·Raðykite mums: lzi@lzi.lt


TURINYS

 I skyrius. DIRVOTYRA IR AGROCHEMIJA

 J. Maþvila, T. Adomaitis, L. Eitminavièius. Lietuvos dirvoþemiø rûgðtumo pokyèiai jø nebekalkinant

 T. Adomaitis, Z. Vaiðvila, J. Maþvila, S. Grickevièienë, L. Eitminavièius. Azoto junginiø (NO3-, NH4+, NO2-) koncentracija lizimetrø vandenyje skirtingai træðtuose smëlingø priemoliø dirvoþemiuose

 D. Januðauskaitë, G. Ðidlauskas. Azoto tràðø efektyvumo þieminiuose kvieèiuose priklausomumas nuo meteorologiniø sàlygø Vidurio Lietuvoje

 D. Januðauskaitë, V. Maðauskas. Þieminiø ir vasariniø kvieèiø derliaus ir grûdø kokybës priklausomumas nuo azoto tràðø normø

 D. Januðauskaitë, V. Maðauskas. Þieminiø rugiø derliaus ir grûdø kokybës priklausomumas nuo azoto tràðø ir optimalios jø normos

 D. Oþeraitienë, D. Jovaiða. Ávairiø organiniø tràðø poveikis dirvoþemio cheminëms ir fizikinëms savybëms intensyvioje linø sëjomainoje

 II skyrius. ÞEMDIRBYSTË

 I. Kinderienë. Supaprastinto þemës dirbimo bei augalø masës áterpimo naudojimo átaka dirvoþemio vandeninei erozijai

 A. Arlauskienë, S. Maikðtënienë. Prieðsëliø ir organiniø tràðø poveikis vienameèiø piktþoliø plitimui skirtingose agrosistemose

 I. Petrovienë. Mechaniniø ir cheminiø priemoniø deriniø tyrimai bulviø pasëliø piktþolëtumui maþinti

 V. Seibutis, A. Magyla. Þieminiø kvieèiø ir vasariniø mieþiø pasëliø agrofitocenozës pokyèiai trumpø rotacijø sëjomainose

 III skyrius. AUGALØ APSAUGA

 Z. Jankauskienë. Visuotinio veikimo herbicido raundapo panaudojimo linø brandai paankstinti tyrimai

 I. Gaurilèikienë. Þieminiø kvieèiø lapø ligø kontrolë naudojant sumaþintas triazolø normas

 IV skyrius. ÞOLININKYSTË

 R. Vaièiulytë, R. Baèënas. Natûraliø ir sëtø þolynø laikinai nenaudojamose þemëse prieþiûros bûdø tyrimai

 V skyrius. MIKROBIOLOGIJA

 E. Lapinskas, D. Ambrazaitienë. Rytiniø oþiarûèiø sëklø inokuliavimo bakterijø (Rhizobium galegae) preparatais terminai ir bûdai

L. Piaulokaitë Motuzienë, E. Lapinskas, D. Èiuberkienë. Dirvoþemio rûgðtumo ir mineraliniø tràðø átaka amonifikuojanèiø bei mineraliná azotà asimiliuojanèiø mikroorganizmø paplitimui

  

CONTENTS

 Chapter 1. SOIL SCIENCE AND AGROCHEMISTRY

 J. Maþvila, T. Adomaitis, L. Eitminavièius. Changes in the acidity of Lithuania’s soils as affected of not liming

 T. Adomaitis, Z. Vaiðvila, J. Maþvila, S. Grickevièienë, L. Eitminavièius. Concentration of nitrogen (NO3-, NH4+, NO2-) compounds in lysimeter water of a differently fertilized sandy loam soil

 D. Januðauskaitë, G. Ðidlauskas. Nitrogen fertilizer efficacy in winter wheat in relation to weather conditions in Central Lithuania

 D. Januðauskaitë, V. Maðauskas. Grain yield and quality of winter and spring wheat in relation to nitrogen fertilizers rates

 D. Januðauskaitë, V. Maðauskas. Winter rye yield and grain quality in relation to nitrogen fertilizers and their optimal rates

 D. Oþeraitienë, D. Jovaiða. Effect of different organic fertilizers on soil chemical and physical properties in an intensive flax rotation

 Chapter 2. AGRICULTURE

 I. Kinderienë. Effects of reduced soil tillage and plant mass incorporation on water erosion of soil

 A. Arlauskienë, S. Maikðtënienë. The effects of preceding crops and organic fertilizers on the occurrence of short-lived weeds in different agrosystems

 I. Petrovienë. Investigation of mechanical and chemical means for the reduction of weed infestation in potato crops

 V. Seibutis, A.Magyla. Changes in the agrophytocenoses of winter wheat and spring barley crops in short crop rotations

 Chapter 3. PLANT PROTECTION

 Z. Jankauskienë. Testing of the non-selective herbicide roundup application for flax maturity acceleration

 I.Gaurilèikienë. Application of reduced doses of triazoles for the control of winter wheat leaf diseases

 Chapter 4. GRASSLAND HUSBANDRY

 R. Vaièiulytë, R. Baèënas. Investigation of management of methods of natural and sown swards on temporarily abandoned land

 Chapter 5. MIKROBIOLOGY

 E. Lapinskas, D. Ambrazaitienë. Terms and methods of goat’s rue seed inoculation with bacteria (Rhizobium galegae) preparations

 L. Piaulokaitë Motuzienë, E. Lapinskas, D. Èiuberkienë. The effects of soil aciduty and mineral fertilizers on the occurrence of ammonifying and mineral nitrogen assimilating microorganisms in the soil


I skyrius. DIRVOTYRA IR AGROCHEMIJA

 ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 4, 88, 3-20

UDK  631.415(474.5)

 LIETUVOS DIRVOÞEMIØ RÛGÐTUMO POKYÈIAI JØ NEBEKALKINANT

 Jonas MAÞVILA, Tomas ADOMAITIS, Leonas EITMINAVIÈIUS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Agrocheminiø tyrimø centras

Savanoriø pr. 287, Kaunas

El. p. dirvotyra@agrolab.lt

 Santrauka

 Dirvoþemio agrocheminio tyrimo 27 administraciniø rajonø 241-ame ûkyje (1986- 2000 m.) ir agromonitoringo 15-kos dirvoþemio rajonø apie 200 ha dydþio 75 objektuose (1993-2002 m.) duomenimis, anksèiau intensyviai kalkintos dirvos rûgðtëja, o jø pHKCl ið lëto gráþta á bûklæ, buvusià prieð intensyvø kalkinimà. Sàlygiðkai rûgðèiø (pHKCl £ 5,5) dirvoþemiø plotai padidëjo atitinkamai 1,7 % ir 6,3 %, ið jø: Vakarø Lietuvoje – 3,6 % ir 14,4 %, Rytø – 1,3 % ir 4,9 %, Vidurio – 0,8 % ir 1,6 %. Labiausiai rûgðtëja dirvoþemiai Vakarø Lietuvoje, kur prieð kalkinimà buvo daugiausiai labai ir vidutiniðkai rûgðèiø dirvoþemiø plotø ir vyksta intensyvûs iðplovimo procesai. Dirvoþemio amonito­ringo, kurio objektuose dirvoþemio rûgðtëjimas þymiai ryðkesnis, tyrimais Þemaitijos Vakarø Kurðo aukðtumoje (Telðiø, Plungës, Ðilalës ir dalis Kelmës bei Maþeikiø rajonø) rûgðèiø dirvoþemiø (pH £5,5) padaugëjo 20,6 %, Pajûrio þemumos ir Nemuno deltos lygumoje (Ðilutës r.) – 17,3 %, Vakarø Þemaitijos plynaukðtëje (Skuodo, Kretingos, Klaipëdos ir dalis Tauragës r.) – 14,9 %.

