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TURINYS

I skyrius. AGROCHEMIJA

J. Maþvila, J. Arbaèiauskas, J. Kaunas, B. Petkevièienë. Natrio tràðø átaka cukriniø runkeliø derliui ir jo kokybei

R. Skuodienë, E. Butkuvienë, N. Daugëlienë. Medþiø pelenø efektyvumas vasariniø mieþiø ir valgomøjø bulviø derliui bei jo kokybei

E. Lapinskas, D. Ambrazaitienë. Gumbeliniø bakterijø (Rhizobium galegae L.) padermiø ir fosforo bei kalio tràðø derinimo reikðmë rytiniø oþiarûèiø simbiozei

II skyrius. AUGALININKYSTË

O. Auðkalnienë. Augalø augimo reguliatoriaus modus miðiniø átaka þieminiø kvieèiø derliui ir jo struktûros elementams

III skyrius. AUGALØ PATOLOGIJA IR APSAUGA

Þ. Liatukas, A. Leistrumaitë. Nauja vasariniø mieþiø dëmëtligë ramularija (sukëlëjas Ramularia collo-cygni Sutton et Waller) Lietuvoje

IV skyrius. ÞOLININKYSTË

V. Þemaitis. Paðariniø motiejukø auginimas sëklai grynø ir miðinyje su raudonaisiais ankstyvaisiais dobilais

V skyrius. AUGALØ SELEKCIJA IR GENETIKA

V. Paplauskienë, G. Dabkevièienë. Dobilø rûðiø ir tarprûðiniø hibridø charakterizavimas pagal fermentø ir sëklø baltymø elektroforetines analizes

VI skyrius. VËÞAIÈIØ FILIALUI - 70

S. Bernotas, E. Lapinskas. Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filialo mokslinës raidos analizë

CONTENTS

Chapter 1. AGROCHEMISTRY

J. Maþvila, J. Arbaèiauskas, J. Kaunas, B. Petkevièienë. Effect on sugar beet yield and quality

R. Skuodienë, E. Butkuvienë, N. Daugëlienë. The effect of wood ash on spring barley and potato yield and quality

E. Lapinskas, D. Ambrazaitienë. The importance of Rhizobium galegae strains in combination with phosphorus and potassium fertilizers on goat’s rue symbiosis

Chapter 2. CROP PRODUCTION

O. Auðkalnienë. The influence of Modus mixtures with other plant growth regulators on the grain yield and productivity of winter wheat

Chapter 3. PLANT PATHOLOGY AND PROTECTION

Þ. Liatukas, A. Leistrumaitë. Ramularia (Ramularia collo-cygni Sutton et Waller) – a new leaf spot disease of spring barley in Lithuania

Chapter 4. GRASSLAND HUSBANDRY

V. Þemaitis. Cultivation of timothy for seed in pure stands and mixed with early red clover

Chapter 5. PLANT BREEDING AND GENETICS

V. Paplauskienë, G. Dabkevièienë. Characterization of clover species and their interspecific hybrids by isozymes and seed protein electrophoretical analysis

Chapter 6. VËÞAIÈIAI BRANCH IS 70 YEARS OLD

S. Bernotas, E. Lapinskas. Analysis of research development at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s Vëþaièiai Branch


I skyrius. AGROCHEMIJA

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2005, 2, 90, 3-12

UDK  633.63:631.842.3

NATRIO TRÀÐØ ÁTAKA CUKRINIØ RUNKELIØ DERLIUI IR JO KOKYBEI

Jonas Maþvila1, Jonas Arbaèiauskas1, Juozas Kaunas2, Birutë Petkevièienë2

1 Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Savanoriø pr. 287, Kaunas

El. p. bandymai@agrolab.lt

2 Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Rumokai, Vilkaviðkio rajonas

El. p. rumokai@post.omnitel.net

Santrauka

Natrio tràðø átaka cukriniø runkeliø derliui, jo kokybei bei natrio balansui tirta 1999, 2000 ir 2002 m. Dirvoþemis – paprastasis, sekliai glëjiðkas iðplautþemis – (IDg8-p), dulkiðkas priemolis ant dulkiðko priemolio, su giliau esanèiu moliu. Dirvoþemio ariamajame sluoksnyje natrio (Na2O) nustatyta nuo 32-56 mg kg-1, pHKCl – 5,7-6,5; judriojo K2O – 115-136, o fosforo (P2O5) – 96-256 mg kg-1.

Atliktø tyrimø duomenimis, dël natrá runkeliø mityboje ið dalies galinèio pakeisti pakankamo kalio kiekio, nuo natrio tràðø cukriniø runkeliø ðakniavaisiø derliaus ir biologinio cukraus iðeiga nepadidëjo. Taèiau azoto ir fosforo tràðø fone patræðus natriu 120 kg ha-1, cukraus kristalizacijai trukdanèiø medþiagø kiekis cukriniø runkeliø ðaknia­vaisiuose sumaþëjo 0,25; melasos iðeiga – 1,8; cukraus kiekis melasoje – 0,91 procentinio vieneto; o MB faktoriaus reikðmë sumaþëjo nuo 107,4 iki 84,4 vieneto.

