem, fibre, yield, correlation, soil agrochemical properties.

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ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 71, 188-201

UDK 631.452:631.442.1

SMËLIO DIRVOÞEMIØ DERLINGUMO GERINIMAS

Josif BOGDEVIÈ, Galina PIROGOVSKAJA, Aleksej RUSALOVIÈ, Viktor SOROKO

Baltarusijos dirvotyros ir agrochemijos mokslinio tyrimo institutas

Minskas, Kazinca g. 62

El.paðtas: brissa@mail.belpak.by

P.S. Straipsnis pateikiamas rusø kalba

Santrauka

Baltarusijos dirvotyros ir agrochemijos mokslinio tyrimo institute 1991-1999 m. buvo tiriamas skirtingø lengvø dirvoþemiø derlingumo gerinimo bûdø kompleksinis poveikis. Bandyti ðie derlingumo gerinimo bûdai: træðimas ávairiomis normomis organinëmis ir mineralinëmis, tarp jø ir lëtai veikianèiomis, þaliosiomis tràðomis, augalø liekanø aparimas su meliorantø áterpimu, esant ávairiems kalkinimo lygiams.

Nustatyta, kad svarbiausia stabilaus (pastovaus) derliaus gavimo sàlyga, iðlaikant (iðsaugant) arba pagerinant lengvos granuliometrinës sudëties dirvoþemio derlingumà, yra kompleksinis ávairiø priemoniø naudojimas: organinës, mineralinës, þaliosios tràðos, derinant su lëtai veikianèiø tràðø ir augimà reguliuojanèiø arba biologiðkai aktyviø priedø, meliorantø áterpimu kalkinimo fone. Viso komplekso priemoniø naudojimas ágalina padidinti ariamø plotø derlingumà iki 6 t/ha pað. vnt.

Vien tik mineraliniø tràðø naudojimas velëniniame jauriniame smëlio dirvoþemyje per 8 metus (1991-1998 m.) neiðsaugojo pradinio organinës medþiagos, judriojo kalio, kalcio ir magnio ariamajame dirvos sluoksnyje lygio (1991 m.), netgi naudojant þaliàsias tràðas.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: organinës, þaliosios, mineralinës standartinës ir lëtai veikianèios (azoto, kalio, fosforo, azoto-kalio-fosforo) tràðos, kalkinimas, derlius, produktyvumas, mineraliniø elementø nuostoliai, dirvos derlingumas.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 71, 188-201

UDK 631.452:631.442.1

IMPROVEMENT OF PRODUCTIVITY OF SANDY SOILS

I. Bogdevitch, G. Pirogovskaya, A. Rusalovitch, V. Soroko

Summary

In 1991-1998 at the Belorussian Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry we studied a complex influence of various ways of fertility improvement of light soils (application of various level of organic and mineral, including slowly acting, fertilizers, green manures and ploughing – in of plant residues in conjunction with application of meliorants at different liming levels).

The results of investigations show that the main condition of stable yield obtaining with preservation or improvement of soil fertility with light texture is a complex use of various technigues-organic, mineral, green manures in conjunction with contribution of slowly acting fertilizers with additives of plant growth regulators or biologically active substances, meliorants on the background of liming, which allows to bring the productivity of arable soils to 5-6 t/ha F.U.

The application on sod-podzolic sandy soils during 8 years (1991-1998) only one mineral fertilizer system, even with application of green manures did not allow to preserve the content of organic substance, mobile potassium, calcium and magnesium in the soil horizon on the level of their starting contents (1991).

Key words: organic, green, mineral, standard slowly acting (nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium) fertilizers, meliorants, formers of structure, liming, yield, productivity, nutrient losses, soil fertility.

