I skyrius. DIRVOTYRA IR AGROCHEMIJA

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 1999, 70, 3-17

UDK 631.41:631.816.001.4

DIRVOÞEMIO AGROCHEMINIØ SAVYBIØ POKYÈIAI SKIRTINGAI TRÆÐIANT IR AUGALØ DERLIAUS PRIKLAUSOMUMAS NUO JUDRIØJØ MAISTO MEDÞIAGØ KIEKIO
 

Valerija PETRAITIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuvos sen., Këdainiø rajonas

Santrauka

1993-1997 m. Þemdirbystës institute stacionariniais bandymais tirta, kaip kinta dirvoþemio agrocheminës savybës skirtingai træðiant sëjomainos augalus. Tai buvo treèioji sëjomainos rotacija bandymuose, pradëtuose 1983 m. Augalai auginti tokia tvarka: I ir II naudojimo metø daugiametës þolës, þieminiai kvieèiai, mieþiai be ásëlio ir mieþiai su ásëliu. Ðioje rotacijoje dël objektyviø prieþasèiø vietoj bulviø auginti mieþiai (be ásëlio), todël kalio iðneðimas buvo maþesnis negu pirmosiose dviejose rotacijose. Kitø maisto medþiagø kitimo tendencijos buvo analogiðkos ankstyvesnëms rotacijoms. Árengti du bandymai: pirmame augalai træðti tik azotu, antrame – optimaliomis NPK tràðø normomis. I bandyme po trijø rotacijø dirva neþymiai parûgðtëjo, bendrojo azoto ir humuso kiekis beveik nepakito. Per tris rotacijas (po 15 metø) judriojo fosforo sumaþëjo 55- 110 mg/kg, judriojo kalio – 71-88 mg/kg dirvoþemio. II bandyme, kai træðta NPK tràðomis, bendrasis azotas ir humusas turëjo tendencijà didëti, taèiau judriojo fosforo sumaþëjo 43-88 mg/kg, kalio – 11-27 mg/kg dirvoþemio. Sëjomainos augalø derlingumas kiek priklausë nuo dirvoþemyje esanèio judriojo fosforo kiekio, taèiau judriojo kalio átaka augalø derliui buvo neþymi.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: træðimas, stacionariniai bandymai, dirvoþemio agrocheminës savybës.

Chapter 1. SOIL SCIENCE AND AGROCHEMISTRY

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 1999, 70, 3-17

UDK 631.41:631.816.001.4

THE CHANGES OF SOIL AGROCHEMICAL INDICES IN THE STATIC FIELD EXPERIMENT WITH DIFFERENT FERTILIZERS APPLICATION AND THE RELATIONSHIP OF PLANT YIELD TO MOBIL NUTRIENTS STATUS IN THE SOIL
 

V. Petraitienë

Summary

Over the period 1993-1997 at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture long-term field tests were carried out in order to investigate the variation of soil agrochemical indicators in crop rotation applying different fertilization methods. It was the third crop rotation of the five started in 1983. The following two tests were carried out: I – fertilization only with nitrogen fertilizers, II – fertilization with NPK fertilizers. The crop rotation was as follows: perennial grasses in the first or second year of use, winter wheat, barley (without under-crop), barley (with under-crop). Potatoes, due to objective reasons were not grown in the crop rotation, therefore the variation tendencies of nutrient components, especially of potassium, were slightly different from those, observed in previous rotations when potatoes were grown. The data obtained over the period 1993-1997 (III rotation) was compared with the data of the two previous rotations. According to the research results, the variation tendencies of agrochemical indicators in the third rotation were similar to those after two rotations: having treated the plants without PK fertilizers and fertilizing only with nitrogen, the soil acidity level increased inconsiderably in the first test. No significant changes were observed in the content of total nitrogen and humus. Over the fifteen years the content of mobile phosphorus in the soil decreased by 55-110 mg/kg and mobile potassium by 71-88 mg/kg.

Having fertilized with NPK, the soil acidity level increased insignificantly in the second test. The content of total nitrogen and humus had a tendency to increase. Although the nitrogen fertilizers were used, the content of mobile phosphorus and potassium was lower at the end of the third rotation (the content of phosphorus in the soil decreased by 43-88 mg and that of potassium by 11-27 mg/kg).

The influence of mobile nutrient components of soil on the yield was less consi-derable. In the first test, while fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers and the content of mobile phosphorous becoming higher, the average crop rotation productivity increased correspon-dingly. Fertilizing with NPK (II test), the highest crop rotation productivity (5305 fodder units/ha) was obtained when the content of mobile phosphorous in the soil was 200-250 mg/kg. The dependence of crop rotation productivity on the content of mobile potassium in soil was insignificant.

Key words: fertilisation, fixed trials, soil agrochemical properties.

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ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 70, 18-32

UDK 631.582:631.8:631.41

SKIRTINGØ SËJOMAINØ TRÆÐIMO SISTEMØ ÁTAKA VELËNINIO JAURINIO PRIESMËLIO DIRVOÞEMIO AGROCHEMINËMS SAVYBËMS

Gintautas GREIMAS

Lietuvos Þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filialas

Trakø Vokë, Vilnius

Santrauka

1978-1996 m. Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filiale stacionariniame bandyme tirta skirtingø sëjomainø træðimo sistemø átaka augalø derliui, jo kokybei ir sëjomainø produktyvumui. Straipsnyje nagrinëjama træðimo sistemø átaka dirvoþemio agrocheminiø savybiø pokyèiams. Tyrimai rodo, kad ávairios træðimo sistemos turëjo didelës átakos dirvoþemio agrocheminëms savybëms paðarø (67 % kaupiamøjø), lauko (50 % javø) ir javø (83 % javø) sëjomainose. Po trijø rotacijø visø sëjomainø dirvoþemis pradëjo neþymiai rûgðtëti, padidëjo judriojo Al kiekis. Paðarø sëjomainoje, patræðus kasmet 52 t/ha mëðlo kartu su mineralinëmis NPK tràðomis ar be jø, dirvoþemio rûgðtëjimo tempai buvo neþymûs. Lauko ir javø sëjomainose organinë-mineralinë træðimo sistema ðá reiðkiná slopino, o mineralinë – aktyvino. Esant vienodam træðimo lygiui, didesnë mëðlo norma sudarë palankesnes sàlygas kauptis judriesiems fosforui ir ypaè kaliui visø trijø sëjomainø dirvoþemyje. Intensyviai træðiant mëðlu paðarø sëjomainoje per 18 jo naudojimo metø ið esmës padidëjo humuso dirvoþemio armenyje, lyginant su pradiniu jo kiekiu (0,76-0,94 %). Lauko ir javø sëjomainose, áterpiant kasmet 17,3 t/ha mëðlo, dirvoþemio armenyje po trijø rotacijø humuso buvo 2,15-2,60 %. Tuo tarpu mineralinë træðimo sistema skatino mineralizacijos procesus dirvoþemyje ir dël to po trijø rotacijø humuso labai sumaþëjo.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: sëjomaina, træðimo sistema, dirvoþemio agrocheminës savybës.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 70, 18-32

UDK 631.582:631.8:631.41

THE INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION SYSTEMS ON AGROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN DIFFERENT CROP ROTATIONS ON A SANDY LOAM SOIL

G. Greimas

Summary

The results of investigations of fertilization systems in various crop rotations (forage, cereal crop and field) are presented in this article. The experiment was carried out on a fluvoglacial soddy-podzolic sandy loam soil at the LIA, Vokë Branch in 1979-1996. The influence of fertilization systems on soil agrochemical properties is described in this paper. The application of 52 t/ha of manure every year markedly blocked a decline of soil pH and increased the sum of sorbed bases in the soil in the forage crop rotation (67 % row crops).

Both fertilization systems (organic and organic-mineral) increased the content of available P2O5 and K2O in the soil as well as the content of humus. It was more efficient to apply the organic-mineral fertilization system in the field crop (50 % cereals) and cereal crop (83% cereals) rotations. This fertilization system decreased acidification rates of the soil. The application of 104 t/ha manure with N300P162K362 once per rotation increased the content of available P2O5 and K2O. The amount of humus in the soil in this case increased more signi-ficantly. Fertilization with mineral fertilizers only (mineral fertilization system) had a negative effect on the soil because it increased mineralization of soil humus in both rotations. This fertilization system very negligible increased the amount of available P2O5 and K2O in the soil.

Key words: crop rotation, fertilization system, soil agrochemical properties.

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ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 70, 33-47

UDK 633.491:581.19:631.41

BULVIØ DERLIAUS IR CHEMINIØ ELEMENTØ KONCENTRACIJOS GUMBUOSE RYÐYS SU DIRVOÞEMIO AGROCHEMINËMIS SAVYBËMIS

Ðarûnas ANTANAITIS, Alfonsas ÐVEDAS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuvos sen., Këdainiø rajonas

Santrauka

Darbe analizuojama dirvoþemio savybiø ir pagal jas subalansuoto træðimo átaka bulviø derliui ir gumbø cheminei sudëèiai. Bandymas vykdytas 1997-1999 metais Dotnuvoje skirtinguose sklypeliuose, kuriuose vyravo velëninis glëjiðkas pajaurëjæs ir velëninis karbonatinis pajaurëjæs su glëjiðkumo þymëmis lengvo priemolio dirvo?emis. Dirvo?emio pKKCl 7,2-7,5, humuso – 2,41-2,98 %, bendrojo azoto – 0,152-0,180 %, judriøjø fosforo (P2O5) 124-258 mg/kg ir kalio (K2O) – 88-131 mg/kg. Nustatyta, kad derlius ir jo cheminë sudëtis priklauso nuo meteorologiniø sàlygø ir bendro augalø mitybos lygio.

Pateiktos regresijos lygtys rodo, kad bandymo laukø dirvoþemio atskirø savybiø svyravimo átaka derliui ir jo cheminei sudëèiai buvo nedidelë, taèiau dësninga. Dirvoþemio savybiø visuma lëmë derliaus dydá, kuris buvo gautas be tràðø. Dël træðimo sumaþëjo dirvoþemio savybiø reikðmiø svyravimo átaka augalams, taèiau ji neiðnyko.