Dirvoþemio pasotinimas bazëmis, nustatytas Kapeno-Hilkovico ir FAO metodais, þymiai daugiau skiriasi anksèiau intensyviai kalkintuose, o ðiuo metu rûgðtëjanèiuose ariamø laukø negu nekalkintuose miðkø dirvoþemiuose. Ariamø laukø dirvoþemiai, net ir labai rûgðtûs (anksèiau kalkinti) pagal Kapenà-Hilkovicà yra labai maþai ir maþai pasotinti, pagal FAO – pasotinti, o panaðaus rûgðtumo miðkø dirvoþemiai daþniausiai – nepasotinti bazëmis.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: dirvoþemio pH, mainø ir hidrolizinis rûgðtumas, sorbuotos bazës, bazëmis pasotinimo laipsnis.

 

 ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 4, 88, 3-20

UDK 631.415(474.5)

 CHANGES IN THE ACIDITY OF LITHUANIA’S SOILS AS AFFECTED OF NOT LIMING

 J. Maþvila, T. Adomaitis, L. Eitminavièius

 Summary

 According to the data of soil agrochemical research (1986-2000) performed on 241 farms in 27 administrative regions of Lithuania as well as in 75 objects of about 200 ha plots of agromonitoring 15 soil regions, earlier intensively limed arable lands are becoming acidic and their pH gradually returns to the level before itensive liming. The area of conditionally acidic (pH £ 5.5) soils increased by 1.7 and 6.3 % accordingly, of this: in Western Lithuania – 3.6 and 14.4, in Eastern – 1.3 and 4.9, meanwhile in Central Lithuania – 0.8 and 1.6 %. Most often the soils become acidic in Western Lithuania, where there was the greatest amount of high and medium acidity soils before liming and where intensive leaching processes are still taking place. Research of soil monitoring performed in the objects with more considerable acidity suggests that the amount of acidic soils (pH £ 5.5) in Þemaitija West Kurðas eminence (Telðiai, Plungë, Ðilalë and part of Kelmë and Maþeikiai districts) increased by 20.6 %, in the plain of Sea-coast lowland and the Nemunas delta – by 17.3, in the plateau of West Þemaitija (Skuodas, Kretinga, Klaipëda and part of Tauragë district) – by 14.9 %.

Base saturation of soil determined by the Kapen-Hilkovic and FAO methods differs considerably more in previously intensively limed, but at present becoming acidic arable land, compared with the unlimed forest soils. The soils of arable land, though being very acidic according to Kapen-Hilkovic, are very little and little base - saturated, while according to FAO – base - saturated. Forest soils of similar acidity are mostly base - unsaturated.

Keywords: soil pH, exchangeable and hydrolytic acidity, total absorbed bases, base saturation.


 ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 4, 88, 21-33

UDK 631.421.3:631.84'5'3

 AZOTO JUNGINIØ (NO3-, NH4+, NO2-) KONCENTRACIJA LIZIMETRØ VANDENYJE SKIRTINGAI TRÆÐTUOSE SMËLINGØ PRIEMOLIØ DIRVOÞEMIUOSE

 Tomas ADOMAITIS, Zigmas VAIÐVILA, Jonas MAÞVILA, Silvija GRICKEVIÈIENË, Leonas EITMINAVIÈIUS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Savanoriø pr. 287, Kaunas

El. p. dirvotyra@agrolab.lt

 Santrauka

 Ilgalaikiame sëjomaininiame bandyme, árengtame 1971 m. smëlingame lengvo priemolio sekliai karbonatingame giliau glëjiðkame rudþemyje (Epicalcari – Endohypogleyic Cambisol), tirta sistemingo þemës ûkio augalø (daugiameèiø þoliø, þieminiø kvieèiø, cukriniø runkeliø, vasariniø mieþiø, vienameèiø miðiniø) træðimo skirtingomis azoto, fosforo ir kalio normomis ir jø deriniais bei meteorologiniø sàlygø (hidroterminio reþimo ) átaka azoto junginiø koncentracijai lizimetrø vandenyje.

Tyrimais nustatyta, kad nitratø (NO3-) koncentracija lizimetrø vandenyje labiausiai priklauso nuo iðberto azoto tràðø kiekio. Vidutiniais 27 metø duomenimis, patræðus þemës ûkio augalus 114 kg ha-1 azoto norma fosforo ir kalio tràðø fone, 40 cm gylyje árengtø lizimetrø vandenyje nitratø koncentracija padidëjo 66,8 mg l-1, o padidinus azoto tràðø normà iki 228 kg ha-1 – 144,1 mg l-1 ir siekë atitinkamai 159,1 ir 300,8 mg l-1. Amonio (NH4+) koncentracijai lizimetrø vandenyje mineraliniø tràðø poveikis neþymus: netræðto laukelio 40 cm gylyje amonio nustatyta vidutiniðkai 0,32 mg l-1, patræðus ma­þesnëmis (N114P96K96) ávairiø deriniø azoto, fosforo ir kalio normomis – 0,28-0,4, didesnëmis (N228P192K192) – 0,32 - 0,44, o 80 cm gylyje – atitinkamai 0,29; 0,35; 0,29-0,38 mg l-1.

 Nitratø koncentracija lizimetrø vandenyje nuo azoto tràðø labiau didëjo, kai þemës ûkio augalai buvo netræðti fosforu. Jø koncentracija su iðbertu azoto tràðø kiekiu statistiðkai patikimiau koreliavo, kai bandymo plote augo javai (η = 0,65-0,67), cukriniai runkeliai ir vienametës þolës (η = 0,63).

Su vegetacijos periodo meteorologinëmis sàlygomis (hidroterminiu reþimu) nitratø kon­centracija vandenyje patikimai koreliavo tik auginant cukrinius runkelius bei vienametes ir dau­giametes þoles, o amonio – þieminius kvieèius, vienametes þoles ir mieþius. Daugiau nitratø buvo iðplaunama, kai buvo auginami kasmetinës sëjos augalai, o maþiau – daugiametës þolës.

 Reikðminiai þodþiai: NPK tràðos, augalai, hidroterminis koeficientas, lizimetriniai vandenys, NO3-, NH4+, NO2- koncentracija.

  

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific Articles, 2004, 4, 88, 21-33

UDK 631.421.3:631.84'5'3

 CONCENTRATION OF NITROGEN (NO3-, NH4+, NO2-)  COMPOUNDS IN LYSIMETER WATER OF A DIFFERENTLY FERTILIZED SANDY LOAM SOIL

 T. Adomaitis, Z. Vaiðvila, J. Maþvila, S. Grickevièienë, L. Eitminavièius

 Summary

 Effects of regular fertilization of agricultural crops (perennial grasses, winter wheat, sugar beet, spring barley, annual mixtures), and climatic conditions (hydro-thermal regime) on the concentration of nitrogen compounds in lysimeter water were studied in a long-term crop-rotation experiment, established in 1971 on epicalcari-endohypogleyic cambisol.

Experimental exidence suggests that nitrate (NO3-) concentration in lysimeter water depended mainly on nitrogen fertilizer application rate. Averaged data from 27 years indicate that due to fertilization of agricultural crops with 114 kg ha-1of nitrogen (on the background of potassium and phosphorus fertilization), nitrate concentration in water of lysimeters at 40 cm depth increased by 66.8 mg l-1 to 159.1 mg l-1, when the nitrogen fertilisation rate was 228 kg ha-1, nitrate concentration increased by 144.1 mg l-1 to 300.8 mg l-1. The influence of mineral fertilizers on ammonia (NH4+) concentration in lysimeter water was insignificant: on the average there was 0.32 mg l-1 of ammonia at 40 cm depth in not fertilized plot; 0.28 – 0.4 mg l-1 when the plot was fertilized with lower rates of various combinations of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium; 0.32-0.44 mg l-1 when the aforemen­tioned rates were higher. For the 80 cm depth, the numbers are 0.29; 0.35; 0.29-0.38 mg l-1, respectively.

