·Raðykite mums: lzi@lzi.lt


TURINYS

I skyrius. AGROCHEMIJA IR DIRVOTYRA

E. Bakðienë, V. Januðienë. Ilgalaikiai karbonatinio sapropelio tyrimai priesmëlio paprastojo iðplautþemio dirvoþemyje

R. Repðienë, A. K. Plesevièienë, S. Èiuberkis. Mëðlo normø átaka dirvoþemio savybëms ir agrocenozës produktyvumui

A. Ðlepetienë, I. Liaudanskienë. Huminiø rûgðèiø ir fulvorûgðèiø nustatymas Multiskan MS adaptavus programà Genesis Lite

II skyrius. ÞEMDIRBYSTË

I. Kinderienë. Erozijà maþinanèiø priemoniø kalvoto reljefo dirvose energinis ir ekonominis palyginimas

A. Velykis, A. Satkus. Sëklø guolio kokybës veiksniai sunkiuose dirvoþemiuose

III skyrius. AUGALININKYSTË

K. Rainys, V. Rudokas. Bulviø augimo sàlygø ir veislës átaka derliui ir jo kokybei

O. Auðkalnienë. Augimo reguliatoriaus Trineksapak-etilo ir jo miðiniø átaka þieminiø kvieèiø stiebø biometriniams rodikliams

A. Kulikauskas, J. Sprainaitienë. Aviþø veisliø ir linijø derlingumo priklausomumas nuo oro temperatûros ir krituliø pasiskirstymo vegetacijos metu

J. Lapinskienë. Azoto tràðø normø átaka paðariniø grieþèiø sëkloms, auginant bepasodiniu bûdu

IV skyrius. ÞOLININKYSTË

E. Petraitytë. Eraièinsvidriø (Festulolium) ir baltøjø dobilø (Trifolium repens L.) konkurencija trumpalaikiø ganyklø ekosistemoje

R. Skuodienë. Trumpalaikiø ðienaujamø þolynø átaka po jø auginamø þieminiø kvieèiø piktþolëtumui

V. Þemaitis. Sëkliniø eraièinsvidriø derlingumas priklausomai nuo antsëlio, atolo pjovimo laiko, amþiaus ir træðimo azotu

V skyrius. MIKROBIOLOGIJA

L. Piaulokaitë - Motuzienë, D. Konèius, E. Lapinskas. Mikroorganizmø paplitimas esant skirtingoms dirvoþemio agrocheminëms savybëms

CONTENTS

Chapter 1. AGROCHEMISTRY AND SOIL SCIENCE

E. Bakðienë, V. Januðienë. Long - term experiments on calcareous sapropel in sandy loam Haplic Luvisol

R. Repðienë, A.K. Plesevièienë, S. Èiuberkis. The effect of manure rates on soil properties and productivity of agrocenosis

A. Ðlepetienë, I. Liaudanskienë. Determination of humic and fulvic acids by Multiskan MS having adapted the programme Genesis Lite

Chapter 2. AGRICULTURE

I. Kinderienë. Energy and economic comparison of measures designed for erosion reduction on hilly soils

A. Velykis, A. Satkus. Factors of seedbed quality on heavy soils

Chapter 3. CROP PRODUCTION

K. Rainys, V. Rudokas. Potato tuber yield and quality as affected by growing conditions and varietal peculiarities

O. Auðkalnienë. The effect of the growth regulator Trinexapac - ethyl and its mixtures on the biometrical indicators of winter wheat stems

A. Kulikauskas, J. Sprainaitienë. Productivity of oats varieties and lines in relation to the air temperature and precipitation distribution within the growing season

J. Lapinskienë. The impact of nitrogen fertilizer rates on fodder swede seed yield as affected by the planting method without mother roots

Chapter 4. GRASSLAND HUSBANDRY

E. Petraitytë. Competition between Festulolium and white clover in short-term pasture ecosystems

R. Skuodienë. The impact of temporary grasslands for cutting on the incidence of weeds in winter wheat crops grown after the temporary grasslands

V. Þemaitis. Productivity of Festulolium seed crops in relation to the cover crop, aftermath cutting time, age and nitrogen fertilization

Chapter 5. MICROBIOLOGY

L. Piaulokaitë - Motuzienë, D. Konèius, E. Lapinskas. The occurrence of microorganisms as affected by different soil agrochemical properties


I skyrius. AGROCHEMIJA IR DIRVOTYRA

 ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2005, 1, 89, 3-17

UDK 631.826:631.442.1

ILGALAIKIAI KARBONATINIO SAPROPELIO TYRIMAI PRIESMËLIO PAPRASTOJO IÐPLAUTÞEMIO DIRVOÞEMYJE

Eugenija BakÐienË, Valerija JanuÐienË

 Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filialas

Trakø Vokë, Vilnius

El. p. eugenija.baksiene@voke.lzi.lt

Santrauka

Straipsnyje pateikiama duomenø analizë ilgameèiø bandymø, atliekamø Lietuvos þemdir­bystës instituto Vokës filiale nuo 1984 metø. Tirtas karbonatinio sapropelio 50, 100, 150, 200 t ha-1 normø (skaièiuojant sausàja medþiaga) poveikis ðeðialaukëje sëjomainoje auginamø augalø (kukurûzø, mieþiø, dobilø, þieminiø rugiø, bulviø, aviþø) derliui, paprastojo iðplautþemio agrocheminëms savy­bëms ir humuso kokybinei sudëèiai. Palyginimui árengtas variantas su mëðlu, kuris buvo atnaujinamas kas rotacijà. Kasmet prieð augalø sëjà dirvoþemis træðtas mineralinëmis tràðomis.

Tyrimø rezultatai rodo, kad nuo didesniø sapropelio normø (150, 200 t ha-1) treèiosios sëjomainos augalø produktyvumas didëjo kaip ir nuo mëðlo. Taip pat nustatyta, kad po trijø sëjo­mainos rotacijø sapropelio veikimas iðliko teigiamas. Dirvoþemio agrocheminës savybës kas rotacija prastëjo, taèiau nepasiekë rodikliø, buvusiø prieð bandymø árengimà. Fosforo ir kalio kiekis dirvo­þemyje kas rotacijà gausëjo. Nuo sapropelio gerëjo humuso kokybë (CHA : CFA – 0,74-0,77; kontr. var. – 0,71).

Reikðminiai þodþiai: sapropelis, mëðlas, derlius, dirvoþemio savybës, humusas.

  

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific Articles, 2005, 1, 89, 3-17

UDK 631.826:631.442.1

 LONG - TERM EXPERIMENTS ON CALCAREOUS SAPROPEL IN SANDY LOAM HAPLIC LUVISOL

 E. Bakðienë, V. Januðienë

 Summary

The feasibility to use sapropel as fertiliser has been investigated at the Vokë Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture since 1984. The experiments were carried out on a sandy loam Haplic Luvisol in the six-course crop rotation (maize, barley, clover, winter rye, potatoes, oats) with the application of 50, 100, 150, 200 t ha-1 rates of calcareous sapropel (calculated as dry matter) and 100 t ha-1 of manure on the background of mineral fertilisers. Sapropel was applied only to the first crop (maize) in the rotation (in 1984). Manure was applied to the first crop in each  crop rotation (in 1984, 1990 and 1996).

Summarised results of the long-term experiment showed that by the end of the second (after 12 years) and third (after 18 years) rotations the effect of sapropel on soil chemical properties was positive. Calcareous sapropel reduced soil acidity, increased the amount of exchangeable bases (Ca+Mg). Under the influence of sapropel the contents of organic carbon and total nitrogen increased, as well. The amount of phosphorus and potassium increased. Sapropel improved the composition of humus (CHA:CFA – 0.74-0.77; in check – 0.71).