Træðtuose laukeliuose bulviø derlius neþymiai didëjo, didëjant dirvoþemio pH iki 7,1, fosforingumui – 170-180 mg/kg, azotingumui – 0,16-0,18 %, humusingumui – 2,9-3,0 %. Didëjant dirvoþemio kalingumui, didëjo ir bulviø derlius, taèiau optimalus kalingumas ðiuose bandymuose neiðryðkëjo.

Træðtø laukeliø bulviø cheminë sudëtis dël agrocheminiø dirvoþemio savybiø reikðmiø variacijos keitësi neþymiai, taèiau pastebëta, kad daugiausia azoto, fosforo ir kalio bulvëse susikaupia esant dirvoþemio rûgðtumui apie 7,2-7,5 pH. Dirvoþemio fosforingumo, kalingumo, azotingumo ar humusingumo skirtumas taip pat turëjo neþymios átakos azoto, fosforo ir kalio koncentracijai bulviø gumbuose.

Remiantis iðryðkintu dësningumu, prieita prie iðvados, kad pagal dirvoþemio savybiø visumà galima prognozuoti derliø, gaunamà esant vidutinëms meteorologinëms sàlygoms ir optimizuoti trã?im? programuojamam derliui. Didesni faktiðkojo derliaus nukrypimai nuo prognozuotojo ar programuoto buvo tik labai sausringais 1999 metais.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: bulviø derlius, bulviø cheminë sudëtis, koreliaciniai ryðiai, dirvoþemio agrocheminës savybës.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 70, 33-47

UDK 633.491:581.19:631.41

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POTATO YIELD AND CONCENTRATION OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS IN TUBERS, AND SOIL AGROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Ð. Antanaitis, A. Ðvedas

Summary

This article presents an analysis of soil properties and the effect of fertilisation balanced according to those properties on potato yield and chemical composition of tubers. The experiment was carried out in 1997-1999 in Dotnuva on different plots with a prevailing soil type of soddy gleyic podzolized and soddy calcareous podzolized with traces of gleyicity light loam soil. The soil contained pHKCl 7.2-7.5, humus – 2.41-2.98 %, total nitrogen – 0.152-0.180 %, available phosphorus (P2O5)124-258 mg/kg and potassium (K2O) – 88-131 mg/kg. It was determined that yield and its chemical composition depended on meteorological condi-tions and general level of plant nutrition.

The equation of regression provided in this article showed that the effect of the variation of individual soil properties on the yield and its chemical composition was low, but consistent. The totality of soil properties determined the size of yield which was obtained without fertilisers. Due to fertilisation the effect of the variation of soil properties on plants declined, however, it did not disappear.

On fertilised plots the yield of potatoes increased intangibly together with a soil pH increase to 7.1, phosphorus – 170- 180 mg/kg, nitrogen content – 0.16-0.18 %, humus content – 29-30 %. An increase in soil potassium content resulted in an increase in potato yield, however optimum potassium content was not revealed in these experiments.

The chemical composition of potatoes in fertilised plots changed insignificantly because of the variation of soil agrochemical properties, however it was noted that the highest amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium accumulated in potatoes at a soil pH level of about 7.2-7.5 pH. The difference in the content of soil phosphorus, potassium nitrogen or humus also had a negligible effect on the concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in potato tubers.

On the basis of the revealed regularity a conclusion was drawn that according to the totallity of soil properties it is possible to predict the yield, obtained at average meteorological conditions and to optimize fertilization for a programmed yield. Higher deviations of actual yield from the predicted or programmed one were noted only in a very droughtly year of 1999.

Key words: potato yield, potato chemical composition, correlation, soil agrochemical properties.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 70, 48-65

UDK [633.11<324>+633.16]:631.874:631.559

ANKÐTINIØ ÞOLIØ, KAIP PRIEÐSËLIØ, BEI JØ ÞALIOSIOS MASËS UÞARIMO TRÀÐAI ÁTAKA DIRVOÞEMIO SAVYBËMS IR JAVØ GRANDIES PRODUKTYVUMO FORMAVIMUISI

?u?ra ARLAUSKIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Joniðkëlio bandymø stotis

Joniðkëlis, Pasvalio rajonas

Santrauka

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Joniðkëlio bandymø stotyje sunkios granuliometrinës sudëties dirvoþemyje 1996-1999 metais tirta dobilø, liucernø, vikiø ir aviþø miðinio bei ðiø prieðsëliø þaliosios masës, panaudotos þaliajai tràðai, átaka dirvoþemio savybëms ir javø grandies produktyvumui, lyginant su mëðlu. Nustatyta, kad daugiausia augalø liekanø buvo dirvoje po liucernø – 13,7 t/ha, maþiau po dobilø – 9,2 t/ha, o po vikiø ir aviþø miðinio – 5,0 t/ha sausøjø medþiagø. Be to, su daugiameèiø þoliø liekanomis á dirvà pateko þymiai daugiau azoto negu su miðinio derliumi ir liekanomis. Daugiameèiø þoliø, kaip prieðsëliø, liekanos ir uþartas þaliosios masës derlius turëjo teigiamà átakà javø pasëlio produktyvumo elementø formavimuisi ne tik pirmais, bet ir antrais metais, – tai lëmë javø grandies produktyvumà. Daugiausia apykaitos energijos per dvejus metus buvo sukaupta po liucernø auginant du kartus ?ieminius kvieèius – 189,5 GJ/ha, arba pirmais metais þieminius kvieèius, o antrais – vasarinius mieþius – 173,4 GJ/ha. Dvimetës javø grandys po dobilø buvo atitinkamai 15,9 ir 16,7 %, po vikiø ir aviþø miðinio – 24,4 ir 23,0 % maþesnio produktyvumo negu po liucernø. Grandis þieminiai kvieèiai-þieminiai kvieèiai buvo 9,3 % produktyvesni po liucernø, 8,9 % po dobilø, 11,4 % po vikiø ir aviþø miðinio negu grandis þieminiai kvieèiai-vasariniai mieþiai. Þaliajai tràðai panaudoti dobilø, liucernø atolai bei vikiø ir aviþø miðinio þalioji masë apykaitos energijos kieká javø grandyse padidino vidutiniðkai 6,2 %, o mëðlas – 8,1 %, lyginant su netræðtu variantu.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: augalø liekanos, þalioji tràða, derliaus produktyvumo elementai, þieminiai kvieèiai, vasariniai mie?iai.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 70, 48-65

UDK [633.11<324>+633.16]:631.874:631.559

EFFECT OF LEGUME HERBAGE AS A PRECEDING CROP AND THEIR PLOUGHING DOWN AS FERTILISER ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND FORMATION OF CEREAL SEQUENCE PRODUCTIVITY

A. Arlauskienë

Summary

Experiments with a view to establishing the influence of different preceding crops: clover, lucerne, vetch-oats mixture, their green material used for green manure and farmyard manure on clay loam soil fertility and productivity of cereal sequence were conducted at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture`s Joniðkëlis Research Station over the period of 1996-1999.

Results of the trials showed that the largest amount of root and plant residues was left in the soil after ploughing down lucerne (11.6 t/ha of dry matter) and after clover (9.2 t/ha of dry matter). Besides, their plant residues were rich in nitrogen and potassium and plant residues of vetch-oats mixture-only in potassium. Plant residues and ploughed down green and farmyard manures positively affected cereal stand density, number of productive stems, and other indices of crop productivity not only for the first but for the second year as well. It influenced productivity of cereal segments. The largest amount of metabolizable energy was in the yield of cereal sequence under lucerne – 181.5 GJ/ha, it was respectively by 19.2 % and 31.0 % higher than under clover and vetch-oats mixture. Different green manure increased the productivity of cereal sequence by 6.2 %, farmyard manure – by 8.1 %, compared with the trial without fertilization. More productive was cereal the sequence with winter wheat grown for two years, than the sequence: winter wheat-spring barley.

Key words: preceding crops, plant residues, green manure, stand productivity indicators, winter wheat, spring barley.

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ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 70, 66-78

UDK 633.521:631.8:631.559

TRÆÐIMO ÁTAKA SËMENINIØ LINØ ‘LU 5’ DERLIUI IR JO KOKYBEI BEI LIGOTUMUI

Zofija JANKAUSKIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Upytës bandymø stotis

Upytë, Panevëþio rajonas

Santrauka

1995 m. á Tinkamiausiø Lietuvoje auginti augalø veisliø sàraðà áraðius vokiðkà sëmeniniø linø veislæ ‘LU-5’, 1996 m. – ‘Blue Chip’, reikëjo iðtirti ðiø linø auginimo technologijà. Bandymo tikslas – nustatyti tràðø átakà sëmeniniø linø derliui ir jo kokybei.

Bandymas darytas 1995-1997 m. Upytës bandymø stotyje bandymø sëjomainoje, viename ið 7-iø sëjomainos laukø, kur tirta atskirø azoto (N30), fosforo (P40), kalio (K60) tràðø ir ávairiø jø deriniø átaka sëmeniniø linø derliui bei jo kokybei.

Linø prieðsëlis – þieminiai kvieèiai. Dirvoþemis – velëninis glëjiðkas. Granuliometrinë sudëtis – priesmëlis ant priemolio. Armens gylis – 20-22 cm.

Vidutiniais trejø metø duomenimis, træðiant atskiromis azoto (N30), fosforo (P40), kalio (K60) tràðomis ir ávairiais jø deriniais, sëmenø derlius ið esmës nepadidëjo. Statistiðkai patikimas stiebeliø derliaus priedas gautas patræðus N30K60. Pluoðtinës produkcijos derliui tirtas træðimas átakos neturëjo. Visø azotu træðtø variantø laukeliuose sëmenø ir stiebeliø derlius turëjo tendencijà didëti.

Trejø metø vidutiniais duomenimis, kaliu træðtuose laukeliuose linø stiebeliai buvo maþiau paþeisti antraknoze (Colletotrichum lini Boley).