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ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 71, 202-212

UDK 631.862:631.417.2

ÁVAIRAUS MËÐLO ÁTAKA HUMUSO KIEKIUI IR JO KOKYBINEI SUDËÈIAI VELËNINIAME JAURINIAME PRIESMËLIO DIRVOÞEMYJE

Valerija JANUÐIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filialas

Trakø Vokë, Vilnius

El. paðtas: vokefil@takas.lt

Santrauka

Straipsnyje pateikiami 1986-1997 m. tyrimo duomenys apie ávairiø mëðlo rûðiø (durpiø kraiko, ðiaudø kraiko, bekraikio), taip pat papildomai áneðamø sliekø poveiká velëninio jaurinio priesmëlio dirvoþemio humuso kiekiui ir jo kokybinei sudëèiai. Sëjomainoje buvo auginama 67 % kaupiamøjø. Visame 0-40 cm dirvoþemio sluoksnyje per dvi sëjomainos rotacijas nuo visø rûðiø mëðlo ið esmës padidëjo bendros organinës medþiagos ir humuso dirvoþemyje. Daugiausia humuso susikaupë áterpus durpiø kraiko mëðlà (0-20 cm gylyje 3,9 %), maþiau jo buvo áterpus ðiaudø kraiko ir bekraiká mëðlà (2,9-3,0 %). Visø rûðiø mëðlas darë teigiamà átakà humuso sudëèiai: sumaþëjo judriøjø ir labiliøjø medþiagø, taip pat “agresyviosios” fulvorûgðèiø frakcijos (FR-1a) procentas. Humuso sudëtyje ið esmës sumaþëjo fulvorûgðèiø (nuo 51 % iki 34-39 % nuo Corg.). Huminiø rûgðèiø sudëtyje padidëjo Ca humatø ir sumaþëjo laisvøjø huminiø rûgðèiø (HR-1). Nuo visø rûðiø mëðlo didëjo huminiø ir fulvorûgðèiø santykis tiek ariamajame (0-20 cm), tiek gilesniame (20-40 cm) dirvoþemio sluoksniuose. Didþiausias ðis santykis buvo kas antri metai áterpus durpiø kraiko mëðlà (0,99 ir 0,93), maþesnis – ðiaudø kraiko mëðlà (0,91 ir 0,85) ir dar maþesnis – bekraiká mëðlà (0,79 ir 0,76). Netræðtuose juodojo pûdymo ir sëjomainos laukeliuose huminiø ir fulvorûgðèiø santykis buvo atitinkamai 0,56 ir 0,61.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: durpiø kraiko, ðiaudø kraiko ir bekraikis mëðlas, humuso kiekis, judriosios humuso medþiagos, huminës rûgðtys, fulvorûgðtys.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 71, 202-212

UDK 631.862:631.417.2

THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF MANURE ON THE CONTENT AND QUALITATIVE COMPOSITION OF HUMUS IN A SODDY-PODZOLIC SANDY LOAM SOIL

V. Januðienë

Summary

In the Vokë Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture experiments were conducted to study the efficiency of different types of manure (peat, straw, semisolid) in a soddy-podzolic sandy loam soil. The crop rotation involved 67 % row crops. The field trials were carried out by hab. dr. L. Tripolskaja.

This article reports the data of investigations of the effect of different types of manure on the content and qualitative composition of humus over the period of 1986-1997.

All types of manure increased the content of humus in soil, but a higher content was in the soil treated with peat manure (3.9 %) in comparison with straw and semisolid manure (2.9-3.0 %). All types of manure had a possitive impact on the composition of humus: the amount of humic acids increased and that of fulvic acids decreased. A higher ratio of humic and fulvic acids was detected when peat manure was applied (0.99), this ratio was lower when straw manure (0.91) and semisolid manure (0.78-0.79) were applied. In plots without fertilization the ratio of humic and fulvic acids was 0.56-0.61. According to mobile humus matter (31-37 % from Corg.) and labile humic acids (> 1000 C mg/kg) indices, when using all types of manure the soil was moderately cultivated and the humus formation type was humic-fulvic.

Key words: peat manure, straw manure, semisolid manure, humus, mobile humus matter, humic acids, fulvic acids.