The experimental results showed that the higher rates (150, 120 t ha-1) of dry sapropel after 18 years of application increased the productivity of crops. The highest rate of sapropel (200 t ha-1) gave almost the same effectiveness as manure, applied in every rotation.

 Key words: sapropel, manure, yield, soil properties, humus. 


 ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2005, 1, 89, 18-30

UDK 631.445:631.862

 MËÐLO NORMØ ÁTAKA DIRVOÞEMIO SAVYBËMS IR AGROCENOZËS PRODUKTYVUMUI

 Regina REPÐIENË, Adelë Kristina PLESEVIÈIENË, Steponas ÈIUBERKIS

 Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

El. p.: regina@vezaiciai.lzi.lt; stepas@vezaiciai.lzi.lt 

 Santrauka

Ilgameèiuose bandymuose, árengtuose 1959 m. nepasotintajame balkðvaþemyje LÞI Vëþai-èiø filiale, septynlaukës sëjomainos ðeðtos rotacijos tyrimø duomenimis, træðiant didëjanèiomis mëðlo normomis (20, 40, 80, 120 t ha-1), nekalkintame dirvoþemyje maþëjo rûgðtumo rodikliai, o kalkintame – mëðlas jiems átakos beveik neturëjo. Judriøjø P2O5 ir K2O esminis padidëjimas nekalkintame dirvoþemyje gautas nuo mëðlo 80 t ha-1 ir 120 t ha-1 normø, o kalkintame – beveik nuo visø. Siste­mingas træðimas mëðlu ne tik 120 t ha-1, bet ir 80 t ha-1 tapo panaðaus veiksmingumo kaip kalkinimas. Didinant mëðlo kieká nuo 20 iki 120 t ha-1, nekalkinto dirvoþemio pasëliuose nuosekliai maþëjo visø augalø piktþolëtumas, o kalkinto – esminiø pokyèiø nebuvo.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: rûgðtus ir pakalkintas dirvoþemis, mëðlo normos, apykaitos energija, balansas, piktþolës.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2005, 1, 89, 18-30

UDK 631.445:631.862

THE EFFECT OF MANURE RATES ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND PRODUCTIVITY OF AGROCENOSIS

R. Repðienë, A.K. Plesevièienë, S. Èiuberkis

Summary

Long-term trials were established in 1959 at the Vëþaièiai Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture on a Dystric Albeluvisol soil in a seven-field crop rotation. According to the data of the sixth crop rotation increasing manure rates (20, 40, 80, 120 t ha-1) in unlimed soil decreased acidity indicators. On limed soil manure application had no significant effect on soil acidity indicators. A significant increase in mobile P2O5, K2O in acid soil was identified after application of 80 and 120 t ha-1 of manure, and on limed soil all rates of manure had a significant effect. Regular fertilization with manure from 80 to 120 t ha-1 became similar in action to liming by 1 rate according to hydrolytic soil acidity. At increasing rates of manure from 20 to 120 t ha-1 a consistent decrease in weed infestation in acid soil was observed in all crops, however no significant changes in weed infestation were found in limed soil.

Key words: acid and limed soil, manure rates, metabolizable energy, balance, weeds.


ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2005, 1, 89, 31-38

UDK 631.417.2:535.24

HUMINIØ RÛGÐÈIØ IR FULVORÛGÐÈIØ NUSTATYMAS MULTISKAN MS ADAPTAVUS PROGRAMÀ GENESIS LITE

Alvyra ÐLEPETIENË, Inga LIAUDANSKIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p. alvyra@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Tyrimai atlikti 2002-2004 m. LÞI Analitinëje (nuo 2004 m. Cheminiø tyrimø) labora­torijoje siekiant ávertinti Multiskan MS instaliuotos programos Genesis Lite galimybes humuso medþiagoms nustatyti. Atliktos huminiø rûgðèiø ir fulvorûgðèiø iðtraukos 25 dirvoþemio mëgi­niuose. Oksidacija atlikta pagal Tiurino metodo Nikitino modifikacijà. Fotometravimui 300 ml matuojamo tirpalo pilta á 96 vietø plokðteles ir fotometruota naudojant programà Genesis Lite su ðviesos filtrais l = 590 ir 620 nm. Pagrindinis standartinis tirpalas ruoðtas ið gliukozës (1 ml /1 mg C), standartinius tirpalus deginant ir skiedþiant kaip ir tiriamus mëginius. Tyrimais nustatyta huminiø rûgðèiø ir fulvorûgðèiø pakartojimø skaièiaus plokðtelëje, praskiedimo laipsnio, filtro ðviesos bangos ilgio átaka duomenø standartinam nuokrypiui ir variacijos koeficientui. Taip pat buvo nustatytas huminiø rûgðèiø ir  fulvorûgðèiø kiekis ne vien tik pagal organinës C kieká, bet ir naudojant standartinius huminiø rûgðèiø preparatø tirpalus. Iðtirta, kaip su programa Genesis Lite operatyviai keisti matavimo parametrus, redaguoti, ávesti praskiedimus, daryti standartø atrankà, áraðyti kelias matavimo programas, eliminuoti duomenis, atlikti pakartotiná matavimà, gautus analizës duomenis áraðyti elektroninëje formoje arba atspausdinti. Ávertinus gautø duomenø Vx % ir SD, rekomenduotinas optimalus pakartojimø skaièius plokðtelëje – 3, filtro bangos ilgis – 590 nm; praskiedimas 2-10 kartø. Atlikus metodinius tyrimus, apraðytas huminiø rûgðèiø ir fulvorûgðèiø nustatymas naudojant Multiskan MS ir programà Genesis Lite.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: Multiskan MS, Genesis Lite, fotometrinis nustatymas, huminës rûgðtys, fulvorûgðtys.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific Articles, 2005, 1, 89, 31-38

UDK 631.417.2:535.24

DETERMINATION OF HUMIC AND FULVIC ACIDS BY MULTISKAN MS HAVING ADAPTED THE PROGRAMME GENESIS LITE

A. Ðlepetienë, I. Liaudanskienë

Summary

Laboratory tests conducted at the LIA’s chemical research laboratory during the period 2002-2004 were designed to estimate the feasibility of use of Genesis Lite Windows software installed in Multiskan MS for the determination of humic substances. Humic and fulvic acids were extracted from 25 soil samples. Oxidation was performed by wet chemistry following Tyurin’s method as modified by Nikitin. Channels of the microplate used for photometry were filled with 300 ml of the solutions by an 8-channel automatic micropipette. Standard glucose solution (1 mg C ml-1) was used. The software Genesis Lite with light filters l = 590 and 620 nm was used for photometry. The chief standard solution was prepared from glucose (1 mg C ml-1), the standard solutions were oxydised and diluted in the same way as the soil samples. The tests revealed the effects of the number of repetitions of humic and fulvic acids per plate, dilution degree, wavelength of filter on the standard deviation and variation coefficient of the data. We also measured the content of humic and fulvic acids not only according to organic C content, but also by using standard solutions of humic acids preparations. We also ascertained how Genesis Lite can be used for rapid change of measuring parameters, editing, entering of dilution coefficient, selection of standards, application of several measuring programmes, data elimination, performance of repeaded measurement, recording the analysis data in an electronic form or printing. Assessment of V x% and SD of our data suggests that the recommended optimal number of repetitions per plate is 3, wavelength of the filter 590 nm; dilution 2-10 times. Having conducted methodological tests, a description was prepared for the determination of humic and fulvic acids using Multiskan MS and Genesis Lite software.

Key words: Multiskan MS, Genesis Lite, photometric determination, humic acids, fulvic acids.