Norint nustatyti træðimo normà, tyrimus reikëtø tæsti.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: pluoðtas, sëmenys, sëmeniniai linai, træðimas, maisto medþiagos, ligos.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 70, 66-78

UDK 633.521:631.8:631.559

THE INVESTIGATION OF LINSEED (VARIETY ‘LU 5’) FERTILISATION

Z. Jankauskienë

Summary

In 1995 the linseed variety ‘LU5’ (German origin) was included in the Lithuanian Catalogue of Recommended Varieties, in 1996 another variety of linseed (‘Blue Chip’) was listed in the Catalogue. Therefore the need to investigate the technology of linseed growing has emerged. The aim of the trial was to investigate the influence of fertilising on the quantity and quality of linseed yield.

The trial was carried out in 1995-1997 at the Upytë Research Station, it involved different rates (N30; P40; K60) and combinations of fertilisers.

Linseed was grown in a 7 field rotation after cereals. The soil type was soddy gleyic drained loam. Depth of arable layer – 20-25 cm.

Agrochemical soil characteristics fluctuated as follows: pH – 7.2± 0.10 – 7.6± 0.17, content of total nitrogen – 0.103± 0.0123 – 0.147± 0.0441 %, content of mineral nitrogen in nitrate form (N-NO3) – 5.80± 0.351 – 8.02± 0.783 mg/kg, content of mineral nitrogen in ammonium form (N-NH4) – 2.31± 0.630 – 4.70± 1.100 mg/kg, content of total mineral nitro-gen (Nmin) – 8.45± 0.742 – 11.25± 3.341 mg/kg, humus content – 1.70± 0.638 – 3.34± 0.979 %, content of available phosphorus – 97± 11.3 – 190± 33.9 mg/kg, content of available potassium – 97± 12.1 – 206± 51.3 mg/kg of the soil.

According to three years’ average data fertilising with individual N30, P40, K60 and different combinations of them did not increase the seed yield of linseed significantly. Only fertilising with N30K60 increased the yield of linseed stem significantly. The influence of fertilising on fibre production of linseed was not determined. There was noted a trend of increased linseed seed and stem yield in the plots treated with nitrogen fertilisers.

The stems of linseed were less affected by Seedling Blight (Colletotrichum lini Boley) in the plots, where potassium fertilisers had been used.

Key words: linseed, fertilising, fibre, nutrients, diseases.

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ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 70, 79-85

UDK 633.11«324»:631.8

ÞIEMINIØ KVIEÈIØ AUGIMO IR DERLIAUS FORMAVIMOSI YPATUMAI SKIRTINGAI JUOS TRÆÐIANT

Albinas ?IULIAUSKAS, Vytautas LIAKAS, Virgilijus PALTANAVIÈIUS

Lietuvos þemës ûkio universitetas

Akademija, Kauno rajonas

Santrauka

1997-1999 m. Lietuvos þemës ûkio universiteto Bandymø stotyje daryti bandymai, kuriuose buvo tiriama ávairiø NPK tràðø normø ir træðimo laiko átaka þieminiø kvieèiø sëklø dygimui, pasëliø retëjimui, þiemojimui ir derliaus formavimosi ypatumams. Nustatyta, kad þieminiai kvieèiai gali bûti træðiami fosforo ir kalio tràðomis pavasará, prasidëjus augalø vegetacijai, taèiau derliaus priedai bûna ðiek tiek maþesni nei ðiomis tràðomis træðiant rudená, prieð augalø sëjà. Træðti didesnëmis azoto tràðø normomis per 2-3 kartus yra efektyviau nei jas iðberti pavasará ið karto, augalø vegetacijai prasidëjus. Þieminiø kvieèiø træðimas per lapus karbamidu, skiriant N30, plaukëjimo tarpsnyje grûdø derliø padidino 0,38 t/ha ir 0,99 proc. vieneto padidino baltymø kieká grûduose.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: þieminiai kvieèiai, træðimo normos, træðimo laikas, augalø vegetacija.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 70, 79-85

UDK 633.11«324»:631.8

PECULIARITIES OF WINTER WHEAT GROWTH AND YIELD FORMATION UNDER DIFFERENT FERTILISATION TREATMENTS

  1. Ðiuliauskas, V. Liakas, V. Paltanavièius
Summary

In 1997-1999 investigations on how variations of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and the season chosen to fertilise affect the growth of winter wheat seeds, thinning of seedlings, wintering and crop formation were carried out. It was revealed that winter wheat could be fertilised with phosphorus and potassium fertilisers in springtime, at the start of vegetative growth. However, the yield increase was lower than that when using the same fertiliser in autumn, prior to the sowing. It should be noted that fertilising wheat in autumn 2-3 times with higher rates of nitrogen fertiliser was more effective than applying the whole amount of fertiliser in spring, when the vegetative growth season was already in progress. When N30 was used to fertilise winter wheat during the heading stage an increase in the yield (0.38 t/ha) and protein content in grain (0,98 %) was noticed.

Key words: winter wheat, fertiliser rates, fertilisation period, vegetative growth season.

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II skyrius. AUGALØ APSAUGA

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 70, 86-97

UDK 633.16«321»:632.51:632.954

PAPRASTØJØ VARPUÈIØ NAIKINIMAS VASARINIUOSE MIEÞIUOSE

Eglë PALIULYTË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filialas

Trakø Vokë, Vilnius

Santrauka

1996-1998 m. Lietuvos ?emdirbyst?s instituto Vokës filiale priesmëlio dirvoje (pHKCl 5,6-6,1, humuso 1,70-1,91 %) tirta paprastøjø varpuèiø (Elytrigia repens L. Nevski) augimo dinamika ir jø naikinimas raundapu 360 g/l. Herbicidas iðpurkðtas anksti pavasará prieð þemës dirbimà, prieð mieþiø pjûtá ir raþienose, vartojant registruotas minimalias jo normas – 3 ir 4 l/ha.

Ma?ai varpuèiais u?ter?toje dirvoje (iki 10 vnt/m2) mieþiai, jø grûdø derliui siekiant 3 t/ha, varpuèius stelbë ir ðiø piktþoliø maþëjo. Vidutiniðkai varputëtoje dirvoje (iki 50 vnt/m2) per vegetacijà piktþoliø padaugëjo 1,5 karto, bet ðakniastiebiø kitø metø pavasará buvo treèdaliu maþiau. Labai varputëtoje dirvoje (iki 100 vnt/m2) iki rudens stiebø pagausëjo 1,4, ðakniastiebiai pailgëjo 3,9, masë padidëjo 5,2 karto.

Nustatyta, kad raundapà naudingiausia iðpurkðti prieð javapjûtæ. Didesnio varputëtumo dirvose 1997 ir 1998 m. nupurðkus mieþius raundapu 3 ir 4 l/ha, paprastøjø varpuèiø ðakniastiebiø ilgis iki rudeninio dirvø arimo sumaþëjo 31 %, jø orasausë masë – 42-48 %, lyginant su nepurkðtais. Kitø metø pavasará ðakniastiebiø ilgis bei masë buvo atitinkamai 48-55 % ir 55-62 % maþesni. Raundapo veikimui palankesniais 1997 m. varpuèiø ðakniastiebiø ilgis ir masë sumaþëjo atitinkamai 65 ir 68 %. Raundapo naudojimas mieþiø raþienose buvo maþiau efektyvus: varpuèiø ðakniastiebiø masë sumaþëjo tik treèdaliu. Panaðus efektas buvo ir purðkiant anksti pavasará.

Vidutiniais duomenimis, MCPA fone ávairiu laiku naudojant raundapà, gautas neþymus mieþiø grûdø derliaus padidëjimas. Esminis derliaus priedas (0,13-0,23 t/ha) gautas tik palyginus su jokiais herbicidais nepurkðtais mieþiais, o tai rodo, kad já nulëmë dviskilèiø piktþoliø sunaikinimas herbicidu MCPA. Mieþiø biometriniams rodikliams ir sëklø daigumui raundapas turëjo teigiamà átakà, jo likuèiø grûduose nerasta.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: vasariniai mieþiai, raundapas, paprastieji varpuèiai, ðakniastiebiai, piktþolës.

Chapter 2. PLANT PROTECTION

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 70, 86-97

UDK 633.16«321»:632.51:632.954

POSSIBILITIES OF ELYTRIGIA REPENS (L.) NEVSKI CONTROL IN SPRING BARLEY

E. Paliulytë

Summary

During the period 1996-1998 efficacy of the herbicide Roundup against Elytrigia repens in spring barley was investigated in the field experiments at the Vokë Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture. The trials were carried out on a soddy podzolic sandy loam soil (pHKCl 5.6-6.1, humus 1.70-1.91 %). The tests involved the variety of spring barley ‘Auksiniai 3’. Roundup was sprayed in early spring before soil tillage, before harvesting and in autumn on the stubbles.

The experimental results showed, that the herbicide Roundup applied at the rates of 3 and 4 l/ha on spring barley before harvesting gave the best control of Elytrigia repens. It was established, that the length of rhizomes declined by 31 % and air-dry mass by 42-48 % until autumn ploughing. The following spring before tillage the length and air-dry mass of rhizomes declined by 48-55 % and 55-62 % respectively. Roundup application in spring before the establishment of trials and on the stubbles was less effective.

The grain yield of spring barley was 0.13-0.23 t/ha higher than that in the check treatment after the control of dicotyledonous weeds. This herbicide had positive influence on the biometrical indices of spring barley and germinating power of seeds. The residues of Roundup were not detectable in grain.

Key words: spring barley, Roundup, Elytrigiarepens, rhizomes, weeds.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 70, 98-106

UDK 633.14”324”:631.82:632.485.2

RUDØJØ IR JUODØJØ RÛDÞIØ PLITIMAS SKIRTINGAI TRÆÐTUOSE TETRAPLOIDINIUOSE ÞIEMINIUOSE RUGIUOSE ‘RÛKAI’

Raisa LISOVA

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filialas

Trakø Vokë, Vilnius

Santrauka

Tetraploidiniø þieminiø rugiø ‘Rûkai’ rudøjø ir juodøjø rûdþiø stebëjimai atlikti Vokës filiale 1995-1997 m. træðimo bandymuose, árengtuose fliuvioglacialiniame velëniniame jauriniame priesmëlio ant priesmëlio su giliau slûgsanèiu þvyru dirvoþemyje, kuriame vidutiniðkai ir pakankamai judriøjø fosforo ir kalio, humuso jame nuo 1,8 iki 2,5 %. Mineraliniø NPK tràðø normos buvo skaièiuojamos pagal planuojamà þieminiø rugiø derlingumà – 4,5-5,0 t/ha. Tai atitiko P50K110. Viena azoto norma buvo 70, pusë – 35, pusantros – 105 kg/ha.