Cukrinius runkelius patræðus natrio tràðomis NPK tràðø fone, cukraus kristalizacijai trukdanèiø medþiagø kiekis sumaþëjo 0,14, melasos iðeiga – 1,3, cukraus kiekis melasoje – 0,68 procentinio vieneto, balto cukraus iðeiga padidëjo iki 0,7, o MB faktoriaus reikðmë dël natrio tràðø sumaþëjo nuo 91,2 iki 77,5 vieneto.

Natrio balansas dirvoþemyje pasiekiamas, kai su tràðomis natrio ásiterpia apie 60 kg ha-1. Jeigu cukriniø runkeliø lapai paliekami lauke, su ðakniavaisiø derliumi ið lauko netenkama tik apie 10 kg ha-1 natrio.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: cukriniai runkeliai, natrio tràðos, dirvoþemis.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific Articles, 2005, 2, 90, 3-12

UDK  633.63:631.842.3

EFFECT ON SUGAR BEET YIELD AND QUALITY

J. Maþvila, J. Arbaèiauskas, J. Kaunas, B. Petkevièienë

Summary

Effects of sodium fertilizers on sugar beet yield, its quality and sodium balance were studied in 1999, 2000, and 2002. The soil of the experimental site is characterised as Hapli-Epihypogleyic Luvisol, LVg-p-w-ha, silty loam on silty loam with deeper lying clay. The soil ploughlayer contained from 32 to 56 mg kg-1 of Na2O, pHKCl 5.7-6.5; mobile K2O 115-136, and phosphorus P2O5 96-256 mg kg-1.

The experimental data obtained suggest that due to the sufficient content of soil potassium, which can partly replace sodium in sugar beet nutrition, sodium fertilizer did not increase either sugar beet root yield or biological sugar output. However, having applied  120 kg ha-1 of sodium on the background of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, the content of substances, inhibiting sugar crystallisation, in sugar beet roots declined by 0.25; molasses output by 1.8; sugar content in molasses by 0.91 percentage units; and the value of the MB factor declined from 107.4 to 84.4 units.

Having fertilized sugar beet with sodium fertilizer on the background of NPK fertilizers, the content of substances impeding crystallisation declined by 0.14; molasses output by 1.3; sugar content in molasses by 0.68 percentage unit, while the content of white sugar increased up to 0.7; and the value of the MB factor declined from 91.2 to 77.5 units as a result of sodium fertilization.

Sodium balance in the soil is reached when about 60 kg ha-1 of sodium is applied with fertilizers. If sugar beet tops are left in the field, only 10 kg ha-1 of sodium is removed from the field with root yield.

Key words: sugar beet, sodium fertilizers, soil.  


ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2005, 2, 90, 13-26

UDK  631.831:[633.16<321>+633.491]:631.599

MEDÞIØ PELENØ EFEKTYVUMAS VASARINIØ MIEÞIØ IR VALGOMØJØ BULVIØ DERLIUI BEI JO KOKYBEI

Regina SKUODIENË, Elvyra BUTKUVIENË, Nijolë DAUGËLIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filialas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

El. p. rskuod@vezaiciai.lzi.lt

Santrauka

Siekiant iðtirti medþiø pelenø panaudojimo efektyvumà lauko augalams, 2003- 2004 metais LÞI Vëþaièiø filiale atlikti tyrimai vidutinio sunkumo priemolio balkðvaþemyje (JI) Albeluvisols (AB), kurio pHKCl 4,3-5,2.

Tyrimais nustatyta, kad medþiø pelenai didino augalø derliø, gerino jø kokybæ, todël tinkami pagrindiniam vasariniø mieþiø ir valgomøjø bulviø træðimui. Medþiø pelenø normos priklauso nuo jø kokybës, dirvoþemio agrocheminiø savybiø bei auginamø augalø.

Medþiø pelenø normos didinimas nuo 2 iki 6 t ha didino vasariniø mieþiø grûdø ir valgomøjø bulviø gumbø derliø. Mieþiams veiksmingiausia buvo 2 t ha-1 pelenø norma, o bulvëms – 4 t ha-1 medþio pelenø. Viena tona pelenø papildomai duoda 0,18 t ha-1 mieþiø grûdø ir 0,72 t ha-1 bulviø gumbø. Træðiant medþiø pelenais buvo daroma esminë átaka mieþiø augalø aukðèiui ir varpø grûdø masei. Áterpus 2 t ha-1 medþiø pelenø, nustatyta vasariniø mieþiø produktyviø stiebø skaièiaus ir baltymø grûduose didëjimo tendencija. Træðtuose pelenais laukeliuose stambiø (> 80 g) bulviø gumbø uþaugo daugiau nei netræðtuose.

Træðiant medþiø pelenais maþëjo dirvoþemio rûgðtumas. Skirtingos medþiø pelenø normos didino kalcio ir magnio bei judriøjø P2O5 ir K2O kieká dirvoþemyje.

 Reikðminiai þodþiai: medþiø pelenai, træðimas, dirvoþemis, vasariniai mieþiai, valgomosios bulvës.