II skyrius. ÞEMDIRBYSTË

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2005, 1, 89, 39-52

UDK 631.459:[631.51.003+631.6.02.003]

EROZIJÀ MAÞINANÈIØ PRIEMONIØ KALVOTO RELJEFO DIRVOSE ENERGINIS IR EKONOMINIS PALYGINIMAS

Irena KINDERIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Kaltinënai, Ðilalës rajonas

El. p. kaltbs@kaltbs.lzi.lt

Santrauka

Lauko bandymai daryti 1997-2002 m. Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Kaltinënø bandymø stoties 7-9o statumo kalvø ðlaituose eroduotame pasotintame balkðvaþemyje (JIb-el) – Eutric Albelu­visols (ABe-el).

Kalvoto reljefo eroduojamose dirvose apykaitos (AE) ir bendrosios energijos (BE) kiekis mieþiø ir aviþø produkcijoje palankiais metais sukauptas didesnis. 2000 m. ið rudens artoje dirvoje bendrosios energijos (BE) augintø mieþiø augalø produkcijoje sukaupta 35 % daugiau negu 1999 m., o aviþø – 2000 m. 44,9 % daugiau negu 2001 metais.

Gilø rudeniná arimà pakeitus lëkðèiavimu, giliu purenimu ar dirvos nedirbant, o erozijai maþinti naudojant ðiaudus ir tarpinius pasëlius, apykaitos energijos kiekis aviþø produkcijoje ið esmës nepakito. Mieþiuose ir poveikio augaluose – aviþose apykaitos energijos kiekis turëjo tendencijà maþëti nuo lëkðèiavimo arba gilaus purenimo, smulkintø ðiaudø áterpimo ir baltøjø garstyèiø (Sinapis alba L.) ásëjimo á lëkðèiuotà ir giliai purentà dirvà. Taikant neverstuviná þemës dirbimà (lëkðèiavimas, gilus purenimas) dirvoþemio erozijos nuostoliai ðlaite sumaþëjo 80,0-80,4 %, palyginus su giliu arimu, o rudená þemës nedirbant (ðiaudai, raundapas) nuostoliø nepatirta.

Bearimio þemës dirbimo – lëkðèiavimo ir raundapo vartojimo papildymas smulkintø ðiaudø metinio derliaus áterpimu lëkðèiuojant, palyginus su tokiu pat dirbimu be ðiaudø, BE kieká mieþiuose padidino 2,27 GJ ha-1, arba 3,6 %, o AE kieká – 1,46 GJ ha-1,  arba 4,3 %, o aviþose atitinkamai 3,17 GJ ha-1,  arba 3,9 % ir 0,1 GJ ha-1, arba 0,2 %. Dirvoþemio nuostoliø nuo vandeninës erozijos bearimiu dirbimu nepatirta.

Mieþius auginti ðlaite buvo nuostolinga, o aviþas – pelninga – pelno gauta 73,4-245,9 Lt ha-1. Aviþas auginti labiausiai apsimokëjo raundapu 3 l ha-1 purkðtoje, lëkðèiuotoje dirvoje.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: kalvotas reljefas, þemës dirbimo bûdai, smulkinti ðiaudai, tarpiniai pasëliai, apykaitos energija (AE), bendroji energija (BE), pelnas.

  

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific Articles, 2005, 1, 89, 39-52

UDK  631.459 :[631.51.003+631.6.02.003]

ENERGY AND ECONOMIC COMPARISON OF MEASURES DESIGNED FOR EROSION REDUCTION ON HILLY SOILS

I.Kinderienë

Summary

Field experiments were conducted during 1997-2002 at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s Kaltinënai Experimental Station on the slopes with 7-9° inclination. The soil of the experimental site was (JIb-el) Eutric Albeluvisol (Abe-el).

In the eroded soils on hilly relief the amount of metabolizable (ME) and total energy (TE) in the production of spring barley and oats was found to be higher in favourable years. The amount of total energy in plant production of barley in the autumn – ploughed soils in 2000 was by 35 % higher and in oats by 44.9 % than 1999.

Having substituted deep ploughing by a shallow discing, by a deep loosening or by a ploughless tillage with the usage of chopped straw and catch crop (Sinapis alba L.) the amount of metabolizable energy in oats plant production was stable. The metabolizable energy tended to decrease in spring barley and in oats (effect plants) due to the shallow discing or deep loosening, chopped straw incorporation and white mustard sowing in the disced and loosened soil.

Ploughless soil tillage practice – discing and Roundup 3 l ha-1 application complemented with chopped straw incorporation, compared with the same tillage without straw incorporation, increased the amount of total energy of barley by 2.27 GJ ha-1 or 3.6 % or the amount of metabolizable energy by 1.46 GJ ha-1 or 4.3 % and in oats, by 3.17 GJ ha-1 or 3.9 % and by 0.1 GJ ha-1 or 0.2 % respectively. Growing of spring barley on the slope of hills was detrimental, and that of oats – profitable. The obtained profit for oats was 73.4-245.9 Lt ha-1. Growing of oats was most profitable when Roundup 3 l ha-1 and discing were used.

Key words: hilly relief, soil tillage method, chopped straw, catch crop, metabolizable energy (ME), total energy (TE), profit. 


ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2005, 1, 89, 53-66

UDK  631.442.4:631.51.022

SËKLØ GUOLIO KOKYBËS VEIKSNIAI SUNKIUOSE DIRVOÞEMIUOSE

Aleksandras VELYKIS, Antanas SATKUS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Joniðkëlio bandymø stotis

Joniðkëlis, Pasvalio rajonas

El. p. joniskelio_lzi@post.omnitel.net

Santrauka

Straipsnyje pateikta Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Joniðkëlio bandymø stotyje limnogla­cialiniame sunkaus priemolio rudþemyje 1995-2002 m. atliktø kompleksiniø tyrimø duomenys, ávertinant ávairiø veiksniø átakà sëklø guolio kokybei. Analizuojama pagrindinio ir prieðsëjinio þemës dirbimo, dirvoþemio savybiø gerinimui naudotø meliorantø bei sëjomainø ir prieðsëliø poveikis vasariniø ir þieminiø augalø sëklø guolio kokybei bei technologinës ir biologinës galimybës jà optimizuoti.

Nustatyta, kad sunkiuose dirvoþemiuose vasariniams augalams sudaromam sëklø guoliui optimizuoti tikslinga maþinti prieðsëjinio dirvos dirbimo intensyvumà, dalá darbø perkeliant á rudens laikotarpá bei pasirenkant kombinuotus ir su pasyviomis darbinëmis dalimis padargus. Supaprastintas bearimis þemës dirbimas sunkiuose priemoliuose sëklø guolio kokybës poþiûriu labiau tinka þieminiams augalams negu vasariniams, o jo neigiamà átakà vasariniø augalø sëklø guoliui galima sumaþinti gerinant dirvoþemio armens savybes meliorantais, ypaè mëðlu. Þieminiai augalai kaip prieðsëliai molinguose dirvoþemiuose sëklø guolio kokybës poþiûriu turëjo didelá pranaðumà prieð vasarinius, todël didinant þieminiø augalø, ypaè daugiameèiø þoliø plotà pasëliø struktûroje, geriau iðnaudojama jø vertë dirvoþemio fizikiniø savybiø gerinimui ir sëjomainø produktyvumo didinimui. 