Iðaiðkinta, kad rudøjø ir juodøjø rûdþiø tetraploidiniai þieminiai rugiai buvo paþeisti visais tyrimo metais. Taèiau 1996 metai, palyginus juos su 1995 ir 1997, buvo minëtø ligø paplitimo ir vystymosi epifitotijos metai. Jei 1995 m. rudøjø rûdþiø iðsivystymas ant lapø buvo 1,40-13,73 %, o juodøjø ant stiebø – 0,68-4,36 %, tai 1996 m. – atitinkamai 14,93-45,07 % ir 14,58-25,40 %. Vidutiniais duomenimis, þieminiø rugiø lapai nuo rudøjø, o stiebai nuo juodøjø rûdþiø labiausiai nukentëjo, palyginus su P50, K110 ir P50K110 tr??imo fonais, fosforu ir kaliu netr??tuose laukeliuose. Tuose laukeliuose rud?jø rûdþiø iðsivystymas buvo 18,15-28,78 %, o juodøjø – 10,60-11,96 %. Þieminiai rugiai rudøjø rûdþiø silpniausiai buvo paþeisti, palyginus su kitais augimo fonais, tik kaliu træðtuose laukeliuose (ligos iðsivystymas – 8,16-14,88 %), o juodøjø rûdþiø – tik fosforu (ligos iðsivystymas – 8,05-9,37 %). Azoto tràðos, palyginus su jomis netræðtais laukeliais, visuose þieminiø rugiø augimo fonuose skatino rudøjø rûdþiø pliti-mà. Kuo didesne azoto tràðø norma buvo træðti þieminiai rugiai, tuo labiau jø lapai nukentëdavo nuo minëtos ligos. Labiausiai rudøjø rûdþiø buvo paþeisti tø þieminiø rugiø lapai, kurie buvo træðti azotu du kartus, t.y. N70 ir N35. Pastebëta, kad nuo azoto tràðø, palyginus su jomis netræðtais laukeliais visuose PK fonuose, maþëjo juodøjø rûdþiø plitimas þieminiø rugiø stiebuose. Azoto tràðø normos minëtai ligai esminës átakos neturëjo.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: þieminiai rugiai, mineralinës NPK tràðos, rudosios ir juodosios rûdys, grûdø derlius.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 70, 98-106

UDK 633.14”324”:631.82:632.485.2

INCIDENCE OF FUNGAL DISEASES IN TETRAPLOID WINTER RYE STANDS IN RELATION TO NPK FERTILIZATION

R. Lisova

Summary

Over 1995-1997 at the LIA Vokë Branch a trial was established on fluvial glacial sod-podzolic loam on loam with deeper layer of gravel soil. The soil was slightly acid, medium rich and rich in available phosphorus and potassium. The amount of humus varied from 1.8 to 2.5 %. Different nitrogen rates were tested on P0K0 free, P50, K110 and P50K110 treated backgrounds. Fertilizer rate was calculated on 4.5-5.0 t/ha of grain yield. One rate of nitrogen fertilizer equals to 70 kg/ha of nitrogen.

The dependence of brown and black rust incidence on NPK fertilization level was observend in Vokë. Brown and black rust affected tetraploid winter rye every year. In Vokë Branch the occurrence of fungal diseases mostly depended on weather conditions and nitro-gen fertilizers and less on PK fertilizers backgrounds. 1996 was the year of brown and black rust epidemic. Brown and black rust incidence was affected by PK fertilizers background and nitrogen fertilizers: the percentage of affected leaves and stems and disease severity were marked by higher in the treatments fertilized with N70+35P0K0. It was noticed that brown rust spread less and the disease severity was slower on K110 and P50K110 backgrounds. It was noticed that black rust spread less and the disease severity was slower on P50 and K110 backgrounds.

Key words: winter rye, mineral NPK fertilizers, brown and black rusts.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 70, 107-117

UDK 633.14:632.4

GRYBINIØ LIGØ PLITIMAS SKIRTINGAI TRÆÐTUOSE TETRAPLOIDINIUOSE ÞIEMINIUOSE RUGIUOSE ‘RÛKAI’

Irena GAURILÈIKIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuvos sen., Këdainiø rajonas

Santrauka

Tetraploidiniø þieminiø rugiø ‘Rûkai’ lapø ir paðaknio ligø stebëjimai atlikti 1994-1996 m. træðimo bandymuose Dotnuvoje. Stebëtas pavasarinio pelësio, lapø ligø, stiebalûþës ir paðaknio puviniø plitimo priklausomumas nuo trã?imo NPK tr??omis.

Pavasarinis pelësis silpniau paþeidë rugius, sëtus á kalio tràðomis patræðtà dirvà. Esant epifitotiniam ligos iðplitimui, didþiausias pleikiø plotas ir daugiausia þuvusiø augalø rasta nepatræðus PK, maþiausiai – patræðus P ir K tr??omis kartu.

Rinchosporiozë þieminiuose rugiuose kasmet buvo pagrindinë lapø liga. Rinchosporiozës iðplitimas rugiø pasëlyje priklausë ir nuo NPK tràðø. Liga labiau iðplito P ir PK bei papildomai N120 ir N180 vienà ar du kartus træðtø variantø laukeliuose. 1994 m. miltligë pasireiðkë silpnai, o 1995 m. jos visai nebuvo. 1996 m. buvo miltligës epifitotijos metai. Miltligë labiau buvo iðplitusi NPK træðtuose rugiuose. Papildomas træðimas azotu visomis normomis skatino miltligës iðsivystymà. Labiausiai ji buvo i?sivysèiusi trã?iant N180 ir PK tràðø kompleksu. Miltligë buvo labiau iðsivysèiusi rugiuose, træðtuose K bei PK nei vien P tràðomis. Rudosios rûdys paþeidë rugius kasmet. Rudøjø rûdþiø labiausiai paþeisti tetraploidiniai rugiai buvo træðti vien fosforo tr??omis, ma?iausiai – PK bei K tr??tuose laukeliuose. Augalus tr??iant papildomai N120 ir N180, rudosios rûdys turëjo tendencijà didëti.

Dotnuvoje tyrimø metais stiebalûþë þieminiuose rugiuose nebuvo smarkiai iðplitusi. Azoto tràðos N120 ir N180, iðbertos ið karto, skatino stiebalûþës plitimà. Paðaknio puviniai ru-giuose buvo gausiai iðplitæ visais tyrimø metais. Nuo azoto tràðø labiau plito paðaknio puviniai, ypaè variantuose be PK tràðø. Azoto tràðos maþiausiai lëmë paðaknio puviniø plitimà, kai rugiai buvo træðti PK tràðø kompleksu.

Reik?miniai ?od?iai: tetraploidiniai rugiai, NPK tr??os, pavasarinis pelësis, rinchosporiozë, miltligë, rudosios rûdys, stiebalûþë, paðaknio puviniai.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 70, 107-117

UDK 633.14:632.4

OCCURRENCE OF FUNGAL DISEASES IN TETRAPLOID RYE STANDS DEPENDING ON NPK FERTILIZATION

I.Gaurilèikienë

Summary

Observations of the tetraploid rye variety ‘Rûkai’ regarding foliar and root diseases were conducted in fertilization trials established on a sod-gleyic light loam soil over 1994-1996 in Dotnuva. The relationship between snow mold, foliar diseases, eyespot and root rot incidence and NPK fertilization level was observed.

Snow mold occurrence was lower on the rye sown in the soil treated with potassium fertilizers. At epidemic level of the disease spread the largest bald area and the highest amount of dead plants were found on PK-free background, and the lowest – on PK back-ground. There were fewer dead plants and bald areas in the plots fertilized with PK and K.

Scald was major foliar disease in rye stands. Scald prevalence in rye stand depended on PK fertilizer background as well as on nitrogen fertilizer rate applied as an additional treatment. The disease prevailed on P and PK backgrounds, in the treatments fertilized with N120 and N180 once and twice. Powdery mildew occurred on rye not every year. 1996 was the year of powdery mildew epidemic. Powdery mildew incidence was affected by PK fertilizers background and nitrogen fertilizers: the disease severity was rather high in the treatments fertilized with NPK. Fertilization with all nitrogen rates caused gradual increase in the disease spread and development from a nil treatment to P, K and PK backgrounds. Brown rust affec-ted rye every year. The highest severity of the disease was found in the treatments fertilized with N120 and N180. It was noticed that disease severity was lower on K and PK backgrounds.

During experimental years eyespot incidence in tetraploid rye stands was not very high in Dotnuva. Nitrogen fertilizer rates N120 and N180 promoted the spread of eyespot. The incidence of root rot was abundant in tetraploid rye stands in all the testing years. Nitrogen fertilizers stimulated root rot spread, particularly in PK-less treatments. The weakest effect of nitrogen fertilizers on root rot spread was on PK background.

Key words: tetraploid winter rye, NPK fertilizers, spring mold, scald, powdery mildew, brown rust, eyespot, common root rot.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 70, 118-128

UDK 633.16«321»:632.488.2:632.952:631.84:631.559

VASARINIØ MIEÞIØ DERLINGUMO IR LIGOTUMO PRIKLAUSOMUMAS NUO AZOTO TRÀÐØ IR FUNGICIDØ LENGVO PRIEMOLIO DIRVO?EMYJE

Zita BRAZIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Rumokø bandymø stotis

Klausuèiai, Vilkavi?kio rajonas

Santrauka

LÞI Rumokø bandymø stotyje 1996-1998 m. velëniniame jauriniame silpnai pajaurëjusiame lengvo priemolio dirvoþemyje tirta skirtingø azoto tràðø normø bei fungicido tango 50 % s.e. (epoksinazolas + tridemorfas) átaka lapø ligø plitimui, grûdø derliui ir jo struktûros elementams vasariniø mieþiø veisliø ‘Aidas’, ‘Alsa’, ‘Baronesse’ ir ‘Ûla’ pasëliuose.