  

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific Articles, 2005, 2, 90, 13-26

UDK  631.831:[633.16<321>+633.491]:631.599

THE EFFECT OF WOOD ASH ON SPRING BARLEY AND POTATO YIELD AND QUALITY

R. Skuodienë, E. Butkuvienë, N. Daugëlienë

Summary

Four field trials were carried out at the Vëþaièiai Branch of LIA during 2003-2004 to investigate the use of wood ash for liming and plant fertilization. The soil of the experimental site is loamy Albeluvisol (AB), with a pHKCl value of 4.3-5.2.

Experimental evidence suggests that wood ash increased spring barley and potato yield and improved the quality. Therefore, wood ash is suitable for the main fertilizing of these crops. The rates of wood ash depended on its quality, soil agrochemical properties and crops grown.

With increasing wood ash rate from 2 to 6 t ha-1 spring barley grain and potato tuber yield increased. The most effective rates for barley and potato were 2 and 4 t ha-1, respectively. One tone of wood ash gave barley grain and potato tuber extra yield of 0.18 and 0.72 t ha-1, respectively. Fertilizing with wood ash significantly influenced the height of barley plants and grain weight. An increase in the number of spring barley productive stems and protein was determined when 2 t ha-1 of wood ash had been incorporated. Larger (> 80 g) potato tubers were found in fertilized fields compared with unfertilized ones. Spring barley grain and potato tuber quality indicators met the standard.

Fertilizing with wood ash increased soil pHKCl. Different wood ash rates increased the contents of calcium, magnesium, mobile P2O5 and K2O in the soil regardless of the crops grown.

Key words: wood ash, fertilizing, soil, spring barley, potato 


ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2005, 2, 90, 27-47

UDK  576.851.155+631.82

Gumbeliniø bakterijø (RHIZOBIUM GALEGAE L.) PADERMIØ IR FOSFORO BEI KALIO TRÀÐØ DERINIMO REIKÐMË RYTINIØ OÞIARÛÈIØ SIMBIOZEI

Edmundas LAPINSKAS, Dalia AMBRAZAITIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filialas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

El. p. filialas@vezaiciai.lzi.lt

Santrauka

Apibendrinti Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filiale darytø vegetaciniø, laboratoriniø (1999-2003 m.) ir lauko (2002-2004 m.) bandymø duomenys. Vegetaciniø bandymø dirvoþemis – nepasotintasis giliau glëjiðkas balkðvaþemis, lauko bandymø – pajau­rëjæs giliau glëjiðkas iðplautþemis. Dirvoþemio rûgðtumas pHKCl 4,0-6,5, judriøjø P2O5 ir K2O atitinkamai – 86-231 ir 114-274 mg kg-1, organinës C – 0,79-1,28 %. Tirtos Rhizobium galegae trys efektyvios, bet skirtingos ekologinës adaptacijos padermës keturiuose PK træðimo lygiuose.

Rytiniai oþiarûèiai veiksmingiausiai azotà ið oro fiksavo juos inokuliavus ekolo­giðkai adaptuota gumbeliniø bakterijø paderme G 4 bei suderinus vidutinæ P60K60 tràðø normà; gautas didþiausias augalø sausøjø medþiagø derliaus priedas – 3,17 t ha-1. Inoku­liuoti augalai simbiotinio azoto fiksavo nuo 88,3 iki 213,3 kg ha-1, arba uþ 1 kg PK tràðø azoto fiksuota 5,08 kg, o þaliø baltymø sukaupta 944 kg ha-1. Neinokuliuoti augalai net patræðti didþiausia P120K120 tràðø norma azoto fiksacijos efektyvumu atsiliko 2,48 karto nuo inokuliuotø P60K60 tràðø fone.

Nustatyti dësningumai tarp Rhizobium padermiø efektyvumo parametrø ir PK tràðø normø bei ekologiniø veiksniø.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: Rhizobium galegae, padermës, efektyvumas, PK tràðos, nor­mos, azoto fiksacija, nitrogenazë, Galega orientalis.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific Articles, 2005, 2, 90, 27-47

UDK  576.851.155+631.82

THE IMPORTANCE OF RHIZOBIUM GALEGAE STRAINS IN COMBINATION WITH PHOSPHORUS AND POTASSIUM FERTILIZERS ON GOAT’S RUE SYMBIOSIS

E. Lapinskas, D. Ambrazaitienë

Summary

The present paper reports summarised results of pot, laboratory (1999-2003) and field (2002-2004) experiments conducted at the Veþaièiai Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture. The soil of the pot experiments was Dystri-Endohypogleyic Albeluvisol (Abg-n-w-dy) and of field experiments Albi Endohypogleyic Luvisol (LVg-n-w-ab). The soil agrochemical characteristics were as follows: soil acidity pHKCl 4.0-6.5, mobile P2O5 and K2O 86-231 and 114-274 mg kg-1, respectively, organic C 0.79-1.28 %. Three effective strains of Rhizobium galegae differing in ecological adaptation were investigated in four PK fertilization levels.

Goat’s rue was most effective to fix atmospherical nitrogen when it was inoculated by ecologically adapted Rhizobium galegae strain G 4 in combination with P60K60 fertilizer rate; the highest dry matter yield increase of 3.17 t ha-1 was obtained. The inoculated plants fixed from 88.3 to 213 kg ha-1 of symbiotic nitrogen or 5.08 kg of nitrogen was fixed per 1 kg PK fertilizer applied, and the plants accumulated 944 kg ha-1 of crude protein. Uninoculated plants even when fertilized with the highest P120K120 fertilizer rate lagged behind in terms of nitrogen fixation efficiency by 2.48 times compared with inoculated plants on P60K60 fertilizer background.