An increase of nitrate concentration in lysimeter water in response to nitrogen fertilization was more substantial, when agricultural crops were not fertilized with phosphorus. The correlation between nitrate concentration and applied amount of nitrogen fertilizers was more significant when cereals (η = 0.65 - 0.67), sugar beet and annual grasses (η = 0.63) were cultivated on the experimental field.

The correlation between nitrate concentration in water and climatic conditions (hydro-thermal regime) during the growing season was significant only when sugar beet, annual and perennial grasses were cultivated. The correlation between ammonia and climatic conditions was significant when winter wheat, annual grasses and barley were cultivated. Larger amounts of nitrates were leached from soil during summer - autumn and winter - spring periods when annual plants were cultivated, compared to perennial grasses.

Key words: NPK fertilizers, plants, hydro-thermal coefficient, lysimeter water, NO3-, NH4-, NO2- concentration.


 ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 4, 88, 34-47

UDK 633.11<324>:631.84:551.5

 AZOTO TRÀÐØ EFEKTYVUMO ÞIEMINIUOSE KVIEÈIUOSE PRIKLAUSOMUMAS NUO METEOROLOGINIØ SÀLYGØ VIDURIO LIETUVOJE

 Daiva Januðauskaitë1, 2, Gvidas ÐIDLAUSKAS2

 1Lietuvos þemës ûkio konsultavimo tarnyba

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p. daiva.janusauskaite@lzukt.lt

 2lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p. gvidas@lzi.lt

 Santrauka

 1990-1993 m., 1998-2001 m. Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute, Dotnuvoje lengvo priemolio giliau karbonatingame sekliai glëjiðkame rudþemyje – Endocalcari - Epihypogleyic Cambisols daryti þieminiø kvieèiø lauko bandymai. Siekiant ávertinti tràðø efektyvumà ir nustatyti grûdø derliaus bei grûdø kokybës rodikliø ryðá su Vidurio Lietuvoje vyraujanèiomis meteorologinëmis sàlygomis, aðtuoneriø metø tyrimø duomenys analizuoti taikant koreliacijos ir regresijos metodus. Nustatyta, kad azoto tràðø efektyvumas tyrimø metais buvo nevienodas ir labai priklausë nuo pavasario-vasaros periodo drëgmës ir ðilumos sàlygø. N tràðos efektyviausios buvo drëgnais metais, normalaus drëgnumo metais jø efektyvumas sumaþëjo 30-46 %, o sausais – 35-62 %. Skirtingai nei grûdø derliaus, maþiausiai glitimo (13,1-22,4 %) kvieèiai sukaupë drëgnais metais, daugiausiai (22,9-35,8 %) vidutiniðkai drëgnais.

Straipsnyje iðanalizuotas grûdø derliaus, glitimo bei derliuje sukaupto bendrojo azoto ryðys su meteorologiniais veiksniais – krituliø kiekiu, aktyviø temperatûrø, aukðtesniø uþ 5°C (ATS>5°C) ir 10°C (ATS>10°C), suma, saulës apðvitos trukme ir HTK skirtingais kvieèiø augimo laikotarpiais.

 Reikðminiai þodþiai: þieminiai kvieèiai, derlius, N tràðø efektyvumas, glitimas, derliuje sukauptas bendrasis azotas, krituliai, aktyviø temperatûrø suma, saulës apðvitos trukmë, hidroterminis koeficientas.

  

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific Articles, 2004, 4, 88, 34-47

UDK 633.11<324>:631.84:551.5

 NITROGEN FERTILIZER EFFICACY IN WINTER WHEAT IN RELATION TO WEATHER CONDITIONS IN CENTRAL LITHUANIA

 D. Januðauskaitë, G. Ðidlauskas

 Summary

 Field experiments with winter wheat were conducted over the period 1990-1993 and 1998-2001 at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in Dotnuva on an Endocalcari - Epihypogleyic Cambisol. The aim of the experiments was to estimate fertilizer efficacy and to identify the relationship between grain yield and quality indicators and the meteorological conditions prevalent in Central Lithuania. The experimental findings from eight years were analysed using correlation and regression methods. Experimental evidence suggests that nitrogen fertilizer efficacy was diverse during the experimental period and significantly depended on the moisture and warmth conditions of the spring-summer period. N fertilizer was found to be most efficient in wet years, in the years of normal moisture its efficacy declined by 30-46 %, and in dry years by 35-62 %. Unlike grain yield the lowest gluten content in wheat grain (13.1-22.4 %) was recorded in wet years, while the highest content (22.9-35.8 %) was recorded in the normally wet years.

The article analyses grain yield, gluten content and total nitrogen content in relation to meteorological factors – amount of precipitation, accumulated effective temperatures above 5°C (ATS>5°C) and 10°C (ATS>10°C), length of solar irradiance and HTC at different periods of wheat growth.

 Key words: winter wheat, yield, N fertilizer efficacy, gluten, total nitrogen accumulated in the yield, precipitation, effective accumulated temperatures, length of solar irradiance, hydrothermal coefficient.


 ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 4, 88, 48-64

UDK 633.11 : 631.84 : 631.559 : 581.19

 ÞIEMINIØ IR VASARINIØ KVIEÈIØ DERLIAUS IR GRÛDØ KOKYBËS PRIKLAUSOMUMAS NUO AZOTO TRÀÐØ NORMØ

 Daiva JANUÐAUSKAITË1,2, Vytas MAÐAUSKAS2

1Lietuvos þemës ûkio konsultavimo tarnyba

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p. daiva.janusauskaite@lzukt.lt

 2lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p. agrochemija@lzi.lt

 Santrauka

 Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute ir jo padaliniuose 1998-2001 m. daryti þieminiø ir vasariniø kvieèiø lauko bandymai bei laboratoriniai cheminës sudëties ir kokybës tyrimai, kuriø tikslas – ávertinti grûdø kokybës rodikliø priklausomumà nuo azoto tràðø bei jø paskirstymo ir nustatyti optimalias normas. Bandymai daryti lengvo priemolio karbonatingame glëjiðkame rudþemyje (RDg8-k2), sunkaus priemolio karbonatingame glëjiðkame rudþemyje (RDg4-k2), lengvo priemolio karbonatingame glëjiðkame iðplautþemyje (IDg4-k) ir lengvo priemolio nepasotintajame balkðva­þemyje (JIn2).

Azoto tràðø efektyvumas beveik visuose javø bandymuose buvo didelis, taèiau nevienodas atskirais metais ir skirtinguose dirvoþemiuose. Daugeliu atvejø já ribojo nepalankios meteorologinës sàlygos arba nepakankamas augalø apsaugos priemoniø naudojimas palankiais ligoms ir kenkëjams plisti metais. Dël skirtingø dirvoþemio ir meteorologiniø sàlygø, lëmusiø derliaus duomenø ávairovæ tyrimø metais, vienodame træðimo azotu lygyje nustatyta didelë – 20,1-34,1 % þieminiø kvieèiø ir maþa arba vidutinë – 3,0-18,0 % vasariniø kvieèiø derliaus duomenø variacija.

Straipsnyje pateikiamos ið regresijos lygties, atitinkanèios derliaus duomenø ryðá su azoto normomis, apskaièiuotos optimalios azoto tràðø normos, nuo kuriø bûtø pasiekiamas didþiausias þieminiø bei vasariniø kvieèiø derlius. Taip pat nustatytas koreliacinis ryðys tarp azoto normø ir grûdø kokybës rodikliø bei kokybës rodikliø tarpusavio koreliaciniai ryðiai.