Nustatyta, kad azoto tràðos skatino rudadëmës dryþligës (Drechslera sorokiniana (Sacc.) Subram.) ir tinkliðkosios dryþligës (Drechslera teres (Sacc.) Shoem. Ito.) plitimà ir ðiek tiek stabdë septoriozës (Septoria spp.) plitim? vasariniuose mie?iuose. Fungicidas tango visais tyrim? metais buvo veiksmingas nuo lapø ligø. Jo vidutinis biologinis efektyvumas nuo rudadëmës dryþligës sudarë 34,79 %, nuo tinkliðkosios – 54,10 %, nuo septoriozës – 44,76 %.

Nupurðkus visø tirtø veisliø vasariniø mieþiø pasëlius fungicidu tango, ið esmës padidëjo grûdø derlius ir jø stambumas.

Nuo azoto tràðø ið esmës padidëjo vasariniø mieþiø grûdø derlius. Mieþiø ‘Aidas’ ir ‘Alsa’ pasëliuose efektyviausia buvo N90, ‘Ûla’ ir ‘Baronesse’ – N60 tràðø norma.

Reik?miniai ?od?iai: vasariniai mie?iai, lap? ligos, fungicidas, grûdø derlius, azoto tràðos.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 70, 118-128

UDK 633.16«321»:632.488.2:632.952:631.84:631.559

PRODUCTIVITY AND DISEASE INCIDENCE OF SPRING BARLEY IN RELATION TO NITROGEN FERTILISATION AND APPLICATION OF THE FUNGICIDE ON A LIGHT LOAMY SOIL

Z. Brazienë

Summary

The experiments were done at the Rumokai Experimental Station on a soddy podzolic weakly podzolized light loamy soil in 1996-1998. The influence of different rates of nitrogen fertilisers and the fungicide Tango (50 % epoxikonazol+tridemorph) on the occurrence of foliar diseases, grain yield and its structural elements was investigated on the four varieties of spring barley ‘Aidas’, ‘Alsa’, ‘Baronesse’ and ‘Ûla’.

It was established, that nitrogen fertilisers induced the occurrence of Drechslera teres and Drechslera sorokiniana and slightly suppressed the spread of Septoria spp on spring barley. The fungicide Tango was effective during all the experimental years against foliar diseases. Its average biological efficacy against Drechslera sorokiniana was 34.79 %, against Drechslera teres – 54.10 %, against Septoria spp. – 44.76 %. After spraying all the spring barley treatments with the fungicide Tango, the grain yield significantly increased.

Nitrogen fertilisers significantly increased the grain yield of the spring barley. The most effective nitrogen fertiliser rate was 90 kg/ha for ‘Aidas’ and ‘Alsa’, while 60 kg/ha-for ‘Ûla’ and ‘Baronesse’.

Key words: spring barley, foliar diseases, fungicide, grain yield, nitrogen fertilisers.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 70, 129-144

UDK [632.95+631.841.7]:633.11«321»

KOMPLEKSIÐKAS PESTICIDØ IR KARBAMIDO NAUDOJIMAS VASARINIUOSE KVIEÈIUOSE

Jonas ÐURKUS, Roma SEMAÐKIENË, Juozas SEMAÐKA

Lietuvos ?emdirbyst?s institutas

Akademija, Dotnuvos sen., Këdainiø rajonas

Santrauka

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute 1996-1998 m. tirta ávairios paskirties pesticidø – herbicido, insekticido ir fungicido naudojimo vienu metu vasariniø kvieèiø apsaugai nuo piktþoliø, kenkëjø ir ligø galimybës, pasëlá tuo pat metu træðiant per lapus karbamidu. Nuo piktþoliø vasariniai kvieèiai purkðti krûmijimosi metu (25-29 DK) dialenu (2,0 l/ha), nuo kenkëjø – krûmijimosi metu (25-29 DK) ir bamblëjimo pabaigoje (39DK) – deciu (0,3 l/ha), nuo ligø – bamblëjimo pabaigoje arèeriu (0,8 l/ha). Karbamido buvo pridedama á pesticidø skiediná vasariniø kvieèiø krûmijimosi metu iki 15 % (45 kg/ha), bamblëjimo metu – 10 % (30 kg/ha) ir iðpurðkiama 300 l/ha paruoðto skiedinio.

Dialenas visais tyrimø metais gerai naikino piktþoles. Purkðtuose laukeliuose prieð derliaus nuëmimà jø buvo 6-10 kartø maþiau nei nepurkðtuose kontroliniuose. Nei insekticido, nei karbamido priedai átakos herbicido efektyvumui neturëjo. Esant nedideliam bandymø lauko piktþolëtumui (prieð derliaus ëmimà piktþoliø tebuvo 61 vnt/m2), dël herbicido vasariniø kvieèiø derlius padidëjo vidutiniðkai tik 0,25 t/ha.

Tyrimø vykdymo metais, esant negausiam kenkëjø antplûdþiui vasariniø kvieèiø krûmijimosi metu, insekticido decio (0,3 l/ha) priedas prie karbamido buvo maþai efektyvus. Tuo tarpu naudojant trijø komponentø (herbicido, insekticido ir karbamido 15 %) miðiná, grûdø derlius ið esmës padidëjo 1996 ir 1998 m. atitinkamai 0,47 ir 0,55 t/ha.

Vasariniø kvieèiø bamblëjimo metu visais tyrimø metais buvo veiksminga fungicidà arèerá (0,8 l/ha) naudoti vienà (vidutinis derliaus priedas 0,73 t/ha) ir miðinyje su insekticidu deciu (vidutinis derliaus priedas 0,83 t/ha). Didþiausias derlius gautas vasarinius kvieèius nupurðkus fungicido, insekticido ir karbamido 10 % miðiniu – derlius padidëjo 0,96 t/ha .

Reikðminiai þodþiai: vasariniai kvieèiai, grûdø derlius, piktþolës, ligos, kenkëjai, herbicidai, fungicidai, insekticidai, karbamidas.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 70, 129-144

UDK [632.95+631.841.7]:633.11«321»

COMPLEX USE OF PESTICIDES AND UREA ON SPRING WHEAT

J. Ðurkus, R. Semaðkienë, J. Semaðka

Summary

In 1996-1998 experiments were conducted at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture with the view to testing possibilities of using different pesticides together and supplying spring wheat with nitrogen additionally using urea in the mixtures.

For weed control we used the herbicide dialen (2.0 l/ha) at the end of tillering (GS 25-29) of spring wheat, against insect pests – the insecticide decis (0.3 l/ha) – at GS 25-29 and GS 39 (flag leaf stage) and against diseases – the fungicide archer (0.8 l/ha) at GS 39. The urea was applied in both growth stages: at GS 25-29 its rate was 45 kg/ha and at GS 39 - 30 kg/ha.

Dialen was highly effective against weeds in all the years and decreased the number of weeds 6-10 times as compared with the untreated plot. Average grain yield increase through dialen spaying was 0.25 t/ha.

During all the experimental years, the appearance of main pests on spring wheat was late, and the use of the insecticide decis was more effective at later growth stages (GS 39).

The fungicide archer was highly effective in all the cases: when it was applied alone the average yield increase was 0.73 t/ha, when it was used in mixtures with decis – 0.83 t/ha, and when it was used together with insecticide and urea – 0.96 t/ha.

Key words: spring wheat, grain yield, weeds, pests, diseases, herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, urea.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 70, 145-159

UDK 632.937:633.1:631.531.027.2

BIOPREPARATØ ÁTAKA JAVØ SËKLØ BEI DAIGØ LIGOTUMUI

Roma SEMAÐKIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuvos sen., Këdainiø rajonas

Santrauka

Priklausomai nuo derliaus metø meteorologiniø sàlygø ir naudotø augalø apsaugos priemoniø vegetacijos metu, sëkla gali bûti paþeista ávairiø ligø sukëlëjø iki 100 %. Daugiausia iki ðiol Lietuvoje augalø apsaugai nuo su sëkla plintanèiø patogenø buvo tirti cheminiai beicai. Ar yra galimybiø pakeisti pastaràsias priemones maþiau þalingomis aplinkai, siekta nustatyta LÞI Augalø apsaugos skyriuje 1994-1997 metais laboratoriniais ir lauko bandymais þieminiuose kvieèiuose, þieminiuose rugiuose ir vasariniuose mieþiuose. Javø sëkla buvo beicuojama biopreparatais trichoderminu (Trichoderma lignorum, ðtamas istokskij), Kaelsi-Micros (bakterijos Pseudomonas aureofaciens H16, biostimuliatoriai ir kt.) ir simbiontu (endofitiniai grybai ir augim? skatinanèios med?iagos).

Laboratorijoje atlikti tyrimai parodë, kad sëklà ant maitinamosios alaus misos terpës nuo fitopatogenø geriausiai apsaugojo trichoderminas. Þieminiø kvieèiø sëklos, apveltos ðiuo biopreparatu, buvo 94,0 % maþiau pa?eistos Fusarium spp. ir 95,0 % Alternaria spp. negu nebeicuotos. Þieminiø rugiø sëkla buvo apsaugota atitinkamai 96,5 ir 84,2 %. Tuo tarpu Kaelsi-Micros ir simbiontas buvo maþai veiksmingi nuo ant javø sëklø esanèiø ligø sukëlëjø.

Trejø tyrimø metø duomenimis, naudoti biopreparatai þieminiø kvieèiø ir rugiø bei vasariniø mieþiø sëklos daigumui nei laboratorijoje, nei lauke þymesnës átakos neturëjo. Neiðryðkëjo ir naudotø priemoniø átaka þiemkenèiø perþiemojimui.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: biopreparatai, þieminiai kvieèiai, þieminiai rugiai, vasariniai mieþiai, sëklos fitosanitarinë bûklë, dygimo energija, daigumas, per?iemojimas.
 