Relationships were identified between the efficacy parameters of Rhizobium strains and PK fertilizer rates and ecological factors.

Key words: Rhizobium galegae, strains, efficacy, PK fertilizers, rates, nitrogen fixation, nitrogenase, Galega orientalis.


II skyrius. AUGALININKYSTË

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2005, 2, 90, 48-60

UDK  631.811.98:633.11<324>:57.087.1

AUGALØ AUGIMO REGULIATORIAUS MODUS MIÐINIØ ÁTAKA ÞIEMINIØ KVIEÈIØ DERLIUI IR JO STRUKTÛROS ELEMENTAMS

Ona AUÐKALNIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p. ona@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Straipsnyje aptariama augalø auginimo reguliatoriaus trineksapak - etilo (modus) miðiniø ir deriniø su kitais augalø augimo reguliatoriais átaka þieminiø kvieèiø derliui. Siekiant iðtirti ðio augimo reguliatoriaus miðiniø ir deriniø su kitais augalø augimo reguliatoriais efektyvumà, lauko bandymai daryti 2002-2003 metais Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Dirvoþemio ir augalininkystës skyriaus sëjomainø laukuose. Dirvoþemis – giliau karbonatingas sekliau glëjiðkas rudþemis, lengvas priemolis, drenuotas, neutralaus rûgðtu­mo. Þieminiams kvieèiams ‘Ðirvinta’ naudoti giberalinø sintezës inhibitoriai chlormek­vatchloridas (CCC) ir trineksapak - etilas (modus) bei etileno sintezæ skatinantis etefono ir mepikvatchlorido miðinys (terpalas C). Augimo reguliatoriai naudoti 3 kartus pagal numa­tytà schemà ðiais þieminiø kvieèiø augimo tarpsniais: BBCH 29-30 (bamblëjimo pradþia), BBCH 32-33 (bamblëjimas) ir BBCH 37-39 (paskutinio lapo pasirodymas).

Purkðtø þieminiø kvieèiø derlius tyrimø metais turëjo tendencijà didëti. Esminis derliaus priedas gautas tuose laukeliuose, kurie pirmà kartà buvo purkðti CCC l,0 l ha-1, antrà – modus 0,4 l ha-1 ir ten, kur pirmam purðkimui naudotas CCC, o antram – CCC miðinys su modus (0,4 + 0,2 l ha-1).

Tirtieji preparatai turëjo átakos ir biometriniams þieminiø kvieèiø rodikliams: varpø ilgiui, grûdø skaièiui varpose, 1000-èio grûdø masei. Ilgiausios kvieèiø varpos uþaugo laukeliuose, kur pirmà kartà purkðta CCC 1,0 l ha-1 , o antram purðkimui naudotas modus 0,4 l ha-1. Augalø augimo reguliatoriais purkðtuose laukeliuose didesnë buvo 1000 grûdø masë.

Ávertinus biometrinius rodiklius, nustatyta, kad ilgesnëse kvieèiø varpose grûdai buvo sunkesni ir jø buvo daugiau – koreliacijos koeficientai r = 0,811 ir r = 0,769.

Visuose augimo reguliatoriais purkðtuose laukeliuose augusiø augalø lapuose chlorofilo buvo daugiau, negu augalø, augusiø nepurkðtuose laukeliuose. Daugiausia chlo­rofilo buvo lapuose tø augalø, kurie pirmà kartà purkðti CCC 1 l ha-1, o antrà – modus 0,4 l ha-1 ir pirmà kartà nupurðkus CCC, o antrà kartà CCC ir modus miðiniu (0,4 +0,2 l ha-1).

Reikðminiai þodþiai: augalø augimo reguliatoriai, Triticum sativum L., grûdø derlius, varpos ilgis, grûdø skaièius varpoje, 1000-èio grûdø masë.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific Articles, 2005, 2, 90, 48-60

UDK  631.811.98:633.11<324>:57.087.1

THE INFLUENCE OF MODUS MIXTURES WITH OTHER PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON THE GRAIN YIELD AND PRODUCTIVITY OF WINTER WHEAT

O. Auðkalnienë

Summary

Plant growth regulators (PGR) are used in an intensive farming system to control lodging in cereals. To estimate the efficacy of plant growth regulators field trials were conducted at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s Department of Soil and Plant Management during 2002-2003. The soil of the experimental site is drained sod gleyic, light loam. The winter wheat cv. ‘Ðirvinta’ stands were sprayed with the gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitors CCC (chlormequat chloride CCC), Modus (trinexapac - ethyl) or with ethylene releasing Terpal C three times – at BBCH 29-30; BBCH 32-33 and BBCH 37-39 (Terpal C).

Plant growth regulators had some effect on the grain yield of winter wheat. In all treated plots a grain yield increase tendency was recorded in all experimental years. Significant increase was obtained in the plots treated twice: for the first time with CCC 1 l ha-1 at BBCH 29-30 and for the second time with modus 0.4 l ha-1 at BBCH 32-33. Similar results were obtained in the winter wheat plots applied with CCC 1 l ha-1 for the first treatment and for the second treatment with CCC and Modus (0.4 + 0.2 l ha-1).