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ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 71, 213-222

UDK 631.461.5:633.31:631.415.2

LIUCERNØ GUMBELINIØ BAKTERIJØ ADAPTAVIMAS RÛGÐÈIAI DIRVOÞEMIO REAKCIJAI

Edmundas LAPINSKAS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filialas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

El. paðtas: filialas@gargzdai.omnitel.net

Santrauka

1992-1997 m. laboratoriniais, vegetaciniais ir lauko bandymais buvo tiriamas liucernø gumbeliniø bakterijø (Rhizobium meliloti) ávairiø kamienø atsparumas ir adaptavimasis dirvoþemio rûgðèiai reakcijai.

Nustatytos Rhizobium meliloti kamienø dauginimosi kritinës pH reikðmës – 4,6-5,0. Adaptuojant rûgðèiai reakcijai 20 atrinktø kamienø, augti esant pH 5,0 prisitaikë tik septyni. Likusieji kamienai per dvejus adaptavimo metus þuvo.

Inokuliuojant efektyviais ir rûgðèiai reakcijai adaptuotais kamienais A 425a ir A 2M24, liucernø sausøjø medþiagø derlius padidëjo atitinkamai 1,30 ir 1,02 t/ha lauko bandymuose, arba 28 ir 35 % vegetaciniuose bandymuose.

Nuo inokuliavimo visais atvejais gausëjo gumbeliø augaluose. Taèiau adaptuoti kamienai sudarë vidutiniðkai 28 % daugiau gumbeliø negu neadaptuoti.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: liucernos, gumbelinës bakterijos, kamienai, efektyvumas, atsparumas, adaptavimas, rûgðti reakcija.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 71, 213-222

UDK 631.461.5:633.31:631.415.2

ADAPTATION OF RHIZOBIUM MELILOTI STRAINS TO SOIL ACIDITY

E. Lapinskas

Summary

Resistance and adaptation to soil reaction of Rhizobium meliloti various strains was investigated in laboratory, pot and field trials over the period 1992-1997.

Critical pH values 4.6-5.0 for Rhizobium meliloti strains propagation were determined. Out of the 20 selected strains only 7 adapted to growing at pH value 5.0. The rest of the strains were killed during 2 years of adaptation.

Inoculation by efficient and adapted to acid reaction strains A 425a and A 2M24 increased lucerne dry matter yield by 1.30 and 1.02 t/ha or 28 and 35 % in pot trials.

Inoculation increased the number of nodules in plants in all the cases. However, adapted strains contained 28 % more nodules than not adapted ones.

Key words: Rhizobium bacteria, strains, efficiency, resistance, adaptation, acid reaction, lucerne.

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ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 71, 223-239

UDK [633.32+633.31]:[631.847.211+632.937]

PREPARATO VITAMIN MIX ÁTAKA LIUCERNØ IR DOBILØ INOKULIAVIMO ÁVAIRIAIS GUMBELINIØ BAKTERIJØ KAMIENAIS EFEKTYVUMUI

Dalia AMBRAZAITIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filialas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

El. paðtas: filialas@gargzdai.omnitel.net

Santrauka

Darbo tikslas – iðaiðkinti gumbeliniø bakterijø Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii ir Rhizobium meliloti preparatø, paruoðtø skirtingø kamienø pagrindu, efektyvumà bei ávertinti naudoto biologinio preparato Vitamin Mix átakà azoto fiksavimui. Be to, nustatyti gumbeliniø bakterijø preparatø veikimo laikà liucernoms.

Preparato Vitamin Mix efektyvumas tirtas lauko bandymuose. Ið viso atlikti 6 bandymai: 3 dobilø 1992-1993 m. ir 3 liucernø 1992-1998 m.