Reikðminiai þodþiai: sunkaus priemolio rudþemis, þemës dirbimas, meliorantai, prieðsëliai, sëjomainos, sëklø guolis.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific Articles, 2005, 1, 89, 53-66

UDK  631.442.4:631.51.022

FACTORS OF SEEDBED QUALITY ON HEAVY SOILS

A. Velykis, A. Satkus

Summary

This article presents the results of complex investigations carried out over the period 1995-2002 at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s Joniðkëlis Research Station on a glacial lacustrine clay loam Gleyic Cambisol, evaluating the effects of different factors on seedbed quality. The influence of primary and pre-sowing soil tillage, ameliorants, used for improvement of soil properties, crop rotations and preceding crops on seedbed quality of spring and winter crops, also technological and biological possibilities for its optimizing are analyzed.

Experimental evidence suggests that it is expedient to decrease the intensity of pre-sowing soil tillage in order to optimize seedbed, formed for spring crops on heavy soils, to carry out part of the tillage operations in autumn and choose combined implements and fitted with passive working parts. Reduced ploughless soil tillage on clay loams is more suitable for winter crops from the viewpoint of seedbed quality, and it is possible to decrease its negative influence on spring crop seedbed by improvement of topsoil properties by incorporating ameliorants, especially farmyard manure. Winter crops, as preceding crops on clayey soils have a great advantage over spring crops in terms of seedbed quality, therefore it is worth expanding the winter crops area, especially of perennial grasses, in the crop structure, which allows a better utilization of their value for the improvement of soil physical properties and increasing of the crop rotation productivity.

Key words: clay loam Gleyic Cambisol, soil tillage, ameliorants, preceding crops, rotations, seedbed.  


III skyrius. AUGALININKYSTË

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2005, 1, 89, 67-80

UDK 633.491:631.526.32:631.559:581.19

BULVIØ AUGIMO SÀLYGØ IR VEISLËS ÁTAKA DERLIUI IR JO KOKYBEI

Kæstutis RAINYS, Vidmantas RUDOKAS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

N. Elmininkai, Anykðèiø rajonas

El.p. elmininkai@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Elmininkø bandymø stotyje smëlingame lengvo priemolio karbonatingame giliau glëjiðkame iðplautþemyje (IDg4-k) daryti træðimo bandymai su penkiomis ávairaus ankstyvumo bulviø veislëmis. Straipsnyje pateikti 2000-2002 metø tyrimø duomenys apie skirtingø tràðø poveiká ávairiø veisliø bulviø gumbø produktyvumui, krakmolo ir sausøjø medþiagø kiekiui gumbuose.

Atliktø tyrimø duomenimis, tirtø veisliø bulviø derliui átakos turëjo træðimas mineralinëmis tràðomis bei jø deriniais, veislës genetinës savybës ir meteorologinës sàlygos bulviø vegetacijos metu.

Vidutiniais trejø metø tyrimø duomenimis, gausiausiai (21,8-27,4 t ha-1) derëjo vidutinio vëlyvumo ‘Hermes’ bulvës. Derlingiausi buvo 2000 m., kai uþaugo didþiausias (19,3-36,0 t ha-1) visø veisliø bulviø derlius. Geriausiai derëjo bulvës, træðtos mineraliniø tràðø N90P90K180 miðiniu ir kompleksinëmis mineralinëmis tràðomis N90P90K180 su mikroelementais – uþderëjo atitinkamai 20,6-26,1 t ha-1 ir 21,4-27,4 t ha-1.

Kompleksinës mineralinës tràðos N90P90K180 su mikroelementais gumbø derliui turëjo didesnæ átakà negu mineraliniø tràðø N90P90K180 miðinys. Krakmolo ir sausøjø medþiagø kiekis ávairiø veisliø bulviø gumbuose labiausiai priklausë nuo genetiniø veislës savybiø ir meteorologiniø sàlygø bulviø vegetacijos metu. Tirtø tràðø átaka minëtiems rodikliams buvo neesminë. Vidutiniais trejø metø duomenimis, nukasus bulves, daugiausiai krakmolo ir sausøjø medþiagø sukaupë vidutinio anksty­vumo ‘Lady Rosetta’ (17,0-17,9 ir 23,2-24,21 %) ir vidutinio vëlyvumo ‘Saturna’ (17,1-17,4 ir 23,5-23,8 %) bulvës. Patræðus mëðlu, didëjo tirtø veisliø bulviø krakmolingumas ir sausøjø medþiagø kiekis gumbuose – atitinkamai 14,9-17,9 ir 21,2-24,2 %.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: bulvës, veislë, tràðos, krakmolas, sausosios medþiagos, traðkuèiai.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific Articles, 2005, 1, 89, 67-80

UDK  633.491:631.526.32:631.559:581.19

POTATO TUBER YIELD AND QUALITY AS AFFECTED BY GROWING CONDITIONS AND VARIETAL PECULIARITIES

K. Rainys, V. Rudokas

Summary

Research on the effects of different fertilizers on potato yield, starch and dry matter content was carried out at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s Elmininkai Research Station during the period 2000-2002. Five Lithuania-registered potato varieties of different maturity groups were grown in the fields with different fertilization background: early ‘Goda’ and ‘Vokë’, medium early ‘Lady Rosetta’, medium late ‘Saturna’ and ‘Hermes’.

Experimental evidence suggests that potato tuber yield was affected by different fertilizers applied, as well as by the varietal characteristics and the weather conditions during the potato growing season. According to three-years’ averaged data, most productive were found to be medium-late ‘Hermes’ (21.8-27.4 t ha-1). The highest yields of all potato varieties (19.3-36.0 t ha-1) were harvested in 2000. Using compound mineral fertilizers N90P90K180 and complex mineral fertilizers N90P90K180 with microelements, the highest yields (20.6-26.1 t ha-1 and 21.4-27.4 t ha-1) were harvested. Complex mineral fertilizers N90P90K180 with microelements were superior to compound mineral fertilizers N90P90K180 in terms of potato tuber yield. The weather conditions during the potato vegetative growth period and varietal characteristics had an impact on starch and dry matter content in potato tubers. The fertilizers used in the trial had no significant effect on these indicators. Three years’ averaged experimental findings indicate that the highest content of starch and dry matter was identified for the medium early variety ‘Lady Rosetta’ (17.0-17.9 % and 23.2-24.21 %) and the medium late variety ‘Saturna’ (17.1-17.4 % and 23.5-23.8 %). The highest starch and dry matter content in different potato varieties was found in 2002 (14.9-21.0 % and 21.3-27.1 %). Using manure (40 t ha-1), the highest starch and dry matter content (14.9-17.9 % and 21.2-24.2 %) was found in the tubers of most varieties studied.

Key words: potatoes, variety, fertilizers, starch, dry, matter, chips. 


ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2005, 1, 89, 81-92

UDK 631.811.98:633.11<324>:57.087.1

AUGIMO REGULIATORIAUS TRINEKSAPAK-ETILO IR JO MIÐINIØ ÁTAKA ÞIEMINIØ KVIEÈIØ STIEBØ BIOMETRINIAMS RODIKLIAMS

Ona AUÐKALNIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p. ona@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Augimo reguliatoriai naudojami javø iðgulimui iðvengti ir uþima svarbià vietà javø auginimo technologijoje. Augimo reguliatoriø bei jø miðiniø ir deriniø efektyvumo tyrimai daryti 2002-2003 metais Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Dirvoþemio ir augalininkystës skyriaus sëjomainø þieminiø kvieèiø ‘Ðirvinta’ laukuose. Dirvoþemis – giliau karbonatingas sekliau glëjiðkas rudþemis, lengvas priemolis, drenuotas, neutralaus rûgðtumo. Þieminiai kvieèiai purkðti giberalinø sintezës inhibitoriais cykoceliu 750 SL (chlormekvatcloridas 750 g l-1) ir modus 250 EC (trineksapak etilas  250 g l-1) bei etileno sintezæ skatinanèiu terpalu C (mepikvatchloridas + etefonas 305 + 155 g l-1) ávairiais augimo tarpsniais: BBCH 29-30 (bamblëjimo pradþia); BBCH 32-33 (bamblëjimo); ir BBCH 37-39 (paskutinio lapo pasirodymas).