Plant growth regulators had some impact on the other parameters of winter wheat: length of ears, grain number per ear, 1000 grain weight. The longest ears of winter wheat were produced in the plots treated for the first time with CCC 1lha-1 and for the second time with modus 0.4 l ha-1.

The longest ears of winter wheat were found to have more grain and a higher grain weight. Coefficients of correlation were 0.811 and 0.769.

In all treated plots chlorophyll content in the leaves of winter wheat plants was greater than in untreated. The greatest content of chlorophyll was identified in the plants treated for the first time with CCC 1 l ha-1 and for the second time with modus 0.4 l ha-1.

Key words: PGR, winter wheat, grain yield, length of ear, grain number per ear, 1000 grain weight.


III skyrius. AUGALØ PATOLOGIJA IR APSAUGA

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2005, 2, 90, 61-74

UDK  632.488:633.16<321>(474.5)

NAUJA VASARINIØ MIEÞIØ DËMËTLIGË ramularija (SUKËLËJAS RAMULARIA COLLO-CYGNI SUTTON ET WALLER) LIETUVOJE

Þilvinas LIATUKAS, Algë LEISTRUMAITË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p. liatukas@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Nauja vasariniø mieþiø dëmëtligë – ramularija (sukëlëjas Ramularia collo-cygni, Sutton, Waller) nustatyta Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute 2004 m. Ramularija atpaþinta iðryðkëjus bûdingiems jai poþymiams. Pagal atsparumà naujai ligai tirtos 33 registruotos Lietuvoje vasariniø mieþiø veislës tarpusavyje labai skyrësi. Ávairiø veisliø mieþiø pieninës brandos (BBCH 73-77) paþeidimas ramularija svyravo nuo 0 iki 20 proc. Daugiau nei pusë tirtø veisliø mieþiø buvo paþeista iki 5 proc. Tik 4 veislës buvo paþeistos iki 20 proc. Tinkamai ávertintos pagal atsparumà ramularijai galëjo bûti tik tos veislës, kurios buvo atsparios miltligei ir dëmëtligëms. Pagal vertintø veisliø atsparumo ramularijai ávairovæ, yra galimybë pasirinkti atsparias veisles, kurios taip pat buvo labai maþai paþeistos ir kitomis ligomis. Tai veislës ‘Jersey’,‘Philadelphia’,‘Wikingett’. Ramularijos átaka mieþiø derliui ne­nustatyta. Stipriausias neigiamas koreliacinis ryðys nustatytas tarp veisliø paþeidimo miltlige intensyvumo ir derliaus. Tiesiogiai tarp ramularijos ir kitø ligø intensyvumo koreliaciniai ryðiai nenustatyti. Tik lyginant ramularijos intensyvumo procentinæ dalá nuo viso paþeisto lapø ploto su kitø ligø intensyvumu, nustatytas vidutinis neigiamas ryðys tarp ramularijos procentinës dalies bei miltligës (r = -0,59**) ir fiziologiniø dëmiø intensyvumo (r = -0,61**).

Reikðminiai þodþiai: Ramularia collo-cygni, lapø ligos, vasariniai mieþiai, veisliø atsparumas, ligø tarpusavio sàveika.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific Articles, 2005, 2, 90, 61-74

UDK  632.488:633.16<321>(474.5)

RAMULARIA (RAMULARIA COLLO-CYGNI  SUTTON ET WALLER) – A NEW LEAF SPOT DISEASE OF SPRING BARLEY IN LITHUANIA

Þ. Liatukas, A. Leistrumaitë

Summary

A new leaf spot disease of spring barley caused by Ramularia collo-cygni Sutton et Waller was identified at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in 2004. The disease was sparted after appearance of typical disease symptoms. The resistance to ramularia and other leaf diseases was different on 33 cultivars of spring barley. Disease severity on the tested barley cultivars at milk growth stage (BBCH 73-77) ranged from 0 to 20 percent. Ramularia severity on more than half of the tested cultivars did not exceed 5 percent. Four cultivars were diseased up to 20 percent. Adequate evaluation of resistance to ramularia was possible on cultivars resistant to powdery mildew and other leaf spot diseases. There were identified barley cultivars resistant to all leaf diseases. Such cultivars were ‘Jersey’, ‘Philadelphia’, ‘Wikingett’. No influence of ramularia on barley yield was determined. 

The highest negative correlation was found between powdery mildew severity and barley yield. The correlation between ramularia and severity other leaf diseases was not obtained in the case of direct comparison of disease severity data. A medium negative correlation (r = -0.59**) was obtained between powdery mildew severity, physiological leaf spots (r = -0.61**) and percent share of ramularia severity in all damaged leaf area. 

Key words: Ramularia collo-cygni, leaf diseases, spring barley, resistance of cultivars, interaction of diseases.