 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 70, 145-159

UDK 632.937:633.1:631.531.027.2

EFFECT OF BIOLOGICAL SEED TREATERS AGAINST SEED AND SEEDLING DISEASES

R. Semaðkienë

Summary

Seed treatments with fungal or bacterial biocontrol agents have been proposed, tested and are likely to be used soon for commercial plant disease control. They may be used to control seedborne plant pathogens and soilborne seed attacking fungi, or as a method of introducing agents that will colonize newly formed roots or other plant parts.

In Lithuania seed lots of cereals are routinely treated with chemical seed treaters, but lately interest in biological seed treaters has been on the increase.

Studies about possibilities to use biological seed treaters were done in the laboratory and field plots at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture from 1994 to 1997. Prior to sowing the naturally infected seeds of winter wheat ‘Ðirvinta’, winter rye ‘Rûkai’ and spring barley ‘Roland’ were treated with biological seed treaters trichodermin (Trichoderma lignorun strain istokskij) at a rate of 8.0 kg/t, Kaelsi-Micros (Pseudomonas aureofaciens strain H16) at a rate of 200 ml/t, simbiont (growth stimulant) + CuSO4 at a rate of 1.0 ml + 0.2 g/t and chemical seed treater baitan universal at a rate of 1.5 kg/t.

One of the main objectives of this work was to search for antagonistic fungi and bacterias, to control seed and seedling diseases of cereals.

It was established that trichodermin gave a good control of seedborne pathogens in the laboratory on the malt agar medium. Treated winter wheat seed was 94.0 % less affected by Fusarium spp. and 95.0 % by Alternaria spp., winter rye seed was 96.5 % less affected by Fusarium spp. and 84.2 % by Alternaria spp. as compared with the untreated control. The efficacy of Kaesi-Micros and simbiont against seed-born pathogens was poor.

Biological seed treaters did not have any influence on seed emergence, laboratory and field germination and on the rate of overwinter survival of plants.

Key words: biological seed treaters, winter wheat, winter rye, spring barley, seedborne pathogens, germination power, laboratory and field germination, overwintersurvival of plants, tillering.

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III skyrius. AUGALØ CHEMINË SUDËTIS

ISSN 1392-3196

?emdirbyst?. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 70, 160-175

UDK 633.853.494«321»:581.19:631.84

AGRONOMINIØ VEIKSNIØ IR AUGIMO SÀLYGØ ÁTAKA ÞALIØ BALTYMØ IR ÞALIØ RIEBALØ KIEKIO BEI RIEBALØ RÛGÐÈIØ KOMPOZICIJOS KITIMUI VASARINIØ RAPSØ SËKLOSE

Bronislava BUTKUTË, Audronë MAÐAUSKIENË, Gvidas ÐIDLAUSKAS, Laimutë SLIESARAVIÈIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuvos sen., Këdainiø rajonas

Santrauka

Lauko bandymai su vasariniais rapsais (Brassica napus L.) ‘Star’ daryti 1995-1997 metais Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute Dotnuvoje velëniniame glëjiðkajame lengvo priemolio dirvoþemyje. Tirta azoto tràðø normø, jø áterpimo laiko, pasëlio tankumo, 1000 sëklø masës, ankðtarø padëties ant augalo átaka þaliø baltymø (toliau baltymø) ir þaliø riebalø (toliau riebalø) kiekiui bei riebalø rûgðèiø kompozicijai vasariniø rapsø sëklose. Tyrimai rodo, kad azoto tràðø normø didinimas, jø áterpimo laiko vëlinimas, taip pat didëjanti azoto koncentracija augaluose 4-5 lapø vystymosi tarpsnyje, þydëjimo tarpsnio pradþioje ir pabaigoje bei sëklø brendimo tarpsnio metu skatino baltymø kaupimàsi vasariniø rapsø sëklose, tuo tarpu riebalø kiekis, atvirkðèiai – ðiø veiksniø átakoje maþëjo. Baltymø ir riebalø kiekis sëklose taip pat siejosi su 1000 sëklø mase: tarp sëklos masës ir baltymø kiekio pasireiðkë teigiama koreliacija, o sëklos masæ ir jose sukauptà riebalø kieká siejo neigiamas koreliacinis ryðys. Nustatyta atvirkðtinë tiesinë priklausomybë tarp baltymø ir riebalø kiekio vasariniø rapsø sëklose: apraðomuosiuose bandymuose baltymø kiekiui padidëjus vienu procentiniu vienetu, riebalø kiekis sëklose sumaþëdavo 1,15 procentinio vieneto. Tyrimai rodo, kad, didinant azoto tràðø normas, rapsø sëklose kaupiasi daugiau palmitino (C16:0), linolo (C18:2), arachido (C20:0) ir gadoleino (C20:1) rûgðèiø, maþëjant oleino (C18:1) ir a -linoleno (C18:3) rûgðèiø kiekiui. Panaðios riebalø rûgðèiø kompozicijos kiekybinio kitimo tendencijos buvo pastebëtos ir vëlinant azoto tràðø áterpimo laikà. Pastebëta, kad ankðtarø padëtis ant augalo taip pat turëjo átakos riebalø rûgðèiø kompozicijos kitimui. Daugiausia gadoleino (C20:1) ir arachido (C20:0) rûgðèiø buvo rasta stiebo ankðtarose subrendusiose sëklose. Sëklose, subrendusiose ðoniniø ðakø ankðtarose, ðiø riebalø rûgðèiø maþëjo ðakoms tolstant nuo augalo virðûnës.

Reik?miniai ?od?iai:vasariniai rapsai, þali baltymai, þali riebalai, riebalø rûgðtys, azoto normos, træðimo azotu laikas, 1000 sëklø masë, ankðtarø vieta ant augalo.

Chapter 3. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PLANTS

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 70, 160-175

UDK 633.853.494«321»:581.19:631.84

THE EFFECT OF AGRONOMIC FACTORS AND GROWTH CONDITIONS ON PROTEIN AND FAT CONTENT IN THE SEED OF SPRING OILSEED RAPE AND ON THE VARIATION OF FATTY ACIDS

B. Butkutë, A. Maðauskienë, G. Ðidlauskas, L. Sliesaravièienë

Summary

Field trials were conducted at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in Dotnuva on a light loamy soddy-gleyic soil in 1993-1997. The spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cv. ‘Star’ was seeded to investigate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer rates and timing, stand population density, thousand seed weight as well as pod location on the seed protein and fat content and fatty acids composition. It was found that with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer rates, with a delay of nitrogen application as well as with the increase of nitrogen content in the plant at 4-5 leaf stage, at the beginning and end of flowering and at the seed development stage the content of protein in spring oilseed rape seed was increasing, but the content of fat – decreasing. The seed weight influenced the protein and fat content in the seed. When the seed weight increased the content of protein also tended to increase, however the content of fat at the same time decreased. A reverse linear correlation between protein and fat content in spring oilseed rapes was found. With 1 % increase of protein content, the content of fat decreased 1.15 per cent unit. The investigation showed that with the increase of nitrogen application rates the content of palmitin (C16:0), linol (C18:2) and eikozen (C20:1) fatty acids content in the oil tended to increase. However, the content of oleic (C18:1) and a -linolen (C18:3) fatty acids tended to decline. Variation in fatty acids composition in relation to the delay of nitrogen application was found closely related to the impact of nitrogen application rates. The location of pod on the plant also influenced the composition of fatty acids. The highest content of eikozen (C20:1) and arachid (C20:0) fatty acids was found in the oil of the seed matured on terminal raceme. With the increasing the depth in the canopy the content of eikozen and arachid fatty acids tended to decrease.

Key words: spring oilseed rape, protein, fats, fatty acids, nitrogen rate, nitrogen application time, seed weight, stand population density.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 70, 176-187

UDK 633.853.494<321>:581.19

VASARINIØ RAPSØ PASËLIO TANKUMO ÁTAKA AZOTO, FOSFORO IR KALIO KIEKIUI AUGALUOSE, SËKLØ DERLIUI BEI ÞALIØ BALTYMØ IR RIEBALØ IÐEIGAI

Gvidas ÐIDLAUSKAS

Lietuvos ?emdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuvos sen., Këdainiø rajonas

Santrauka

Lauko bandymai su vasariniais rapsais (Brassica napus) ‘Star’ vykdyti 1993-1997 metais Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute Dotnuvoje velëniniame glëjiðkame lengvo priemolio dirvoþemyje, turint tikslà iðsiaiðkinti augalø skaièiaus ploto vienete átakà azoto, fosforo ir kalio koncentracijai augaluose 4-5 lapø vystymosi tarpsnyje, þydëjimo pradþioje ir pabaigoje bei sëklø brendimo tarpsnyje, taip pat sëklose ir ðiauduose. Tyrimai rodo, kad didëjantis pasëlio tankumas didino azoto koncentracijà vasariniuose rapsuose 4-5 lapø vystymosi tarpsnyje, þydëjimo pradþioje ir sëklø brendimo tarpsnyje. Baigianèiuose þydëti augaluose bei sëklose azoto koncentracija maþëjo didëjant augalø skaièiui ploto vienete, o azoto koncentracijai ðiauduose pasëlio tankumo kitimas nuo 20 iki 180 augalø kvadratiniame metre beveik neturëjo átakos. Fosforo koncentracija augaluose tirtais jø vegetacijos tarpsniais didëjo didë-jant augalø skaièiui ploto vienete, iðskyrus þydëjimo pabaigà, kada pasëliui tankëjant fosforo koncentracija augaluose turëjo tendencijà maþëti. Vasariniø rapsø sëklose ir ðiauduose fosforo koncentracija irgi didëjo didëjant augalø skaièiui ploto vienete. Didëjant pasëlio tankumui didëjo ar turëjo tendencijà didëti ir kalio koncentracija augaluose vegetacijos metu bei sëklose. Tuo tarpu ðiauduose kalio koncentracija maþëjo pasëliui tankëjant. Gauti azoto, fosforo ir kalio koncentracijos augaluose kitimo dësningumai, priklausomai nuo augalø skaièiaus ploto vienete, buvo iðreikðti regresijos lygtimis, statistiðkai ávertinant tarpusavio ryðio stiprumà bei patikimumà. Daugianarë regresinë analizë parodë, kad vasariniø rapsø sëklø derlius bei þaliø baltymø ir riebalø iðeiga ið hektaro glaudþiai siejasi su azoto tràðø normomis, jø iðbërimo laiku, augalø skaièiumi ploto vienete bei su ðiø veiksniø tarpusavio sàveika.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: vasariniai rapsai, pasëlio tankumas, azoto, fosforo ir kalio koncentracija augaluose, sëklose ir ðiauduose.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 70, 176-187