Modus 250 EC derinyje su CCC efektyviai trumpino þieminiø kvieèiø stiebus ir apsaugojo juos nuo iðgulimo.

Purkðti augimo reguliatoriais þieminiø kvieèiø ‘Ðirvinta’ augalai buvo 3-30 cm þemesni nei nepurkðti. Þemiausi augalai buvo tuose laukeliuose, kuriuose þieminiai kvieèiai pirmà kartà buvo nupurkðti CCC 1 l ha-1, o antrà – CCC + modus (0,4 + 0,2), taip pat pirmà kartà nupurðkus CCC, o antrajam purðkimui panaudojus modus 0,4 l ha-1. Pastarasis derinys 2002 metais geriausiai apsaugojo þieminiø kvieèiø augalus nuo iðgulimo.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: augimo reguliatoriai, iðgulimas, augalø aukðtis, þieminiai kvieèiai, tarpubambliø ilgis, oro temperatûra.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific Articles, 2005, 1, 89, 81-92

UDK 631.811.98:633.11<324>:57.087.1

THE EFFECT OF THE GROWTH REGULATOR TRINEXAPAC - ETHYL AND ITS MIXTURES ON THE BIOMETRICAL INDICATORS OF WINTER WHEAT STEMS

O. Auðkalnienë

Summary

Plant growth regulators (PGR) are used in the cereal growing technology to prevent lodging. To estimate the efficacy of plant growth regulators, field trials were conducted at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s, Department of Soil and Plant Management during 2002-2003. The soil of the experimental site is drained soddy gleyic, light loam. The winter wheat cv. ‘Ðirvinta’ stands were sprayed with the gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitors CCC (chlormequat chloride CCC), Modus (trinexapac - ethyl) or with ethylene releasing Terpal C three times – BBCH 29-30; BBCH 32-33 and BBCH 37-39.

Modus 250EC in combination with CCC was effective at shortening of winter wheat stems and protected winter wheat plants against lodging.

The plants of winter wheat in the plots sprayed with PGR were 3-30 cm shorter compared to the untreated plots. The best results were obtained in the plots, applied with PGR twice: for the first time CCC 1.0 l ha-1 and for the second time CCC and Modus (0.4 + 0.2 l ha-1). Similar results were obtained in the winter wheat plots applied with CCC 1.0 l ha-1 for the first treatment and with Modus 0.4 l ha-1 for the second. The latter combination gave the best protection against lodging in the year 2002.

Key words: PGR, cereals lodging, winter wheat, plant high, length of internodes, air temperature.  


ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2005, 1, 89, 93-102

UDK 633.13:551.5:631.559

AVIÞØ VEISLIØ IR LINIJØ DERLINGUMO PRIKLAUSOMUMAS NUO ORO TEMPERATÛROS IR KRITULIØ PASISKIRSTYMO VEGETACIJOS METU

Alfredas KULIKAUSKAS, Jûratë SPRAINAITIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p. kulikauskas@lzi.lt

Santrauka

1999-2003 m. Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Javø selekcijos skyriuje tirtas krituliø ir oro temperatûros kiekis ávairiais augimo tarpsniais bei jø átaka aviþø grûdø derlingumui.

Bandymai daryti sëjomainos laukuose, kuriuose vyrauja karbonatingi glëjiðki vidutinio sunkumo rudþemiai. Tyrimø metais tais paèiais augimo tarpsniais buvo skirtinga oro temperatûra ir krituliø kiekis.

Nustatyta, kad javø derlingumas ið esmës priklauso nuo klimatiniø veiksniø. Taip pat nustatyta koreliacija tarp aviþø derlingumo ir krituliø kiekio bei oro temperatûros atskirais deðim­tadieniais.

Palyginus aviþø veislës ‘Jaugila’ ir linijos 1407-30 derlingumo priklausomumà nuo oro temperatûros per atskirus deðimtadienius, teigiama koreliacija buvo per pirmàjá geguþës deðimtadiená (r = 0,906 ir r = 0,829). Antràjá geguþës deðimtadiená koreliacijos koeficientas buvo maþesnis (r = 0,816 ir r = 0,739). Stipri neigiama koreliacija tarp aviþø derlingumo ir oro temperatûros buvo nustatyta pirmà, antrà ir treèià birþelio mënesio deðimtadieniais.

Teigiama koreliacija tarp aviþø derlingumo ir krituliø kiekio buvo pirmà liepos deðimtadiená (r = 0,848 ir r = 0,711)  ir antrà geguþës deðimtadiená (r = 0,661 ir r = 0,564). Neigiama koreliacija tarp derlingumo ir krituliø kiekio nustatyta pirmà geguþës (r = - 0,645 ir r = - 0,832) bei treèià birþelio  (r = - 0,620 ir r = - 0,854) mënesiø deðimtadieniais.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: aviþos, veislës, derlingumas, koreliacija, meteorologinës sàlygos.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific Articles, 2005, 1, 89, 93-102

UDK 633.13:551.5:631.559

PRODUCTIVITY OF OATS VARIETIES AND LINES IN RELATION TO THE AIR TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION DISTRIBUTION WITHIN THE GROWING SEASON

A. Kulikauskas, J. Sprainaitienë

Summary

The effects of temperature and precipitation distribution within the different growth stages on the grain yield of oats were studied at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s Department of Cereals Breeding during the period 1999-2003.

The prevalent soil type of the experimental site is calcaric gleyic moderately heavy cambisol. The air temperature and amount of precipitation at the same growth stages varied between different experimental years.

The present article suggests that oats productivity is primarily dependent on the weather factors. A correlation was determined between oats productivity and distribution of precipitation amount and air temperatures within separate ten-day periods.

Comparison of the productivity of cv. ‘Jaugila’ and line 1407-30 in relation to the air temperature during separate ten-day periods revealed a positive correlation during the first ten-day period of May (r = 0.906 and r = 0.829). In the second-ten day period of May the correlation coefficient was lower (r = 0.816 and r = 0.739). A strong negative correlation between oats produc­tivity and air temperature was identified in the first, second, and third ten-day periods of June.

A positive correlation between oats productivity and the amount of precipitation was identified in the first ten-day period of July (r = 0.848 and r = 0.711) and the second ten-day period of May (r = 0.661 and r = 0.564). A negative correlation between the oats productivity and amount of precipitation was found in the first ten-day period of May (r = - 0.645 and r = - 0.832), and in the third ten-day period of June (r = - 0.620 and r = - 0.854).

Key words: oats, varieties, productivity, correlation, meteorological conditions.


ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2005, 1, 89, 103-113

UDK 633.426:631.531.02]:631.84

AZOTO TRÀÐØ NORMØ ÁTAKA PAÐARINIØ GRIEÞÈIØ SËKLOMS, AUGINANT BEPASODINIU BÛDU

Jadvyga LAPINSKIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filialas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

El. p. filialas@vezaiciai.lzi.lt

Santrauka

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filiale 1998-2001 m. buvo tiriamos azoto tràðø normos paðariniams grieþèiams. Dirvoþemis – nepasotintas giliau glëjiðkas balkðvaþemis – lengvas priemolis,  kurio pHKCl 5,5-6,0.

1998-2000 m. rugpjûèio mënesio pirmoje pusëje paðariniai grieþèiai (Brassica napus L. rapifera Metzger.) ‘Vëþaièiai’ sëti (4 kg ha-1) bepasodiniu bûdu. Foninis træðimas P90K120 atliktas prieð sëjà. Tirtos azoto tràðø normos nuo N60 iki N180 buvo iðbertos pavasará, atsinaujinus grieþèiø vegetacijai, o papildomai træðta sëklojø butonizacijos pradþioje – po 2-3 savaièiø.