IV skyrius. ÞOLININKYSTË

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2005, 2, 90, 75-93

UDK  633.24+633.321]631.531.01:631.559

PAÐARINIØ MOTIEJUKØ AUGINIMAS SËKLAI GRYNØ IR MIÐINYJE SU RAUDONAISIAIS ANKSTYVAISIAIS DOBILAIS

Vytautas ÞEMAITIS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p. jonas.slepetys@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Penki bandymai daryti 1993-2000 m. Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute lengvame drenuotame priemolio sekliau karbonatingame sekliau glëjiðkame rudþemyje RDg8-k1. Tikslas – palyginti áprastà paðariniø motiejukø auginimà sëkloms su raudonaisiais anksty­vaisiais dobilais ir grynø bei patikslinti antsëlio ir træðimo N45 sëjos metø vasarà reikðmæ jiems. Vidutinio vëlyvumo motiejukai ‘Gintaras II’ ir vëlyvieji ‘Vëlenis’ sëti gryni be antsëlio, gryni á mieþius, dvinariuose miðiniuose su raudonaisiais ankstyvaisiais dobilais diploidais ‘Liepsna’ ir tetraploidais ‘Vyliai’. Pasëliai naudoti po trejus metus, miðiniuose sëkloms paliekant vyravusá nará. Dar dviejuose papildomuose bandymuose motiejukø sëklos imtos treèiametëse dobilienose N0 ir N45 fonuose, kuriuose minëtø dobilø paðarui sëta 2,5-5,0-7,5 ir 10,0 kg su 2,0 ir 4,0 kg ha-1motiejukø ‘Gintaras II’. Nustatyti pasëliø piktþolëtumo pavasará, ðalutinës produkcijos, biologinio derliaus struktûros bei pirminio valymo sëklos kiekio ir kokybës rodikliai. Apskaièiuotas 100 % ðvarumo ir standartinio drëgnumo sëklos derlius bei motiejukø auginimo sëkloms bûdø sàlyginis pelnas.

Nuo motiejukø ir dobilø veisliø labai priklausë pirminio valymo sëklos piktþo­lëtumas, sëklos derlius ir pelnas. Grynø motiejukø ir jø su dobilais to nario, kuris vyravo, auginimas sëkloms 1-3 naudojimo metais visais atvejais buvo naudingas – sàlyginis pelnas siekë nuo 230 iki 1780 Lt ha-1. Jis buvo vienodas ir didþiausias grynus motiejukus ‘Gintaras II’ ávairiai sëjus bei priþiûrëjus, o auginus juos sëkloms II ir III naudojimo metø ‘Liepsna’ ir III naudojimo metø ‘Vyliai’ dobilienose – maþesnis – atitinkamai 1,6 ir 3,2 karto. Motiejukus ‘Vëlenis’ grynus, ypaè be antsëlio, auginti sëkloms buvo maþiau pelninga negu dobilienose ir þymiai maþiau pelninga, negu auginti sëkloms ‘Gintaras II’. Po dvejus metus paðarui naudotø abiejø veisliø dobilø sëklinius motiejukus ‘Gintaras II’ treèiametëje dobilienoje patræðus N45, pelnas padidëjo nuo 270/350 iki 540/680 Lt ha-1.

Vidutinio vëlyvumo motiejukai sëkloms, atsiþvelgiant á konkreèias sàlygas, gali bûti auginami, suderinus ávairiu santykiu, specialiuose sklypuose ir papildomai dobilienose. Motiejukø ‘Vëlenis’ auginimo sëkloms perspektyvos neaiðkios.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: paðariniai motiejukai, raudonieji dobilai, veislës, auginimo bûdai, sëklos derlius, pelnas.

  

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific Articles, 2005, 2, 90, 75-93

UDK  633.24+633.321]631.531.01:631.559

CULTIVATION OF TIMOTHY FOR SEED IN PURE STANDS AND MIXED WITH EARLY RED CLOVER

V. Þemaitis

Summary

Five experiments were carried out on a drained light loamy Epicalcari-Epihypogleyic Cambisol (CMg-p-w-cap) at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture from 1993 to 2000 with a view to comparing conventional cultivation of timothy for seed in mixtures with clover and in pure stands and verifying the effect of the cover crop and N45 fertilisation in the summer of the sowing year. An medium – late timothy cv. ‘Gintaras II’ and a late timothy cv. ‘Vëlenis’ were sown as follows: pure without a cover crop, pure into barely, in two – component mixtures with an early red diploid clover cv. ‘Liepsna’ and a tetraploid clover cv. ‘Vyliai’. The stands were used for three years. In mixtures the dominanting component was left for seed. In the other two experiments timothy seed was harvested in the third year clover field on No and N45 backgrounds, where the above mentioned clover was sown for forage at 2.5-10 kg with 2 and 4 kg ha-1 timothy cv. ‘Gintaras II’. Quantative and qualitive parameters of weed incidence in spring, by-produce, biological yield structure and pre-cleaned seed were estimated. Seed yield of 100 % purity and standard moisture and conditional profit of timothy growing for seed methods were calculated.