UDK 633.853.494<321>:581.19

THE INFLUENCE OF STAND POPULATION DENSITY ON NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS AND POTASSIUM CONTENT IN SPRING OILSEED RAPE AT DIFFERENT GROWTH STAGES, SEED AND STRAW, SEED, PROTEIN AND FAT YIELD

G. Ðidlauskas

Summary

Field trials were conducted at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in Dotnuva on a light loamy soddy-gleyic soil in 1993-1997. Spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus) cv. ‘Star’ was seeded with the aim to investigate the influence of stand population density on variation of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in the plants at 4 -5 leaf stage, at the beginning and end of flowering, at the seed development stage as well as in mature seed and straw. The investigations showed that with the increase of stand population density the content of nitrogen at 4 -5 leaf stage, at the beginning of flowering and at the seed development stage increased. However, at the end of flowering as well as in mature seed the content of nitrogen decreased when the number of plants per area unit was increasing. The changes from 20 to 180 plants/m2 did not affect the nitrogen content in spring oilseed rape straw. The content of phosphorus in spring oilseed rape plants at different growth stages was increasing with the increase of stand population density with the exception of the end of flowering stage when the increase in plant number per area unit decreased the phosphorus content in the plants. The content of phosphorus in mature seed and straw also increased with the increase of stand population density. The content of potassium in spring oilseed rape plants at different growth stages as well as in mature seed increased or tended to increase when plant number per area unit increased. Meanwhile, potassium content in spring oilseed rape straw decreased when the stand tended to be thicker. The regularity between variation of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in the plants, seed and straw and the stand population density was expressed by the regression equations indicating the strength and reliability of interrelation. The multiple regression analysis revealed that spring oilseed rape seed, protein and fat yield was in close relationship with applied nitrogen fertilizer rate, application time, stand population density as well as interdependent on these factors.

Key words: spring oilseed rape, stand population density, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in plants, seed and straw.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 70, 188-201

UDK 633.2/.3:581.19:621.384

DAUGIAMEÈIØ ÞOLIØ ANALIZAVIMO SKIRTINGAIS ARTIMOSIOS SRITIES INFRARAUDONØJØ SPINDULIØ SPEKTROMETRAIS (NIRS) SUDERINIMAS

Audronë MAÐAUSKIENË, Bronislava BUTKUTË

Lietuvos ?emdirbyst?s institutas

Akademija, Dotnuvos sen., Këdainiø rajonas

Santrauka

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto ir Anglijos þemës ûkio konsultavimo tarnybos (ADAS) laboratorijose 1997-1998 m. atlikti bandymai, siekiant iðtirti ADAS laboratorijoje sukurtos kalibracinës lygties taikymo parametrus analizuoti Lietuvos agroklimatinëmis sàlygomis iðaugintø daugiameèiø þoliø bandinius. Lygtis skirta dþiovintai þolei analizuoti prietaisu NIRS, jai kurti panaudota Anglijos sàlygomis iðaugintø daugiameèiø þoliø bandiniø optiniø ir laboratoriniø duomenø bazë. Atsiþvelgiant á duomenø, gautø iðanalizavus þoliø bandinius dviem NIRS prietaisais, t.y. ADAS ir L?I laboratorijose, palyginimo statistinius rodiklius, pakoreguoti originalios lygties parametrai: BIAS, t.y. skirtumas tarp skirtingais NIRS prietaisais iðanalizuotø bandiniø kokybës rodikliø vidurkiø, ir Slope, regresijos koeficientas b lygtyje y = a+bx, iðreiðkianèioje duomenø, nustatytø dviem prietaisais, statistiná ryðá.

Koreliacijos tarp duomenø, gautø analizuojant originalia lygtimi ADAS ir L?I laboratorijose esanèiais prietaisais bei koreguot?ja lygtimi L?I laboratorijoje, yra geros: r2 ?aliems baltymams (CP) 0,99, modifikuotame rûgðèiø tirpale iðplautai làstelienai (MADF) 0,98, vandenyje tirpiems angliavandeniams (WSC) 0,98.

Palyginus Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute koreguota lygtimi prietaisu NIRS-6500 ir cheminiais metodais gautus duomenis, koreliacija (r2) buvo stipri: ?aliems baltymams (cheminis metodas – Kjeldalio) – 0,93-0,95, modifikuotame rûgðèiø tirpale iðplautai l?stelienai (cheminis metodas – MADF) – 0,85. Atitinkami koreliacijos koeficientai buvo didesni, kai koreliacinëje eilutëje vyravo varpiniø þoliø bandiniai.

Reik?miniai ?od?iai: NIRS, daugiametës þolës, kalibracinës lygties koregavimas, þali baltymai, modifikuotame rûgðèiø tirpale iðplauta làsteliena, vandenyje tirpûs angliavandeniai.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 70, 188-201

UDK 633.2/.3:581.19:621.384

COMPATIBILITY OF PERENNIAL GRASSES CHEMICAL COMPOSITION ANALYSES MADE BY DIFFERENT NEAR INFRARED SPECTROMETERS (NIRS)

Maðauskienë, B. Butkutë

Summary

Experiments were carried out in 1997-1998 at the laboratories of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture (LIA) and the British Agricultural Development and Advisory Service (ADAS) to study the application parametres of the equation developed at the ADAS laboratory for the analysis of dried grass by NIRS. We checked its suitability for the analyses of perennial grass samples grown under Lithuania’s agroclimatic conditions. The BIAS and Slope of the original equation was adjusted on the basis of the data obtained from the analysis of grass samples by NIRS at ADAS and LIA laboratories.

Correlations between the data obtained by the original equation at ADAS and LIA laboratories and those by the corrected equation at LIA laboratory are high: r2 for crude proteins (CP) 0.99, modified acid detergent fibre (MADF) 0.98, water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) 0.98.

Comparing the data obtained by NIRS-6500 by the corrected in LIA equation and chemical methods the correlation (r2) is found high: for crude proteins (chemical method – Kjeldahl) – 0.93-0.95, for modified detergent acid fibre (chemical method – MADF) – 0.85. The correlation became closer when samples of gramineous grasses prevailed on the correlation line.

Key words: NIRS, perennial grasses, correction of the equation of calibration, crude proteins, modified detergent acid fibre, water soluble carbohydrates.

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IV skyrius. MIKROBIOLOGIJA

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 70, 202-215

UDK 633.352:631.847.211

GUMBELINIØ BAKTERIJØ NAUJØ KAMIENØ EFEKTYVUMO ÁVERTINIMAS VASARINIAMS VIKIAMS

Dalia AMBRAZAITIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filialas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

Santrauka

Lauko bandymuose ir laboratoriniams tyrimams buvo sëjami vasariniai vikiai (Vicia sativa L.) ‘Tverai’. Vikiø inokuliavimui buvo panaudoti vikiø gumbeliniø bakterijø Rhizo-bium leguminosarum bv. viciae 9 kamienai.

Gumbeliniø bakterijø fermento nitrogenazës aktyvumo analizë buvo atliekama acetileniniu metodu dujiniu chromatografu. Lauko bandymai daryti 1992-1995 m., o laboratoriniai – 1996-1997 m. Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filiale.

Nustatyta, kad vasariniø vikiø inokuliavimo gumbelinëmis bakterijomis efektyvumas priklauso nuo meteorologiniø sàlygø ir dirvoþemyje esanèiø maisto medþiagø. Vidutiniais ketveriø metø duomenimis, dël inokuliavimo vikiø sausøjø medþiagø derlius lauko bandymuose padidëjo 7-14 %.

Atlikta koreliacinë regresinë analizë rodo, kad þaliems proteinams kauptis didþiausià átakà turi P2O5 kiekis dirvoþemyje. Koreliacijos koeficientai rodo vidutiná ar tamprø ryðá visø variantø laukeliuose (r = 0,69-0,88).

Panaðaus laipsnio neigiama koreliacijos priklausomybë nustatyta ir tarp þaliø proteinø bei K2O kiekio dirvoþemyje. Tarp þaliø proteinø ir pH rodikliø koreliacijos ryðio nebuvo. Organinës medþiagos procentà dirvoþemyje su þaliø proteinø susikaupimu sieja patikimas vidutinis koreliacinis ryðys tik kai kuriuose variantuose.

Nustatyta, kad didþiausiu efektyvumu pasiþymëjo vikiø gumbeliniø bakterijø kamienai 60-92 ir 62-92. Laboratoriniai gumbeliniø bakterijø fermento nitrogenazës aktyvumo tyrimai nerodë juos esant aktyviausiais. Acetileniniu metodu nustatytas ávairiø kamienø aktyvumas yra momentinis ir negali atspindëti efektyvumo visu vegetacijos periodu. Todël manoma, kad, norint ávertinti inokuliavimo gumbelinëmis bakterijomis efektyvumà, bûtina atsiþvelgti á kuo daugiau rodikliø, átakojanèiø simbiozæ.

Reik?miniai ?od?iai: vikiai, nitrogenazës aktyvumas, gumbelinës bakterijos, inokuliavimas, efektyvumas.

Chapter 4. MICROBIOLOGY

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 70, 202-215

UDK 633.352:631.847.211

ESTIMATION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF INOCULATION WITH NEW RHIZOBIUM STRAINS FOR SPRING VETCH

D. Ambrazaitienë

Summary

Inoculation efficiency of the spring vetch (Vicia sativa L.) cultivar ‘Tverai’ with nine strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae was investigated in the experiments established on a soddy podzolic loamy soil over the period 1992-1995. It was established that meteorological conditions and particularly moisture had the greatest effect on spring vetch inoculation with Rhizobium. A direct correlation was established between the yield of crude protein accumulated in vetch and available P2O5 content in the soil (r = 0.69-0.88). The relationship between the protein yield and available K2O content in the soil can be expressed by a negative correlation (r=-0.58-(-0.79). The activity of Rhizobium enzyme nitrogenase was investigated in 1996-1997. It was established, that the activity nitrogenase of inoculated vetch plants was by 28-32 % higher than in the noninoculated plants. It is nessesary to take into account all indicators that influence the efficiency of inoculation with Rhizobium. The highest inoculation efficiency was achieved by using strains 60-92 and 62-92.