Atlikus tyrimus nustatyta, kad raudonøjø dobilø inokuliavimas vidutiniðkai pajaurëjusiame velëniniame jauriniame (Jv2) ir glëjiðkame velëniniame jauriniame (JvP1) lengvo priemolio dirvoþemiuose, vidutiniðkai arba gausiai aprûpintuose maisto medþiagomis, buvo maþai efektyvus: þaliø proteinø derliaus nepadidino, taèiau neþymiai padidëjo bendrojo azoto kiekis dobiluose. Në vienas ið naudotø gumbeliniø bakterijø kamienø didesniu efektyvumu neiðsiskyrë. Tarp gumbeliø skaièiaus ant dobilø augalø ðaknø ir bendrojo azoto procento dobilø derliuje bei þaliø proteinø derliaus pirmais þoliø naudojimo metais buvo nustatyta vidutinë ar stipri koreliacinë priklausomybë (h = 0,65 ir h = 0,81). Liucernø inokuliavimas automorfiniame Jv2 ir pusiauhidromorfiniame JvP1 dirvoþemiuose, vidutiniðkai ar labai gausiai aprûpintuose P2O5 ir K2O, þaliø proteinø derliø per ketverius þoliø naudojimo metus padidino vidutiniðkai tik 3,4 %. Didesnis inokuliavimo efektyvumas nustatytas pirmais ir antrais þoliø naudojimo metais. Þaliø proteinø derlius dël inokuliavimo padidëjo vidutiniðkai atitinkamai 0,06 t/ha (6,4 %) ir 0,09 t/ha (5,9 %). Ið naudotø inokuliavimui liucernø gumbeliniø bakterijø kamienø didþiausiu efektyvumu pasiþymëjo Al 3, pirmais þoliø naudojimo metais derliø padidinæs 0,07 t/ha, arba 8,0 %, o antrais – 0,13 t/ha, arba 8,2 %. Koreliacinë regresinë analizë rodo, kad padidëjusá gumbeliniø bakterijø virulentiðkumà su bendrojo azoto kiekiu derliuje bei þaliø proteinø derliumi siejo koreliaciniai ryðiai iðreikðti h = 0,52 ir h = 0,50. Preparatas Vitamin Mix neturëjo átakos dobilø ir liucernø derliui bei jo kokybei.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: dobilai, liucernos, inokuliavimas, gumbelinës bakterijos, preparatas Vitamin Mix, efektyvumas.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 71, 223-239

UDK [633.32+633.31]:[631.847.211+632.937]

INFLUENCE OF THE APPLICATION OF THE BIOPREPARATE VITAMIN MIX AND DIFFERENT STRAINS OF RHIZOBIUM ON THE INOCULATION EFFICIENCY FOR CLOVER AND ALFALFA

D. Ambrazaitienë

Summary

It is known that the symbiotic nitrogen fixation is one of the most sensitive processes in the soil. The soil reaction, moisture and temperature are the factors mostly determining efficiency of nitrogen fixation in arable soils.

The basic goal of our experiments was to determine in the efficiency of rhizobia preparates prepared on the basis of different strains. The efficiency of the biopreparate Vitamin Mix also was determined in the field experiments in 1992-1998.

It was established that the effect of clover inoculation with Rhizobium in moderately podzolized sod-podzolic (Jv2) and gleyic sod-podzolic (JvP1) soils was not very high: the yield of crude protein did not increase, but the amount of nitrogen in the clover was higher. The efficiency of rhizobia strains used in the experiments was equivalent.

The relationship was determined between the number of nodules and the percent of nitrogen in clover (h = 0.65). The correlation between the number of nodules and the yield of crude protein was strong (h = 0.81).

The inoculation of alfalfa in the soils supplied with a high rate of available P2O5 and K2O compounds over all experimental years increased the yield of crude protein by 3.4 %. The highest efficiency of inoculation was determined in the first and second year of alfalfa growing. The yield of crude protein in this case was higher by 0.07 t/ha (8.0 %) and 0.09 t/ha (5.9 %). A significant crude protein yield increase was shown by rhizobium strain Al 3. The correlation regression analysis showed that greatest virulation of rhizobia and amount of nitrogen in the yield was in medium relationship (h = 0.52). The correlation between the number of nodules and the yield of crude protein was the same (h = 0.50).

The application of the biopreparate Vitamin Mix did not have any more marked effect on the efficiency of inoculation or on the clover and alfalfa growing.

When analysing the data over seven experimental years, we can see, that the best way to improve the effect of inoculation is to use several different strains at a time.

Key words: clover, alfalfa, inoculation, rhizobia, biopreparat Vitamin Mix, efficiency.

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·Raðykite mums: lzi@lzi.lt
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