 Reikðminiai þodþiai: þieminiai ir vasariniai kvieèiai, derlius, azoto tràðos, baltymai, glitimas, glitimo deformacijos indeksas (GDI), kritimo skaièius, sedimentacija.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific Articles, 2004, 4, 88, 48-64

UDK 633.11 : 631.84 : 631.559 : 581.19

GRAIN YIELD AND QUALITY OF WINTER AND SPRING WHEAT IN RELATION TO NITROGEN FERTILIZER RATES

 D. Januðauskaitë, V. Maðauskas

 Summary

Field experiments and laboratory tests of chemical composition and quality of winter and spring wheat were carried out at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture and its subdivisions during the period of 1998-2001. The objective of the experiments was to estimate grain quality parameters in relation to nitrogen fertilizers and their distribution and identify optimal rates. The trials were conducted on the five types of the soil: Endocalcari-Epihypogleyic Cambisols (CMg-p-w-can) light loam, Endocalcari-Epihypogleyc Cambisols (CMg-n-w-can) heavy loam, Calc(ar)i-Endohypogleyic Luvisols (LVg-n-w-cc) light loam, Orthidystric Albeluvisols (ABd-o) light loam.

Nitrogen fertilizer efficacy was high almost in all the experiments, however, it differed between years and soil types. In most cases fertilizer efficacy was limited by unfavourable weather conditions or insufficient use of plant protection measures in the years conducive to the spread of diseases and pests. The different soil and weather conditions determined a great diversity of yield data during the experimental years. At the same nitrogen fertilisation level a high variation of 20.1-34.1 % of winter wheat yield data and a low or medium variation of 3.0-18.0 % of spring wheat yield data were identified.

The article presents optimal nitrogen fertilizer rates, securing the maximum winter and spring wheat yield, calculated from the regression equation describing the relatioship between yield data and nitrogen fertilizer rates. A correlation between nitrogen rates and quality indicators, as well as a correlation between quality parameters were identified.

Key words: winter and spring wheat, yield, nitrogen fertilizers, protein gluten, gluten deformation index, falling number, sedimentation.


ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 4, 88, 65-74

UDK 633.14:631.84

ÞIEMINIØ RUGIØ DERLIAUS IR GRÛDØ KOKYBËS PRIKLAUSOMUMAS NUO AZOTO TRÀÐØ IR OPTIMALIOS JØ NORMOS

Daiva JANUÐAUSKAITË1,2, Vytas MAÐAUSKAS2

1Lietuvos þemës ûkio konsultavimo tarnyba

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p. daiva.janusauskaite@lzukt.lt

2lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p. agrochemija@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute Dotnuvoje 1998 ir 1999 m. daryti þieminiø rugiø lauko bandymai bei laboratoriniai cheminës sudëties ir kokybës tyrimai, kuriø tikslas – ávertinti Lietuvoje auginamø rugiø veisliø derliaus bei grûdø kokybës rodikliø priklausomumà nuo azoto tràðø ir nustatyti optimalias ðiø tràðø normas. Dirvoþemis giliau karbonatingas sekliai glëjiðkas rudþemis (RDg8-k2). Agrocheminiai rodikliai: humusas – 2,1-2,5 %, pHKCl – 5,6-6,8, Nmin. – 42 kg ha-1, P2O5 – 146-150 mg kg-1, K2O – 123-146 mg kg-1.

Tràðos veikë efektyviai, taèiau nustatyti tràðø efektyvumo skirtumai atskirose veislëse. Tiek derliaus dydá, tiek tràðø efektyvumà riboja nepakankamas augalø apsaugos priemoniø naudojimas palankiais ligoms plisti metais. Derliaus duomenø variacija, kurià lëmë skirtingos tyrimø metø sàlygos, buvo nedidelë arba vidutinë – 5,4-15,1 %.

Vidutiniais duomenimis, þieminiø rugiø grûdø derlius didëjo azoto normà didinant iki 119 kg ha-1, o didþiausià pagal antros eilës parabolæ apskaièiuotà pelnà rugiai bûtø davæ patræðti 91 kg ha-1 azoto norma.

Vidutiniais duomenimis, baltymingumas didëjo træðiant didesnëmis nei N60 normomis: nuo N90 ir N120 pasiektas atitinkamai 9,6±0,37 % ir 9,8±0,34 % grûdø baltymingumas, arba 1,1 ir 1,3 proc. vnt. priedas. Grûdø kokybei turëjo átakos meteorologinës sàlygos tyrimø metais.

 Reikðminiai þodþiai: þieminiai rugiai, derlius, træðimas, azoto normos, baltymai, kritimo skaièius.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific Articles, 2004, 4, 88, 65-74

UDK 633.14:631.84

WINTER RYE YIELD AND GRAIN QUALITY IN RELATION TO NITROGEN FERTILIZERS AND THEIR OPTIMAL RATES 

 D. Januðauskaitë, V. Maðauskas

 Summary

 Winter rye field experiments and laboratory tests of grain chemical composition and quality were conducted at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in Dotnuva during the period 1998-2000. The objective of the study was to estimate the relationship between grain yield and quality indicators of the Lithuania-grown rye varieties and nitrogen fertilizers and their distribution and to identify optimal nitrogen rates. The soil Endocalcari-Epihypogleyic Cambisols (CMg-p-w-can), agrochemical characteristics were as follows: humus 2.3±0.29 % (V% = 12.3), pHKCl 6.2±0.64 (V% = 10.3), Nmin – 42±2.8 kg ha-1 (V% = 6.7), P2O5 – 164±39.2 mg kg-1 (V% = 23,9), K2O – 153±56.8 mg kg-1 (V% = 37.1).

In general, the fertilizers were effective, however, differences in fertilizer efficacy were observed for individual varieties. Both, the size of yield and fertilizer efficacy were limited by the insufficient use of plant protection means in the years conducive to the disease occurrence. Average yield data variation, which was determined by different years' conditions, ranged from 5.4 to 15.1%.

Averaged data suggest that winter rye grain increased while increasing nitrogen rate up to 119 kg ha-1, and the highest income calculated using parabola of the second line could have been produced by barley fertilized with 91kg ha-1 nitrogen rate.

Averaged data suggests that protein content increased while fertilizing with higher than N60 rates: application of N90 and N120 resulted in 9.6-0.37 % and 9.8-0.34 % grain protein content, respectively, or in an increase of 1.1 and 1.3 percentage units. The weather conditions had a greater effect on the variation of falling number, compared with the effect of nitrogen fertilizers.

Key words: winter rye, yield, fertilization, nitrogen rates, proteins, falling number.


ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 88 75-89

UDK 633.521:631.582:631.86:631.41

ÁVAIRIØ ORGANINIØ TRÀÐØ POVEIKIS DIRVOÞEMIO CHEMINËMS IR FIZIKINËMS SAVYBËMS INTENSYVIOJE LINØ SËJOMAINOJE

Danutë OÞERAITIENË, Darius JOVAIÐA

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filialas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

El. p. danuteo@takas.lt

Santrauka

Straipsnyje apibendrinti LÞI Vëþaièiø filiale atliktø lauko ir laboratoriniø tyrimø duomenys 1996-2002 m. laikotarpiu. Dirvoþemis – vidutiniðkai sukultûrintas nepasotintasis balkðvaþemis, turintis maþà dumbliniø daleliø (< 0,002 mm) kieká – 12-14 %, neturtingas humuso – 1,57-1,87 %, rûgðtokos ar neutralokos reakcijos, fosforingas ir didelio kalingumo. Tirtas sëjomainos augalø ir skirtingø organiniø medþiagø (mëðlo, ðiaudø ir þaliosios tràðos) poveikis dirvoþemio cheminëms ir fizikinëms savybëms.