Vidutiniais bandymø duomenimis, didinant azoto tràðø normà iki N120, sëklø derlius nuosekliai didëjo iki 825 kg ha-1 arba, palyginus su netræðtais augalais, vidutinis sëklø derliaus priedas sudarë 401 kg ha-1, arba 94 %. Azoto tràðø normà didinant iki N150 ir N180 didesnio sëklø derliaus negauta.

Paðariniai grieþèiai pasiekë didþiausià 1000-èio sëklø masæ – 3,5 g, sëklojus patræðus maþiausia – N60 tràðø norma. Didþiausias sëklø daigumas (94 %) nustatytas, kai sëklos buvo iðlaikytos 6 mën. ir kai buvo panaudota per vienà kartà 120 kg ha-1 azoto tràðø.

Uþ sunaudotà vienà kilogramà azoto didþiausias sëklø derliaus priedas gautas træðiant N60 ir N120 ir sudarë 3,37 ir 3,34 kg. Azoto tràðø N120 normos paskirstymas grieþèiams per du kartus nebuvo pranaðesnis uþ vienkartiná træðimà. Toliau didinti azoto normà neapsimoka.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: paðariniai grieþèiai, bepasodinis sëklø auginimo bûdas, azoto tràðos, normos.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2005, 1, 89, 103-113

UDK 633.426:631.531.02]:631.84

THE IMPACT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER RATES ON FODDER SWEDE SEED YIELD AS AFFECTED BY THE PLANTING METHOD WITHOUT MOTHER ROOTS  

J. Lapinskienë

Summary

The effects of nitrogen fertiliser rates on fodder swede were studied at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s Vëþaièiai Branch during the period 1998-2001. The soil of the experimental site is characterised as Dystri-Endohyperstagnic Albeluvisol light loam with a pHKCl of 5.5-6.0.

The fodder swede (Brassica napus L. rapifera Metzger.) variety ‘Vëþaièiai’ was grown not from mother roots, “from seed to seed” method was used. The crop was sown at a seed rate of 4 kg ha-1 in the second half of August of 1998-2000. Background fertilisation P90K120 was applied before sowing. The tested nitrogen fertiliser rates from N60 to N180 were spread in spring upon resumption of vegetative growth of fodder swede and extra fertilisation was given after 2-3 weeks at the beginning of budding stage of seed stalks.

 Averaged experimental data suggest that increasing of nitrogen fertiliser rate to N120 kg ha-1 resulted in a consistent seed yield increase to 825 kg ha-1 or compared with the plants that did not receive any nitrogen fertilisation, the average seed yield increase amounted to 401 kg ha-1 or 94 %. Further increase of nitrogen fertiliser rate up to N150 and N180, did not result in increased seed yield.

The highest 1000 seed weight of 3.5 g was obtained having fertilised fodder swede seed stalks with the lowest N60 fertiliser rate. The highest seed germinating power (94 %) was identified when the seed had been stored for 6 months and N120 kg ha-1 had been given in one application.

The highest seed yield increase 3.37 and 3.34 kg through one kg of nitrogen used was obtained at N60 and N120 kg ha-1 fertilisation. Splitting of N120 rate in two applications was not found superior to the single application. It did not pay to further increase the rate of nitrogen.

 Key words: fodder swede, seed growing method without mother roots, nitrogen fertiliser rates.  


IV skyrius. ÞOLININKYSTË

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2005, 1, 89, 114-124

UDK [633.322+633.264:633.265]:636.2.033

ERAIÈINSVIDRIØ (FESTULOLIUM) IR BALTØJØ DOBILØ (TRIFOLIUM REPENS L.) KONKURENCIJA TRUMPALAIKIØ GANYKLØ EKOSISTEMOJE

Elena PETRAITYTË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p. elena.petraityte@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Tyrimai daryti 1998-2003 m. UAB „LÞI Dotnuvos eksperimentinis ûkis” Valinavos ganykloje. Dirvoþemis – lengvo priemolio glëjiðkasis rudþemis, kurio pH 6,4-6,9, humuso – 3,2-3,5 %, judriøjø P2O5 – 238-259 mg ir K2O – 143-152 mg kg-1 dirvoþemio. Daugiametës þolës dviejuose bandymuose ásëtos 1998 ir 1999 m. pavasará su antsëliu vikiø ir aviþø miðiniu þaliam paðarui (50+100 kg ha-1 sëklos). Miðiniuose baltøjø dobilø sëta 25 %, 50 % ir 75 %, o varpiniø þoliø 25 %, 50 %, 75 % ir 100 %. Daugiametës þolës kiekvienø naudojimo metø pavasará træðtos P60K60. Azoto tràðomis træðtos tik grynos eraièinsvidrës. Ganykloje ganytos melþiamos karvës 4-5 kartus per sezonà.

Tyrimø tikslas – nustatyti eraièinsvidriø ‘Punia’ ir baltøjø dobilø ‘Sûduviai’ miðiniø nariø sëklos santyká bei palyginti ðiuos miðinius su daugiameèiø svidriø ‘Þvilgë’, tikrøjø eraièinø ‘Kaita’ ir baltøjø dobilø miðiniais.

Vidutiniai dviejø bandymø trejø naudojimo metø duomenys rodo, kad netræðiami azotu eraièinsvidriø ‘Punia’ ir baltøjø dobilø ‘Sûduviai’ miðiniai uþaugino gausø ir stabilø 6,22-6,38 t ha-1 sausøjø medþiagø derliø. Þoliø pirmais-treèiais naudojimo metais esminiø skirtumø tarp eraièinsvidriø ir baltøjø dobilø sëklos santykio miðinyje ir ganomø þolynø produktyvumo nenustatyta. Padidinus eraièinsvidriø dalá, þolyne sumaþëjo baltøjø dobilø ir ávairiaþoliø. Eraièinsvidrës labiau stelbë baltuosius dobilus negu daugiametës svidrës ar tikrieji eraièinai. Grynos eraièinsvidrës davë didþiausià sausøjø medþiagø derliø (6,87 t ha-1), taèiau ðis derlius gautas N180 fone, iðberiant po N60 pavasará ir po antro bei treèio ganymo. Nors derliaus priedas gautas patikimas, taèiau jis nepakankamas azoto sànaudoms kompensuoti. Tikrøjø eraièinø ir baltøjø dobilø miðinyje dobilø buvo daugiausiai – 42,2 % ir gauta daugiausiai þaliø baltymø – 21,0 %. Netræðtas azotu ðis miðinys I-III þoliø naudojimo metais davë 6,42 t ha-1 sausøjø medþiagø. Maþiausiai produktyvus ið visø tirtø miðiniø buvo daugiameèiø svidriø ir baltøjø dobilø miðinys – 5,76 t ha-1 sausøjø medþiagø.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: Festulolium, baltieji dobilai, þoliø miðiniai, ganymo ciklai.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific Articles, 2005, 1, 89, 114-124

UDK [633.322+633.264:633.265]:636.2.033

COMPETITION BETWEEN FESTULOLIUM AND WHITE CLOVER IN SHORT-TERM PASTURE ECOSYSTEMS

E. Petraitytë

Summary

Experiments were conducted during 1998-2003 in the Valinava pasture of LIA Experimental Farm in Dotnuva. The soil of the experimental site is gleyic, light loam (Cambisol), with a pH value of 6.4-6.9, humus content 3.2-3.5 %, available P2O5 238-259 mg and K2O 143-152 mg kg-1 soil. The experimental objective was to determine the seed ratio of intergeneric hybrids Festulolium ‘Punia’ and white clover ‘Sûduviai’ in a re-seeded pasture and to compare these mixtures with the mixtures composed of perennial ryegrass ‘Þvilgë’ and meadow fescue ‘Kaita’ with white clover. The mixtures consisted of 25-50-75 % white clover and 25-50-75-100 % of grasses. 