Timothy and clover cultivars had a different effect on the mentioned parameters. The most marked effect was identified on raw seed weed contamination, seed yield and profit. Cultivation of pure timothy and with the red clover of the predominating component for seed was beneficial in all the cases in the 1st-3rd year of use – conditional profit ranged from 230 to 1780 Lt ha-1. It was consistently the highest in the treatments of pure timothy ‘Gintaras II’ differently sown and managed, and when growing for seed cv. ‘Liepsna’ of the 2nd and 3rd years of use and ‘Vyliai’ in the 3rd year of use generated a profit that was 1.6 and 3.2 times lower. To grow timothy cv. ‘Vëlenis’ for seed in a pure stand, especially without a cover crop, was less profitable than in mixtures with clover, and far less profitable than to grow ‘Gintaras II’ for seed. After two years of use of both clover cultivars for forage, having fertilised timothy cv. ‘Gintaras II’ with N45 in the third year clover field the profit (increased from 270/350 to 540/680 Lt ha-1).

Taking into account specific circumstances, cultivation of medium-late timothy for seed can be combinated at various ratios on special plots and supplementary in clover fields. The prospects for late timothy cv. ‘Vëlenis’ cultivation for seed are not clear.

Key words: timothy, red clover, cultivars, cultivation methods, seed yield, profit.


V skyrius. AUGALØ SELEKCIJA IR GENETIKA

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2005, 2, 90, 94-105

UDK  633.32:581.19

DOBILØ RÛÐIØ IR TARPRÛÐINIØ HIBRIDØ CHARAKTERIZAVIMAS PAGAL FERMENTØ IR SËKLØ BALTYMØ ELEKTROFORETINES ANALIZES

Vanda PAPLAUSKIENË, Giedrë DABKEVIÈIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p. genetik@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Iðtirti peroksidaziø (PO) ir superoksido dismutaziø (SOD) elektroforetiniai spektrai raudonuosiuose dobiluose (Trifolium pratense L.), laukiniuose (Trifolium diffusum Ehrh.), kultûriniuose (Trifolium ambiguum Bieb.), rausvuosiuose dobiluose (Trifolium hybridum L.) ir jø tarprûðiniuose hibriduose. Lyginant Trifolium pratense ir Trifolium diffusum rûðis, rasta specifiniø SOD ir PO komponentø, tuo tarpu T. ambiguum ir T. hybridum spektrai tapatûs. Hibridiniø (T. pratense x T. diffusum ) populiacijø F1, B1F2 ir B2 F3 dobilai turëjo visà arba daliná tëviniø rûðiø SOD ir PO komponentø rinkiná, kurá papildë originalûs, tik hibriduose atsirandantys komponentai. T. pratense x T. diffusum F1 hibriduose aptikti du SOD spektrai, kurie patvirtina hibridinæ jø prigimtá. Bekrosinëse linijose, kilusiose ið T. pratense x (T. pra­tense x T. diffusum ) kryþminimo, hibridiðkumas buvo patvirtintas 49,6 % individø, kiti augalai SOD spektrus turëjo tokius pat kaip motininë rûðis. Tiriant PO polimorfizmà F1 populiacijoje, hibridiðkumas patvirtintas 96,7 %, likusiø individø spektrai identiðki T. pratense. Bekrosinëse B1F2 ir B2 F3 populiacijose 76,0 % augalø turëjo hibridinæ prigimtá patvirtinanèius, likæ 24,0 % individø - motininës T. pratense rûðies spektrus. Nustatyta, kad T. pratense x T. diffusum hibridams atpaþinti bûtina abiejø fermentø (SOD ir PO), spektrø analizë.

T. ambiguum ir T. hybridum rûðyse tirti ir kitø fermentø: fosfogliukoizomeraziø (PGI), glutamatoksalattransferaziø (GOT), leucinaminopeptidaziø (LAP) elektroforetiniai spektrai. Tarprûðiniuose T. ambiguum x T. hybridum hibriduose nustatyti du PGI spektrai, pagal kuriuos pavyko patvirtinti 60,8 % tirtø individø hibridiðkumà. Dobilø T. ambiguum ir T. hybridum LAP bei GOT spektrai turi kiekvienai rûðiai bûdingus komponentus, bet tarp­rûðiniai hibridai pagal ðiuos spektrus identiðki motininei T. ambiguum rûðiai.

T. pratense ir T. diffusum sëklø atsarginiø baltymø elektroforetiniuose spektruose nustatyti dobilø rûðims bûdingi (Rf 0,19 ir Rf 0,33) komponentai, specifiðkai þenklinantys ðias dobilø rûðis. Tarprûðiniø F1 hibridø baltymø spektre yra abiejø dobilø rûðiø baltymø komponentai, patvirtinantys pastarøjø hibridiðkumà. Bekrosiniø B1F2 ir B2F3 hibridø baltymø spektrai dvejopi: I- tokie pat kaip T. pratense; II- T. pratense spektras, papildytas nauju Rf 0,16 komponentu, nebûdingu tëvinëms formoms.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: dobilai, tarprûðiniai hibridai, fermentai, sëklø baltymai, elektroforetiniai spektrai.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific Articles, 2005, 2, 90, 94-105

UDK  633.32:581.19

CHARACTERIZATION OF CLOVER SPECIES AND THEIR INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDS BY ISOZYMES AND SEED PROTEIN ELECTROPHORETICAL ANALYSIS