Gauti tyrimø duomenys rodo, kad dirvoþemio savybiø pokyèiai keturlaukëje linø sëjomai-noje, áterpus skirtingø organiniø tràðø, buvo neesminiai, nustatytos tik jø kitimo tendencijos. Dau­giausiai organinës medþiagos (4,3 %), humuso (1,9 %), vandenyje patvariø struktûriniø agregatø (64 %) ir maþiausias tankis dirvoþemio 0-5cm armens sluoksnyje (1,21 Mg m-3) buvo uþarus augalø liekanas ir kraikiná mëðlà. Dirvoþemio praturtinimo humusu ir esamos struktûros iðsaugojimo bei pagerinimo atþvilgiu iðryðkëjo daugiau lignino ir celiuliozës bei ilgesná mineralizacijos laikà turinèiø organiniø tràðø – mëðlo ir ðiaudø pranaðumas prieð þaliàjà tràðà.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: linø sëjomaina, organinës tràðos, dirvoþemio cheminës ir fizikinës savybës

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 88, 75-89

UDK 633.521:631.582:631.86:631.41

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT ORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON SOIL CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES IN AN INTENSIVE FLAX ROTATION

D. Oþeraitienë, D. Jovaiða

Summary

Field and laboratory trials were carried out at the Vëþaièiai Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during 1996-2002. The soil of the experimental site is moderately cultivated Dystric Albeluvisol (Abd) on light textured morain loam with a low content of clay (< 0.002 mm) 12-14 %, humus 1.57-1.87, of acid and neutral reaction, with high contents of phosphorus and potassium.

The effect of the crop rotation plants and different organic fertilizers (manure, straw, and green manure) on topsoil organic matter content, humus and soil physical properties was studied.

It was revealed that the changes in the organic matter, humus content, and physical properties of morain loam moderately cultivated soil in the flax crop rotation with incorporation of different organic fertilizers (manure, straw and green manure) were not essential. The trend of this properties' variation was established. In terms of enrichment of soil by humus and conservation of soil structure manure and straw were superior to green manure.

 Key words: flax crop rotation, organic fertilizers, soil chemical and physical properties


II skyrius. ÞEMDIRBYSTË

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 4, 88, 90-101

UDK 631.44:551.435.446]: 631.51:631.872:631.459

SUPAPRASTINTO ÞEMËS DIRBIMO BEI AUGALØ MASËS ÁTERPIMO NAUDOJIMO ÁTAKA DIRVOÞEMIO VANDENINEI EROZIJAI

Irena KINDERIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Kaltinënai, Ðilalës rajonas

El. p. kaltbs@kaltbs.lzi.lt

Santrauka

Priemonës nuo dirvoþemio erozijos tirtos 1997-2002 metais Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Kaltinënø bandymø stotyje 7-8o statumo pietryèiø ir 7-9o statumo pietø krypties kalvø ðlaituose. Virðutinëse ðlaitø dalyse dirvoþemis buvo vidutiniðkai nuardytas pradþiaþemis, vidutinio sunkumo ir sunkus priemolis, o apatinëse – menkai nuardytas pasotintas balkðvaþemis, dulkiðkas lengvas prie­molis.

Nustatyta, kad konservuojamasis rudeninis þemës dirbimas – smulkintø ðiaudø mulèias ir herbicidas raundapas 3 l ha-1 piktþolëms atþëlus, sulaikë erozijos procesus ðlaite.

Neverstuvinis rudeninis dirvos dirbimas – lëkðèiavimas, kai prieð lëkðèiuojant, po derliaus nuëmimo praëjus 3-4 savaitëms purkðta raundapu 3 l ha-1, palyginus su giliu arimu, dirvoþemio nuostolius nuo vandeninës erozijos sumaþino 77,6 %, raundapo naudojimas ir smulkintø ðiaudø áterpimas lëkðèiuojant – 81,8 %, o gilus purenimas, ðiaudø áterpimas ir tarpiniø posëliniø augalø, baltøjø garstyèiø (Sinapis alba L.), ásëjimas – 80,4 %.

Matematinë duomenø analizë rodo, kad dirvoþemio nuostoliai rudená tik suartose ir nespëjusiose susigulëti bei augalais neuþimtose dirvose labiausiai priklausë nuo krituliø kiekio rudená (r=0,99), taip pat nuo rudens ir þiemos suminio krituliø kiekio (r = 0,82).

Didþiausi metiniai dirvoþemio nuostoliai dël vandeninës erozijos ðlaite buvo gauti rudená intensyviai dirbtose – lëkðèiuotose su ðiaudais, purkðtose raundapu, po to giliai artose (6,4 m3 ha-1) bei giliai artose be ðiaudø (5,0 m3 ha-1) ir su jais (5,6 m3 ha-1), dirvose.

Nustatyta, kad dirvoþemio nuostoliai dël erozijos ðlaite didëjo, didëjant lietingø dienø skaièiui metuose su > 10 mm (r = 0,97) ir >20 mm (r = 0,84) krituliø per parà.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: ðlaitai, þemës dirbimo bûdai, smulkinti ðiaudai, krituliø kiekis, dirvoþemio nuostoliai.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific Articles, 2004, 4, 88, 90-101

UDK 631.44:551.435.446]: 631.51:631.872:631.459

EFFECTS OF REDUCED SOIL TILLAGE AND PLANT MASS INCORPORATION ON WATER EROSION OF SOIL

I. Kinderienë

Summary

Erosion-preventive practices were investigated during the period 1997-2002 at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s Kaltinënai Research Station on the slopes with an inclination of  7-8o with a south easterly aspect and on the slopes with an inclination of 7-9o with a southerly aspect.The soil on the top parts of the slopes was moderately eroded Orthieutric Regosol, medium and heavy loam, while the bottom parts – weakly eroded Eutric Albeluvisol, silty loam.

The experimental findings suggest that reduced (conservation) autumn tillage – chopped straw mulch  and Roundup 3 l ha-1 sprayed on sprouted weeds suppressed erosion processes on the slope.

Non-reversible soil tillage – discing with Roundup 3 l ha-1 application before disking, 3-4 weeks after harvesting, compared with deep ploughing reduced soil losses through water erosion on the slope by 77.6 %, discing in combination with Roundup application and chopped straw incorporation by 81.8 %, deep loosening, straw incorporation and catch crops (Sinapis alba L.) undersowing by 80.4 %.

The statistical analysis of results shows that the total lost soil volume in freshly ploughed soils that had not settled yet and without a plant cover was largely determined by the amount of precipitation in the autumn (r = 0.99) and its sum total during the autumn and winter period (r = 0.82).

The greatest soil losses per year resulting from water erosion on the slope were identified when intensive soil tillage – discing, straw incorporation, Roundup 3 l ha-1 application and deep ploughing had been used (6.4 m3 ha-1), also deep ploughing without straw (5.0 m3 ha-1) and with straw (5.6 m3 ha-1) had been employed.

Soil losses through water erosion increased with an increase in the number of days per year with a precipitation rate of over 10 mm (r = 0.97) and over 20 mm (r = 0.84).

Key words: hillslopes, soil tillage methods, chopped straw, amount of precipitation, soil losses.


ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 4, 88, 102-116

UDK  633.1:632.51:[631.584+631.86]

PRIEÐSËLIØ IR ORGANINIØ TRÀÐØ POVEIKIS VIENAMEÈIØ PIKTÞOLIØ PLITIMUI SKIRTINGOSE AGROSISTEMOSE

Auðra ARLAUSKIENË, Stanislava MAIKÐTËNIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Joniðkëlis, Pasvalio rajonas

El. p. joniskelio_lzi@post.omnitel.net

Santrauka

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Joniðkëlio bandymø stotyje 1997-2002 m. atlikti komplek­siniai lauko tyrimai siekiant nustatyti ankðtiniø augalø – raudonøjø dobilø (Trifolium pratense L.), margaþiedþiø liucernø (Medicago sativa L.), vikiø ir aviþø miðinio (Vicia sativa L., Avena sativa L.), kaip prieðsëliø, jø biomasës, áterptos þaliajai tràðai, ir mëðlo átakà piktþoliø plitimui javø agrosis­temose. Po visø ankðtiniø prieðsëliø javø agrosistemose didþiàjà vienameèiø piktþoliø populiacijos dalá sudarë kibieji lipikai (Galium aparine L.), vijokliniai pelëvirkðèiai (Fallopia convolvulus (L.) A. Love), raudonþiedës notrelës (Lamium purpureum L.), dirvinës naðlaitës (Viola arvensis Murr.), bekvapiai ðunramuniai (Tripleurospermum perforatum (Mërat.) M. Laiz.) ir kt. Pirmais metais po jø auginant javus, daugiausiai piktþoliø sudygo po liucernø, t.y. 27,6 % daugiau negu po dobilø, antraisiais – po liucernø ir vienameèio miðinio. Treèiais javø auginimo metais pasëliai piktþolëtumo poþiûriu ið esmës nesiskyrë. Javø piktþolëtumà ið esmës didino jø atsëliavimas ir organinës tràðos – labiau mëðlas negu þaliosios tràðos. Ið þaliøjø tràðø, su kuriomis á dirvoþemá patenka ir piktþoliø sëklos, labiau javø piktþolëtumà didino vienameèio miðinio negu daugiameèiø ankðtiniø þoliø áterpta biomasë. Po vikiø ir aviþø miðinio retesniuose, maþai aprûpintuose maisto medþiagomis pasëliuose, antroje vasaros pusëje atsiradusiose ekologinëse niðose padidëjo piktþolëtumas. Piktþoliø biomasës pokyèius lëmë prieðsëliø suformuotos dirvoþemio sàlygos, lëmusios pasëlio produktyvumà, træðimas, javø pasëlio tankumas, piktþoliø rûðinë sudëtis.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: piktþolëtumas, ankðtiniai augalai ir jø biomasë þaliajai tràðai, javø grandys.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific Articles, 2004, 4, 88, 102-116

UDK  633.1:632.51:[631.584+631.86]

THE EFFECTS OF PRECEDING CROPS AND ORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON THE OCCURRENCE OF SHORT-LIVED WEEDS IN DIFFERENT AGROSYSTEMS

A. Arlauskienë, S. Maikðtënienë

Summary

A series of complex field experiments was carried out at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s Joniðkëlis Experimental Station during the period 1997-2002 with a view to identifying the impact of legume crops – red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), bastard lucerne (Medicago sativa L.), vetch and oats mixture (Vicia sativa L., Avena sativa L.) as preceding crops and their biomass incorporated in the soil as green manure, as well as the effect of farmyard manure on the occurence of weeds in cereal agrocenoses. Experimental evidence suggests that in a cereal agrocenosis after all preceding crops the following dicotyledonous weed provaided: galium aparine L., fallopia convolvulus (L.) A. Love, Lamium purpureum L., Viola arvensis Murr., Tripleurospermum perforatum (Mërat) M. Laiz. In the first year, when cereals were grown, the greatest number of weeds emerged after lucerne as a preceding crop, i.e. 27.6 % more than after clover, in the second year – after lucerne and mixture. In the third year of cereals cultivation the difference between the preceding crops was inappreciable. Continuous cultivation of cereals and organic fertilisers tended to increase weed incidence in cereals. Farmyard manure had a greater effect on weeds than green manure. Of the tested green manures the biomass of annual mixture had a greater effect on weed incidence increase in cereals compared with the biomass of perennial legumes. After vetch and oats mixture the ecological niches that appeared in the crops poorly supplied with nutrients in the second half of summer were infested with weeds. The variation in air-dry weight of weeds was determined by the soil conditions created by the preceding crops, fertilization, stand density of cereals and number of weeds.

Key words: weed infestation, legume crops and their biomass as green manure, cereals sequence.


ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 4, 88, 117-129

UDK 633.491:632.51

MECHANINIØ IR CHEMINIØ PRIEMONIØ DERINIØ TYRIMAI BULVIØ PASËLIØ PIKTÞOLËTUMUI MAÞINTI

Irena PETROVIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Trakø Vokë, Vilnius

El. p. irena.petroviene@voke.lzi.lt

Santrauka

1997-1999 m. Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filiale paprastajame priesmëlio ant karbonatingo þvyro iðplautþemyje tirtas herbicidø zenkoro (250 g ha-1 ir 500 g ha-1), titus (25 g ha-1 ir 50 g ha-1), zenkoro 250 g ha-1 derinio su 25 g ha-1 ir 50 g ha-1 titus bei su 1,0 l ha-1 zeleko super veiksmingumas piktþolëms bulviø ‘Mirta’ pasëlyje, maþinant agrotechnikos priemoniø naudojimà. Zenkoras purkðtas prieð bulviø sudygimà vietoj antrojo kaupimo-akëjimo. Titus ir zeleku super sudygusios bulvës apdorotos vietoj pirmojo kaupimo.

Nustatyta, kad varputëtoje dirvoje bendrà bulviø piktþolëtumà geriausiai (54 %) maþino zenkoras 250 g ha-1 derinant su 1,0 l ha-1 zeleku super, tarpueilius ádirbant du kartus. Purðkiant iðnyko net 93 % varpuèiø ðakniastiebiø. Tokioje dirvoje nupurðkus vien zenkoru 250 g ha-1 ar 500 g ha-1 ir tarpueilius kaupiant tik vienà ar du kartus, vienameèiø dviskilèiø piktþoliø sumaþëjo 45-67 %, taèiau iðplito paprastieji varpuèiai. Sudygusiose bulvëse trijø tarpueiliø dirbimo fone iðpurkðtas titus 50 g ha-1 iðnaikino iki 79 % varpuèiø ir 42 % vienameèiø dviskilèiø piktþoliø. Vyraujantiems vijokliniams pelë­virkðèiams tirti herbicidai bei jø deriniai nebuvo efektyvûs. Baltøjø balandø nuo zenkoro 250 g ha-1 ir 500 g ha-1 sumaþëjo atitinkamai 73 % ir 83 %. Nuo tirtø herbicidø, iðskyrus zenkorà 250 g ha-1, ar jø deriniø, naudotø maþinant tarpueiliø dirbimø skaièiø iki 1-3 kartø, bulviø gumbø derlius padidëjo ið esmës, t. y. 11,1-17,6 %.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: bulvës, piktþolës, herbicidai, tarpueiliø dirbimas.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 4, 88, 117-129

UDK 633.491:632.51

INVESTIGATION OF MECHANICAL AND CHEMICAL MEANS FOR THE REDUCTION OF WEED INFESTATION IN POTATO CROPS

I. Petrovienë

Summary

A series of tests was conducted at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s Vokë Branch during the period 1997-1999 on sandy loam lying on calcareous gravel eluviated soil. The experimental objective was to test the efficacy of the herbicides Sencor (250 and 500 g ha-1), Titus (25 and 50 g ha-1), combination of Sencor 250 g ha-1 with 25 and 50 g ha-1 Titus and with 1.0 l ha-1 Zellek super against weeds in the potato crop of cv. ‘Mirta’ as affected by reduced use of crop and soil management practices. Sencor was sprayed pre-emergence of potatoes instead of the second earthing-up – harrowing. Titus and Zellek super were applied on emerged potato crops instead of the first earthing-up. 

Our experimental findings suggest that in the couch grass- infested soil Sencor 250 g ha-1 applied in combination with 1.0 l ha-1 Zellek super gave the best total weed control (54 %) in the potato crop when interrows were earthed-up twice. As much as 93 % of couch grass rhizomes were killed under the effect of the spray application. When the soil was sprayed with only 250 or 500 g ha-1 Sencor and interrows were earthed – up once or twice the content of annual dicotyledonous weeds declined by 45-67 %, however, an increase occurred in the number of couch grass. On the background of three earthings-up of interrows the application of 50 g ha-1 of Titus on the emerged potatoes killed up to 79 % of couch grass and 42 % of annual dicotyledonous weeds. The tested herbicides and their combinations were not effective against the dominating black bindweed. Under the effect of Sencor 250 and 500 g ha-1 the content of white goosefoot declined by 73 and 83 %, respectively. Application of the tested herbicides (except for Sencor 250 g ha-1) or their combinations and reduced number of earthings-up to 1-3 times gave a significant potato tuber yield increase of 11.1-17.6 %.