Averaged data of two experiments of three years of use suggest that nitrogen-unfertilized  mixture of Festulolium ‘Punia’ / white clover gave a high and stable yield of 6.22-6.38 t ha-1 DM. In the first-third years of sward use no significant differences were identified between Festulolium and white clover seed ratio in the mixture and the productivity of grazing swards. When Festulolium share was increased in the sward, this resulted in a considerable decline in white clover and forbs. Festulolium had a greater suppressive effect on white clover compared with perennial ryegrass or meadow fescue. Festulolium sown pure gave the highest dry matter yield 6.87 t ha-1, however, this yield was obtained on the background of abundant nitrogen fertilization N180, applying N60 in spring and after the second-third grazing. Although a marked yield increase was obtained, it was insufficient to offset nitrogen input. Meadow fescue/white clover mixture contained the highest share of clover (42.2 %) and the largest content of crude protein (21.0 %). This mixture unfertilized with nitrogen gave a dry matter yield of 6.42 t ha-1 in the first-third year of sward use. Under central Lithuania’s conditions the least productive of all investigated mixtures was found to be perennial ryegrass / white clover mixture 5.76 t ha-1 DM.

Key words: Festulolium, white clover, grass mixtures, grazing cycles 


ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2005, 1, 89, 125-138

UDK  633.11<324>:632.51

TRUMPALAIKIØ ÐIENAUJAMØ ÞOLYNØ ÁTAKA PO JØ AUGINAMØ ÞIEMINIØ KVIEÈIØ PIKTÞOLËTUMUI

Regina SKUODIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filialas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

El. p. rskuod@vezaiciai.lzi.lt

Santrauka

Pateikiami 1995-2000 metais LÞI Vëþaièiø filiale darytø tyrimø duomenys apie piktþoliø paplitimà ðienaujamuose trumpalaikiuose þolynuose bei po jø auginamuose þieminiuose kvieèiuose (Triticum aestivum L.).

Trumpalaikiø ðienaujamø þolynø piktþolëtumas buvo maþas. Labiau plito daugiametës dviskiltës piktþolës. Þolynø piktþolëtumas priklausë nuo sëtøjø daugiameèiø þoliø rûðiø. Tankesniuose baltøjø dobilø ir daugiameèiø svidriø bei nendriniø dryþuèiø + nendriniø eraièinø þolynuose piktþoliø buvo ið esmës maþiau, nei þolynuose su raudonaisiais dobilais ir su paðariniais motiejukais (41,7-40,9 vnt. m-2). Nustatytas vidutinio stiprumo atvirkðtinis tiesinis ryðys tarp varpiniø þoliø ir viename-èiø vienaskilèiø piktþoliø kiekio (r = -0,52), o su jø orasause mase – stiprus atvirkðtinis tiesinis ryðys  (r = -0,70*). Po gero tankumo þolynø, t.y. kai sëtøjø þoliø rasta ne maþiau kaip 70 %, þieminiai kvieèiai buvo maþai piktþolëti. Kvieèiuose iðplito vienametës dviskiltës piktþolës. Piktþoliø iðplitimui esminæ átakà turëjo tik dobilø rûðis þolynuose. Þieminiai kvieèiai sëti po baltøjø dobilø ir po grynøjø varpiniø þolynø buvo ið esmës maþiau piktþolëti (39,2-41,9 vnt. m-2) nei po raudonøjø dobilø þolynø.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: piktþolës, trumpalaikiai ðienaujami þolynai, þieminiai kvieèiai.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific Articles, 2005, 1, 89, 125-138

UDK  633.11<324>:632.51

THE IMPACT OF TEMPORARY GRASSLANDS FOR CUTTING ON THE INCIDENCE OF WEEDS IN WINTER WHEAT CROPS GROWN AFTER THE TEMPORARY GRASSLANDS

R. Skuodienë

Summary

Experiments were carried out during 1995-2000 at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s Vëþaièiai Branch on a sod podzolic Orthieutric Albeluvisol (Abe-o) light loam on medium heavy loam soil, with the following agrochemical characteristics: pHKCl - 5.4-6.2, available P2O5 and K2O - 179-280 and 190-360 mg kg-1, respectively.

The data of weed occurrence in the temporary grasslands for cutting and winter wheat are presented in this paper.

It was determined that the weed incidence in the temporary grasslands for cutting was low. The amount of weeds in the swards depended on the species of sown grasses. The amount of weeds was significantly lower (41.7-40.9 units m-2) in the thick stands of white clover and perennial ryegrass, as well as in the reed fescue + reed canary grass compared with the swards of red clover or timothy. A medium strong linear inverse correlation (r = -0.52) was established between the amount of grasses and annual monocotyledonous weeds and a strong linear negative correlation (r = -0.70) – with the air-dry weight of weeds. The weediness of winter wheat grown after swards of good density was low. It was determined that the annual dycotyledonous weeds spread in the winter wheat crops. Clover species in swards had a significant effect on the spread of weeds in wheat. The weediness of winter wheat sown after white clover and pure grasses was significantly lower 32.2-41.9 weeds m-2 compared with red clover swards.

Key words: weeds, temporary grasslands for cutting, winter wheat.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2005, 1, 89, 139-153

UDK  633.264:633.265]:631.84:631.559

SËKLINIØ ERAIÈINSVIDRIØ DERLINGUMAS PRIKLAUSOMAI NUO ANTSËLIO, ATOLO PJOVIMO LAIKO, AMÞIAUS IR TRÆÐIMO AZOTU

Vytautas ÞEMAITIS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p. jonas.slepetys@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Bandymai daryti 1999-2003 m. Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute lengvø drenuotø priemoliø sekliau karbonatinguose sekliau glëjiðkuose rudþemiuose RDg8-k1, kuriø armens pH – 7,3, judriøjø P2O5 – 98-115 mg ir K2O – 105-112 mg kg-1, humuso 2,22 %. Aiðkintasi mieþiø antsëlio, atolo pjovimo laiko sëjos ir pirmais naudojimo metais, pasëlio amþiaus ir træðimo azotu átaka eraièinsvidriø ‘Punia’ sëklos derliui. Ðios þolës sëtos su mieþiais ‘Alsa’ ir be jø. Sëjant be antsëlio, pirmoji þolë nupjauta po mieþiø pjûties ir tuoj træðta N45. Mieþiø grûdø gauta vidutiniðkai 3,40 t ha-1, eraièinsvidriø – 1,35 t ha-1 sausøjø medþiagø. Pastarøjø atolas pjautas rugsëjo pradþioje ir vëliau kas 15 dienø iki lapkrièio pradþios, be to, dukart – rugsëjo bei lapkrièio pradþioje, kontroliniame variante nepjautas. Paskutinës pjûties masë buvo ir paðalinta, ir palikta. Sëklø derliaus metais tirtas eraièinsvidriø træðimas N0, N60, N90, N0+60, N60+30 (anksti + joms plaukëjant).