V. Paplauskienë, G. Dabkevièienë

Summary

We analysed spectra of peroxidase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and (PO) in clover species and their interspecific hybrids. While comparing T. pratense L. and T. diffusum Ehrh. species we found specific SOD and PO components, while T. ambiguum Bieb. and T. hybridum L. spectra were identical. T. pratense x T. diffusum F1, B1F2 and B2 F3 hybrids had a complete or partial set of SOD and PO components of parental species which was supplemented by original components occurring only in hybrids. In T. pratense x T. diffu­sum F1 hybrids we detected SOD spectra of two types, which give a significant proof of their hybrid origin. In backcross lines derived from T. pratense x (T. pratense x T. diffusum ) crossing, hybridity was confirmed in 49.6 % of individuals, the other plants had a spectrum identical to parent species. When analysing PO polymorphism in F1 population hybridity was confirmed in 96.7 % of plants, the rest of the individuals had a spectrum identical to that of T. pratense. In backcross B1F2 and B2 F3 populations 76.0 % of plants had a spectrum confirming their hybrid nature, the other 24.0 % of clover plants demonstrated only maternal T. pratense species spectrum. It was determined that in order to identify T. pratense x T. diffusum hybrids it is necessary to carry out polymorphism analysis of both isoenzymes SOD and PO.

T. ambiguum and T. hybridum species were also assayed for the electrophoretic spectra of the other enzymes: phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), leucine aminopeptidase (LAP). Two PGI spectra were identified in interspecific T. ambiguum x T. hybridum hybrids, according to which we were able to confirm hybridity for 60.6 % of the individuals tested. LAP and GOT spectra of clover T. ambiguum and T. hybridum have species-specific components, but according to these spectra interspecific hybrids were identical to the maternal T. ambiguum species.

Electrophoretic spectra of T. pratense and T. diffusum seed storage proteins were found to possess clover species-characteristic components (Rf 0.19 ir Rf 0.33), specifically marking these clover species. Protein spectra of interspecific F1 hybrids possess protein components of both clover species. T. diffusum specific Rf 0.33 component confirms hybridity of the latter. Protein spectra of backcross B1F2, B2F3 hybrids are of two types: I- identical to T. pratense; II- T. pratense spectrum, supplemented by a novel Rf 0.16 component non-specific to parental forms.

Key words: clover, interspecific hybrids, isoenzymes, seed proteins, electrophoretical spectra.


VI skyrius. VËÞAIÈIØ FILIALUI – 70

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2005, 2, 90, 106-131

UDK  061.6(474.5):63(091)

LIETUVOS ÞEMDIRBYSTËS INSTITUTO VËÞAIÈIØ FILIALO MOKSLINËS RAIDOS ANALIZË

Stasys Bernotas, Edmundas Lapinskas

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filialas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas,

El. p. filialas@vezaiciai.lzi.lt

Santrauka

Straipsnyje apraðoma Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filialo 70 metø kûrimosi istorija, tyrimø sàlygos ir mokslinës veiklos raida. Trumpai apibûdinama mokslo plëtra, dirvoþemio rûgðtëjimo procesø, kalkinimo ir træðimo sistemø, dirvoþemio fizikiniø, agrocheminiø ir mikrobiologiniø parametrø, biologinio azoto fiksacijos, sëjomaininiø ir ilgalaikiø þolynø sudarymo, atnaujinimo ir naudojimo bei agroekologiniais klausimais, augalø fiziologiniø ir fitopatologiniø procesø, þemës ûkio augalø auginimo technologijø ir þemdirbystës sistemø srityje.

Remiantis gausiø tyrimø rezultatais ir sukaupta patirtimi, nuo 1961 m. visus kalkinimo darbus perëmë valstybë. Filiale sukuriami rûgðèiø dirvoþemiø kalkinimo, træðimo ir þemës ûkio augalø agrotechnikos moksliniai pagrindai, paruoðiama kalkinimo galimybiø per apskritus metus koncepcija. Bandradarbiaujant su mokslo ástaigomis, ðalyje organi­zuojamas dirvoþemiø pakartotinis kalkinimas.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: tyrimai, dirvoþemio rûgðtëjimas, kalkinimas, træðimas, dirvo­tyra, þemës ûkio augalai, piktþolës ir ligø sukëlëjai, filialo istorija.

  

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific Articles, 2005, 2, 90, 106-131

UDK  061.6(474.5):63(091)

ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT AT THE LITHUANIAN INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE’S VËÞAIÈIAI BRANCH

S. Bernotas, E. Lapinskas

Summary

The article describes the 70 years history of the Vëþaièiai Branch establishment, experimental conditions and development of research activities. A short discussion of scientific development in the fields of research into soil acidification processes, liming and fertilizing systems, soil physical, agrochemical and microbiological parameters, biological nitrogen fixation, establishment, renovation and management of leys and long-term swards, agroecological issues, plant physiological and phytopathological processes, agricultural crops cultivation technologies and cropping is provided.

Based on the numerous research results and experience, all liming work has been taken over by the state since 1961. A scientific basis for acid soils liming, fertilization and agricultural crop and soil management has been created. A concept of year round liming has been elaborated. In co-operation with research institutions a repeated soil liming is organised in the country.

Key words: research, soil acidification, liming, fertilization, soil science, agricultural crops, weeds and disease causal agents, history of the branch.


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