Key words: potatoes, weeds, herbicides, interrow tillage.


ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 4, 88, 130-144

UDK [633.11<324>+633.16<321>]:631.582

ÞIEMINIØ KVIEÈIØ IR VASARINIØ MIEÞIØ PASËLIØ AGROFITOCENOZËS POKYÈIAI TRUMPØ ROTACIJØ SËJOMAINOSE

Vytautas SEIBUTIS, Algimantas MAGYLA

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p. vytautas@lzi.lt

Santrauka

1997-2003 m. stacionariniame bandyme Dotnuvoje giliau karbonatingame, giliau glëjiðkame lengvo priemolio rudþemyje tirtos sëjomainø rotacijø trumpinimo, optimaliø prieðsëliø parinkimo galimybës, ávertinant piktþoliø paplitimà.

Taikant trumpø rotacijø sëjomainas, þieminiuose kvieèiuose piktþoliø sumaþëja tik tada, kai rotacijos grandyje bent vienas narys yra kaupiamasis augalas. Trumpos sëjomainos, kuomet þiem­kenèiø prieðsëlis yra þirniai ar þieminiai rapsai, nëra palankios piktþolëtumui maþinti. Kvieèius auginant po þirniø, þieminiø rapsø ir þieminiø kvieèiø, piktþoliø rotacijos pabaigoje pavasará buvo atitinkamai 21 %, 67 % ir 38 % daugiau negu juos auginant po mieþiø.

Mieþius auginant sukultûrintose dirvose ir tinkamai naudojant herbicidus, trumpø rotacijø sëjomainoje piktþolëtumas nepadidëja septynerius metus. Cukriniai runkeliai, kaip prieðsëlis mieþiams, ir mieþiø atsëliavimas skatino piktþoliø skaièiaus didëjimà. Pavasará, mieþius pasëjus po minëtø prieðsëliø, piktþoliø buvo atitinkamai 61,9 % ir 23,3 % daugiau, nei juos pasëjus po kvieèiø. Mieþiø, augintø po kvieèiø, vidutinis piktþolëtumas pasëlyje brendimo metu buvo atitinkamai 18 % ir 68 % didesnis, negu augintø po cukriniø runkeliø ar monopasëlyje.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: þieminiai kvieèiai, vasariniai mieþiai, sëjomaina, prieðsëliai, pikt­þolëtumas.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles 2004,4, 88, 130-144

UDK [633.11<324>+633.16<321>]:631.582

CHANGES IN THE AGROPHYTOCENOSES OF WINTER WHEAT AND SPRING BARLEY CROPS IN SHORT CROP ROTATIONS

V. Seibutis, A.Magyla

Summary

Over the period 1997-2003 a series of field experiments was conducted in Dotnuva on an Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic Combisol with the aim of testing the possibilities of shortening of crop rotations, choice of optimal preceding crops in relation to weed incidence in the crops.

Shortening of crop rotations could only secure a satisfactory control of weeds in winter wheat crops when at least one course in the rotation sequence was a row crop. Shortening of rotations when a preceding crop of winter cereals was pea or winter oilseed rape was not conducive to weed control. When wheat was grown after barley, the content of weeds in spring in different experimental years was by on average 21, 62 and 32 % lower, compared with wheat grown after peas, winter rape and winter wheat.

When barley was grown on a properly cultivated soil, and timely and appropriate herbicide application strategy was employed, shortening of rotations did not result in any marked increase in weed incidence during the seven-year period. Sugar beet as preceding crop of barley and continuous cultivation of barley encouraged an increase in weed population. In spring, when barley was drilled after the aforementioned preceding crops, the weed incidence was recorded to be by 61.9 and 23.3 % higher compared with barley crops sown after wheat. The average weed infestation at maturity stage in the barley crops grown after wheat was by 18 and 68 % higher than that in barley crops grown after sugar beets or in monoculture.

Key words: winter wheat, spring barley crop rotation, preceding crops, weed infestation.


III skyrius. AUGALØ APSAUGA

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 4, 88, 145-155

UDK 632.954:633.521:631.559

VISUOTINIO VEIKIMO HERBICIDO RAUNDAPO PANAUDOJIMO LINØ BRANDAI PAANKSTINTI TYRIMAI

Zofija JANKAUSKIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Upytë, Panevëþio rajonas

El. p. soja@upyte.lzi.lt

Santrauka

Upytës bandymø stotyje tirta skirtingø raundapo (veikl. medþ. glifosatas 360 g l-1) normø (2 l ha-1, 3 l ha-1 ir 4 l ha-1 preparato), iðpurkðtø ant linø þaliosios brandos pabaigoje, ankstyvojoje geltonojoje ir geltonojoje brandoje átaka pluoðtiniø linø stiebeliø ir sëmenø drëgnumui, derliui bei jo kokybei.

Linø prieðsëlis – þieminiai kvieèiai. Dirvoþemis – giliau karbonatingas giliau glëjiðkas rudþemis (RD).

Trejø metø vidutiniais duomenimis, nupurðkus raundapu, linø stiebeliø drëgnumas ið esmës sumaþëjo, iðskyrus linus, kur purkðta 2 l ha-1 þaliosios brandos pabaigoje. Stiebeliø drëgnumas, purðkiant linus þaliosios brandos pabaigoje, sumaþëjo vidutiniðkai 10-30 %, purðkiant ankstyvosios geltonosios brandos pradþioje – 25-28 %, o purðkiant geltonosios brandos pradþioje – 36-40 %. Didëjanèios raundapo normos neturëjo átakos stiebeliø drëgnumui.

Vidutiniais trejø metø duomenimis, sëmenys buvo ið esmës smulkesni, purðkiant linus raundapu þaliosios brandos pabaigoje ar ankstyvosios geltonosios pradþioje 3 l ha-1 arba 4 l ha-1, sumaþëjo jø dygimo energija.

Purðkiant raundapu, stiebeliø, ilgo pluoðto derliaus dydis ir jo kokybë bei morfologiniai stiebeliø rodikliai ið esmës nepakito.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: branda, drëgnumas, pluoðtas, pluoðtiniai linai, raundapas, sëmenys, stiebeliai.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific Articles, 2004, 4, 88, 145-155

UDK 632.954:633.521:631.559

TESTING OF THE NON-SELECTIVE HERBICIDE ROUNDUP APPLICATION FOR FLAX MATURITY ACCELERATION

Z. Jankauskienë

Summary

A field trial was carried out during 1998-2000 at the Upytë Research Station with the aim of testing the impact of Roundup application (2. 3 or 4 l ha-1) on flax stands at the end of green maturity, beginning of early yellow and yellow maturity stages on moisture content of stems and flaxseed, yield and its quality.

Flax was grown in a 7-field rotation after cereals. The soil type was Endocalcari-Endohypogleyc Cambisol with a pH level of 7.2-7.6, content of total nitrogen 0.13-0.16 %, humus 2.2-2.8 %, mobile phosphorus 162-254 mg kg-1, mobile potassium 143-185 mg kg-1, mobile boron 0.82-1.74 mg kg-1, mobile zinc 0.7-2.25 mg kg-1 soil.