Eraièinsvidriø be antsëlio ir su juo atolo sëjos metais gauta atitinkamai 1,47 ir 0,22 t, kitais – 2,72 ir 2,52 t ha-1 sausøjø medþiagø. Vëlesnës pjûties þolës buvo daugiau, bet ji buvo maþiau maistinga. Su antsëliu ir be jo sëtø eraièinsvidriø pirmas sëklos derlius buvo atitinkamai 573 ir 656 kg ha-1, antras – 204 ir 194 kg ha-1. Atolo pjûties laiko ir nupjautos þolës paðalinimo átaka sëklos derliui nebuvo aiðkiai reikðminga. Eraièinsvidres træðus azotu beplaukëjanèias, jø sëklos derlius nepadidëjo, didþiausias jis buvo patræðus pavasará N60.

Su antsëliu sëti eraièinsvidres buvo pelningiau negu be jo. Pavasará be antsëlio sëtø ir  rugpjûèio pirmoje pusëje nupjautø eraièinsvidriø dar pjauti nebûtina. Taèiau, esant þolës poreikiui, galima pjauti ir iki spalio pabaigos – paðaro gaunama apie 1,8 t ha-1 sausøjø medþiagø. Su antsëliu sëtø eraièinsvidriø rudená pjauti neverta – per maþai þolës. Ir dvejus metus sëklai auginti neverta, nes antras derlius bandymuose sumaþëjo vidutiniðkai apie 3 kartus. Jø kûlenos yra menkos paðarinës vertës.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: eraièinsvidrës (Festulolium), antsëlis, atolas, pjûties laikas, azotas, þolës ir sëklos derlius, pelnas.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific Articles, 2005, 1, 89, 139-153

UDK  631.459 :[631.51.003+631.6.02.003]

PRODUCTIVITY OF FESTULOLIUM SEED CROPS IN RELATION TO THE COVER CROP, AFTERMATH CUTTING TIME, AGE AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION

V. Þemaitis

Summary

Experiments were conducted during the period 1999-2003 at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture on a light loamy Cambisol CMg-p-w-cap with the ploughlayer’s characteristics: pH 7.3, P2O5 98-115 mg and K2O 105-112 mg kg-1, humus 2.22 %. Festulolium cv. ‘Punia’ was sown at 30 cm interrows with / without a cover crop barley cv. ‘Alsa’. In the spring of the sowing year Festulolium received N45K60 fertilization. The first herbage crop was taken after barley harvesting and was applied with N45 shortly afterwards. Barley grain yield amounted to 3.40 t ha-1, Festulolium DM to 1.35 t ha-1. The aftermath of the latter was cut at the beginning of September and later every 15 days until the beginning of November. In one case, the herbage was cut twice – at the beginning of September and November, no cuts were taken in the control treatment. The mass of the last cut was both removed and left. The following spring Festulolium was applied with N60 and sprayed with the herbicide Dialen. N45 was applied after seed harvesting, the aftermath was cut in the same way as in the sowing year, and in the spring of the second year of use N60 was applied. In the year of seed harvesting we also studied nitrogen fertilization N0, N60, N90, N0+60, N60+30 (in spring + at heading). Festulolium herbage, thrashing residues, and raw seed quantitative and qualitative indicators were estimated. Conditional profit of Festulolium cultivation for seed was calculated.

The DM yield of Festulolium without / with a cover crop in the sowing year of the aftermath amounted to 1.47 / 0.22 t, and in the following year 2.72 / 2.52 t ha-1. The herbage yield of later cuts was higher but it was less nutritious. The first seed yield of Festulolium with / without a cover crop was 573 / 656 kg, the second seed yield was similar 204 / 194 kg ha-1. The effect of aftermath cutting time and removal of cut herbage was not clearly significant. When Festulolium had been applied with nitrogen at the heading stage, the seed yield did not increase. The highest seed yield was obtained having applied N60 in spring.

Festulolium seed crops sown without a cover crop and cut in the first half of August could still be growing. However, when preference is given to herbage it is possible to cut it until the end of October. Festulolium sown with a cover crop has too little herbage in autumn to be cut. It does not pay to grow Festulolium for seed for two years of use since the second yield declines about three times. Conversely, the seed yield significantly increases having fertilized Festulolium with N60 in spring. The thrashing residues are of low nutritive value.

Key words: Festulolium, cover crop, aftermath, cutting time, nitrogen, herbage and seed yield, profit.  


V skyrius. MIKROBIOLOGIJA

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2005, 1, 89, 154-162

UDK 631.46+631.41

MIKROORGANIZMØ PAPLITIMAS ESANT SKIRTINGOMS DIRVOÞEMIO AGROCHEMINËMS SAVYBËMS

Loreta PIAULOKAITË - MOTUZIENË, Donatas Konèius, Edmundas LAPINSKAS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filialas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

El. p. lucra@one.lt

Santrauka

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiu filiale 2001-2003 m. tirtas dirvoþemio azoto trans­formacijoje dalyvaujanèiø mikroorganizmø paplitimas ir nustatyta agrocheminiø dirvoþemio savybiø átaka jø gausumui. Bandymo dirvoþemis – giliau glëjiðkas nepasotintas balkðvaþemis (JI2) – Dystrict Albeluvisol (ABd) (velëninis jaurinis glëjiðkas JP1v) – lengvas ant vidutinio sunkumo priemolis. Dirvoþemio ëminiai mikrobiologinëms analizëms sudaryti ið 4 dirvoþemio pHKCl lygiø (< 4,7; 4,7-5,2; 5,2-5,7; > 6,7) ir 3 træðimo lygiø (be tràðø; 1 NPK norma, 3 NPK normos), ið 0-20 cm armens sluoksnio rugpjûèio mënesá.

Amonifikuojantys ir mineraliná azotà asimiliuojantys mikroorganizmai labiausiai paplitæ maþo rûgðtumo (pHKCl 5,2-5,7) dirvoþemyje, træðtame viena NPK tràðø norma. Sporiniø bakterijø gausiausiai buvo maþo rûgðtumo (pHKCl 5,2-5,7) bei artimame neutraliam (pHKCl > 6,7) dirvoþemyje. Didþiausias mikromicetø skaièius nustatytas rûgðèiame dirvoþemyje (pHKCl < 4,7) ir jø skaièius didëjo didinant mineraliniø NPK tràðø normà. Didþiausià átakà mikroorganizmø paplitimui turëjo bendrojo azoto kiekis.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: mikroorganizmai, paplitimas, dirvoþemis, agrocheminës savybës.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific Articles, 2005, 1, 89, 154-162

UDK 631.46+631.41

THE OCCURRENCE OF MICROORGANISMS AS AFFECTED BY DIFFERENT SOIL AGROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES

L. Piaulokaitë - Motuzienë, D. Konèius, E. Lapinskas

Summary

Experiments conducted at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s Vëþaièiai Branch during the period 2001-2003 were designed to investigate the occurrence of microorganisms participating in soil nitrogen transformation and to identify the effects of the agrochemical soil properties on the number of microorganisms. The soil of the trial site is characterised as gleyic – Dystric Albeluvisol (ABd) – light on medium loam. Soil samples for microbiological analyses were composed of 4 soil pHKCl levels (< 4.7; 4.7-5.2; 5.2-5.7; > 6.7) and 3 fertilization levels (without fertilizer, 1 NPK rate, 3 NPK rates) taken from the 0-20 cm ploughlayer in August.

The highest occurrence of ammonifying and mineral nitrogen assimilating microorganisms was found for low acidy (pHKCl 5.2-5.7) soil applied with one NPK fertilizer rate. The highest content of spore forming bacteria was identified for the low acidity (pHKCl 5.2-5.7) and close to neutral (pHKCl > 6.7) soil. The highest number of micromyctes was determined for acid soil (pHKCl < 4.7), and this number tended to increase with increased mineral NPK fertilizer rate. The content of total nitrogen was found to have the greatest impact on the occurrence of microorganisms.

Key words: microorganisms, occurrence, soil, agrochemical properties.


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