Key words: vetch, nitrogenase activity, Rhizobium, inoculation, efficiency.

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 70, 216-226

UDK 631.847.211:633.37

RYTINIØ OÞIARÛÈIØ GUMBELINIØ BAKTERIJØ (RHIZOBIUM GALEGAE) ÁVAIRIØ ÐTAMØ EFEKTYVUMAS

Edmundas Lapinskas

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filialas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

Santrauka

1995-1997 m. Vëþaièiø filiale tirta rytiniø oþiarûèiø (Galega orientalis Lam.) gumbeliniø bakterijø (Rhizobium galegae) ávairiø ðtamø paplitimas, efektyvumas ir fiziologinës savybës. Lietuvos dirvoþemiuose Rhizobium galegae spontaninës bakterijos paplitusios maþai ir labai netolygiai. Nustatyti dësningumai tarp dirvoþemio savybiø ir ðiø bakterijø paplitimo.

Inokuliuojant oþiarûèius vietiniais ir atveþtiniais gumbeliniø bakterijø ðtamais ið Rusijos ir Estijos mokslo ástaigø, nustatytas visø ðtamø didelis efektyvumas: augalø sausøjø medþiagø derliaus priedas sudarë nuo 1,06 iki 1,50 t/ha. Kai kurie ðtamai þaliø baltymø padidino 1,03-1,14 proc. vieneto, o jø iðeigà – 177-283 kg/ha.

Skirtingai nuo tyrimo rezultatø, inokuliuojant paðarines pupas, raudonuosius dobilus ir liucernas, gauti bandymø rezultatai nepatvirtino Rhizobium galegae ðtamø ekologinës adaptacijos reikðmës jø simbiotiniam efektyvumui.

Azoto tr??os nebuvo veiksmingos nei auginant neinokuliuotus, nei inokuliuotus o?iar?èius.

Reik?miniai ?od?iai: Rhizobium galegae, ðtamai, paplitimas, efektyvumas, ekologinë adaptacija.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 70, 216-226

UDK 631.847.211:633.37

EFFICIENCY OF RHIZOBIUM GALEGAE DIFFERENT STRAINS

E. Lapinskas

Summary

Laboratory, pot and field experiments were carried out at the Vëþaièiai Branch over the period 1995-1997. We investigated the efficiency and physiological properties of different strains of Rhizobium galegae. The occurence of these bacteria is very poor and uneven in the soils of Lithuania.

Regularities between soil properties and Rhizobium galegae occurrence were determined.

Inoculation of the goat¢ s-rue (Galega orientalis), cv. ‘Gale’ with local and imported R. galegae strains showed a high efficiency. Dry matter yield increase made up from 1.06 to 1.50 t/ha. Some strains increased the content of crude protein in the plant yield by on average 1.03-1.14 % or 177-283 kg/ha.

Our findings did not confirm the significance of R. galegae strains ecological adaptation for their symbiotic efficiency. Nitrogen fertilization (N90) did not produce any positive effect on both not inoculated and inoculated goat’s rue.

Key words: Rhizobium galegae, strains, occurence, efficiency, ecological adaptation.

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V skyrius. AUGALØ SELEKCIJA

ISSN 139293196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 70, 227-234

UDK 575.143.6

IN VITRO METODAS DAUGIAMEÈIØ SVIDRIØ POLIPLOIDAMS GAUTI

Izolda PAÐAKINSKIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuvos sen., Këdainiø rajonas

Santrauka

Iðtirti ávairûs veiksniai átakojantys daugiameèiø svidriø poliploidø gavimà in vitro, veikiant sudygusias sëklas arba sudygusius izoliuotus gemalus 0,3 % kolchicinu 4 valandas, tai: daigø ilgis, sacharozës koncentracija daiginimo terpëje, aplinkos slëgis veikimo metu ir daigø auginimo temperatûra po paveikimo. Nustatyta, kad visi iðtirti veiksniai turëjo átakos poliploidø iðeigai. Iðtyrus sukurtas naujas daugiameèiø svidriø poliploidø gavimo metodas, kurio esmë tokia: 1) veikiami sudygæ izoliuoti gemalai, kai daigø ilgis siekia 3-8 mm; 2) sacharozës koncentracija daiginimo terpëje padidinama iki 100 g/l; 3) veikimo metu taikomas vakuumas iki 0,14 kg/cm2; 4) po paveikimo daigai iki 2-jø savaièiø auginami 10oC, vëliau – 24°C temperatûroje. Poliploidø iðeiga siekia iki 65,8 % nuo paveiktø gemalø skaièiaus, tokiu bûdu apraðytas metodas yra daugiau nei ðeðis kartus efektyvesnis negu tradicinis sudygusiø sëklø kolchicinavimas. Ðá metodà galima naudoti svidriø ir eraièinø hibridiniams gemalams, kai, norint atstatyti fertilumà, bûtina padvigubinti chromosomø skaièiø.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: daugiametës svidrës, poliploidija, kolchicinas, gemalø kultûra, sacharozë, temperatûra.

Chapter 5. PLANT BREEDING

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 70, 227-234

UDK 575.143.6

IN VITRO METHOD FOR POLYPLOID PRODUCTION OF PERENNIAL RYEGRASS

I. Paðakinskienë

Summary

Seedlings of perennial ryegrass germinated directly from the seeds, or isolated embryos were treated with 0.3 % colchicine solution for 4-h period in vitro, and efficiency of polyploid production was estimated for the following factors: the length of seedlings, sucrose concentration in the germination medium, application of vacuum during the treatment, and growth temperature after the treatment. All the tested factors affected polypoid production. A new efficient method for polyploid production in perennial ryegrass was developed which includes the following procedure: 1) isolated embryos germinated to the length of 3-8 mm are used for the treatment; 2) high concentration of sucrose (100 g/L) is used in the germination medium; 3) vacuum (0.14 kg/cm2) is applied to infiltrate colchicine solution; 4) growth temperature is maintained at 100C after treatment for two weeks, and 240C later. Polyploid production rate is recorded up to 65.8 % of treated embryos, therefore the described method represents a six-fold increase in comparison to the traditional treatment of germinated seeds. This method could be applicable to the hybrid embryos where restoration of fertility through the chromosome doubling is required in the crosses between ryegrass and fescue.

Key words: perennial ryegrass, polyploidy, colchicine, embryos culture, sucrose, temperature.

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ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 70, 235-244

UDK 633.521: 631.523

PLUOÐTINIØ LINØ VEISLË ‘KASTYÈIAI’

K?stutis BAÈELIS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Upytës bandymø stotis

Upytë, Panevëþio rajonas

Santrauka

Nauja pluoðtiniø linø veislë ‘Kastyèiai’ sukurta Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Upytës bandymø stotyje tarpveislinës hibridizacijos ir individualios atrankos metodais, sukryþminus baltarusiðkà veislæ ‘Orðanskij 72’ su Pskovo bandymø stoties veisle ‘Beriozka’.

Konkursiniuose veisliø bandymuose pluoðtiniø linø veislë ‘Kastyèiai’ tirta 1992-1997 m. Vidutiniais ðeðeriø metø bandymø duomenimis, veislës ‘Kastyèiai’ linø, palyginus su standartinëmis veislëmis ‘Orðanskij 2’, ‘Belinka’ ir ‘Baltuèiai’, gautas atitinkamai 0,32; 0,16 ir 0,17 t/ha, arba 40,5; 16,8 ir 18,1 % patikimai didesnis ilgojo pluoðto derlius. Naujos veislës pluoðto iðeiga yra 4,4 – 2,2 procentinio vieneto didesnë nei standartiniø ‘Orðanskij 2’ ir ‘Belinka’ ir prilygo veislës ‘Baltuèiai’ linams. Pluoðto kokybë gera – lankstus, stiprus. Veislë mëlynþiedë, vidutinio vëlyvumo, atspari iðgulimui, maþiau paþeidþiama grybiniø ligø – antraknozës, fuzariozës. Nuo 2000 m. pluoðtiniø linø veislë ‘Kastyèiai’ registruota Lietuvoje.

Reik?miniai ?od?iai: pluo?tiniai linai, selekcija, metodai, veisl?.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 70, 235-244

UDK 633.521:631.523

NEW FIBRE FLAX VARIETY ‘KASTYÈIAI’

K. Baèelis

Summary

The new fibre flax variety ‘Kastyèiai’ (breeding line No 1826-5) has been breed in the Upyte Research Station of Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture. The variety was bred using the method of intervarietal crossing. In 1974 the variety ‘Or?anskij 72’ (Belarus origin) was crossed with the flax variety ‘Beriozka’ developed in the Pskov Research Station (Russia). In 1979 basic plants were selected. ‘Kastyèiai’ was tested in the competitive variety trials during the period of 1992-1997.

Average data of the 6 year’s competitive trials showed that the new variety ‘Kastyèiai’ had a significantly higher long fibre yield compared to the yield of the standard varieties ‘Or?anskij 2’, ‘Belinka’ and ‘Baltuèiai’. The fibre yield of ‘Kastyèiai’ was higher by 0.32; 0.16 and 0.17 t/ha or 40.5; 16.8 and 18.1 %, respectively. The fibre output was 4.4-2.2 per cent higher than that of the standard varieties ‘Or?anskij 2’ and ‘Belinka’ and equal to the fibre output of ‘Baltuèiai’. The quality of ‘Kastyèiai’ long fibre is high, it is flexible and firm. Plants are resistant to lodging, less injured by fungal diseases Colletotrichum lini M. et B. and Fusarium spp. ‘Kastyèiai’, belong to the group of medium late early flax varieties. Flax of this variety flowers blue, seeds are brown, 1000 seed weight is 5.32 g.

In 2000 it was registered in Lithuania.

Key words: fibre flax, variety, methods, breeding.

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·Raðykite mums: lzi@lzi.lt