According to the averaged data of three years, flax moisture content after Roundup application reduced significantly. When Roundup was applied at the end of flax green ripeness, the moisture content of flax stems decreased by 10-30 %, when Roundup was applied at the beginning of early-yellow ripeness, the moisture content of flax stems decreased by 25-28 %, and when  Roundup was applied at the beginning of yellow ripeness, the moisture content of flax stems decreased by 36-40 %. The difference between the influence of different rates of Roundup on stem moisture content was not significant.

Experimental treatments sprayed with 3 or 4 l ha-1 of Roundup at the end of green ripeness or at the beginning of yellow ripeness produced smaller seed compared with the untreated plots. The germination power was lower, too.

No significant influence of Roundup application on stem, long fibre yield, its quality and morphological indicators was identified.

Key words: moisture content, fiber, flax, ripening, Roundup, seed, stem.


ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific Articles, 2004, 4, 88, 156-169

UDK 633.11.324>:632.4:632.952

APPLICATION OF REDUCED DOSES OF TRIAZOLES FOR THE CONTROL OF WINTER WHEAT LEAF DISEASES

Irena GAURILÈIKIENË

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiai distr., Lithuania

E-mail. irenag@lzi.lt

Summary

The efficacy of reduced doses of six triazole fungicides on winter wheat cv. Zentos was estimated over the period 1999-2000. The spread of powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis (DC) Spear.) in winter wheat in 1999 at the early milk stage was intensive, but in 2000 at water ripe the disease occurrence was weak. The full and reduced to ½ and ¾ doses of triazoles provided a good control against mildew, especially on flag leaf of winter wheat. Septoria leaf blotch (Septoria spp.) and tan spot (Pyrenophora tritici repentis (Died.) Drechs.) occurred on winter wheat annually. Against Septoria leaf blotch full and reduced dosages of triazoles were highly effective till the early milk stage, especially on a flag leaf. At late milk the efficacy of reduced doses of the fungicides was lower than that of full doses. Against tan spot the full doses of fungicides provided a good control, however, the efficacy of reduced doses was low. Full and reduced doses of fungicides provided excellent control of brown rust (Puccinia recondita).

Due to the full and ¾ reduced dosages of the fungicides a sufficient yield increase was obtained annually. The yield increase through reduced to ½ dose was low and insufficient. The yield increase was obtained due to an increase in 1000 grain weight.

Key words: winter wheat, triazole fungicide, doses, leaf diseases, grain yield

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 4, 88, 156-169

UDK 633.11.324>:632.4:632.952

ÞIEMINIØ KVIEÈIØ LAPØ LIGØ KONTROLË NAUDOJANT SUMAÞINTAS TRIAZOLØ NORMAS

 I.Gaurilèikienë

 Santrauka

Ðeðiø triazolø grupës fungicidø sumaþintø normø veiksmingumo nuo lapø ligø tyrimai þieminiø kvieèiø ‘Zentos’ pasëlyje atlikti 1999-2000 m. Miltligë (Blumeria graminis (DC) Spear.) þieminiuose kvieèiuose gausiai iðplito 1999 m., bet 2000 m. reiðkësi silpnai. Visos ir sumaþintos iki ½ ir ¾ fungicidø normos gerai kontroliavo miltligës iðplitimà ir intensyvumà, ypaè ant virðutiniø augalø lapø. Septoriozë (Septoria spp.) ir kvieèiø dryþligë (Pyrenophora tritici repentis (Died.)Drechs.) þieminiuose kvieèiuose plito kasmet. Nuo septoriozës visos ir sumaþintos fungicidø normos buvo labai veiksmingos iki ankstyvos pieninës brandos, ypaè gerai saugojo virðutinius augalø lapus. Vëlyvos pieninës brandos metu nuo septoriozës sumaþintos fungicidø normos buvo maþiau veiksmingos nei visos. Nuo kvieèiø dryþligës buvo veiksmingos tik visos fungicidø normos, sumaþintø normø efektyvumas buvo menkas. Tiek visos, tiek sumaþintos fungicidø normos buvo labai veiksmingos nuo rudøjø rûdþiø (Puccinia recondita). Esminis þieminiø kvieèiø derliaus padidëjimas buvo gautas nuo visø ir sumaþintø iki ¾ fungicidø normø vartojimo. Derliaus padidëjimas nuo iki ½ sumaþintø normø buvo nedidelis ir neesminis. Derliaus priedas naudojant fungicidus buvo gautas padidëjus 1000 grûdø masei.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: þieminiai kvieèiai, triazolø grupës fungicidai, normos, lapø ligos, grûdø derlius.


IV skyrius. ÞOLININKYSTË

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 4, 88, 170-182

UDK 633.2.03:631.582.9

NATÛRALIØ IR SËTØ ÞOLYNØ LAIKINAI NENAUDOJAMOSE ÞEMËSE PRIEÞIÛROS BÛDØ TYRIMAI

Roþë VAIÈIULYTË, Raimundas BAÈËNAS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Trakø Vokë, Vilnius

El. p. algis.nedzinskas@voke.lzi.lt

Santrauka

1998-2003 metais Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filiale tirta natûraliø ir sëtø þoliø prieþiûros bûdø átaka jø botaninei sudëèiai, organiniø medþiagø kaupimuisi ir dirvoþemio agro­cheminiams rodikliams.

Rytø Lietuvos paprastàjá iðplautþemá (Idp) træðiant mineralinëmis tràðomis, sëtas þolynas sausøjø medþiagø sukaupia 14,69 t ha-1, o netræðtas natûralus ir sëtas þolynai – þymiai maþiau, - atitinkamai 5,34-5,43 ir 6,06-6,62 t ha-1. Netræðtà natûralø ir sëtà þolynà deginant vegetacijos pra­dþioje, taip pat þolæ pjaunant birþelio pradþioje ir masæ paðalinant arba paliekant, þoliø produktyvumas ið esmës nekito.

Natûraliame ir sëtame netræðtame þolyne vyravo varpinës ir ávairiaþolës, o træðtame sëtame þolyne – ankðtinës ir varpinës þolës.

Po penkeriø tyrimø metø nuo minëtø priemoniø dirvoþemis parûgðtëjo, bendro azoto ir humuso sumaþëjo. Træðiant didëjo judriojo fosforo ir kalio, o be tràðø jø kiekis sumaþëjo.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: natûralus ir sëtas þolynai, prieþiûra, botaninë sudëtis, produktyvumas, azoto sukaupimas, dirvoþemio savybës.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 4, 88, 170-182

UDK 633.203:631.582.9

INVESTIGATION OF MANAGEMENT OF METHODS OF NATURAL AND SOWN SWARDS ON TEMPORARILY ABANDONED LAND

 R. Vaièiulytë, R. Baèënas

 Summary

The effects of natural and sown swards management techniques on the botanical com­position of swards, organic matter accumulation and changes in soil agrochemical parameters were investigated at the Vokë Branch (LIA) during the period 1998-2003.

Under east Lithuania’s conditions on a Haplic Luvisol a sown sward applied with mineral fertilizers accumulated the largest amount of total phytomass (14.69 t ha-1 dry matter), while unfertilized natural and sown swards accumulated a much smaller amount of phytomass 5.34-5.43; 6.06-6.62 t ha-1 dry matter, respectively. Burning of unfertilized natural and sown sward at the beginning of the growing season as well as herbage cutting at the beginning of June and either removal or leaving the mass did not have any significant effect on the herbage productivity.

Natural and sown unfertlized swards were dominated by grasses and forbs, while fertilized sown swards were dominated by legumes and grasses.

After five experimental years the tested sward management techniques resulted in soil acidification and reduction in total nitrogen and humus contents. Fertilization increased the amount of available phosphorus and potassium, whereas in the treatments without fertilizers their contents declined.

Key words: natural and sown sward, management, botanical composition, productivity, nitrogen accumulation, soil properties.


V skyrius. MIKROBIOLOGIJA

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 4, 88, 183-197

UDK 576.851.155: 633.37

RYTINIØ OÞIARÛÈIØ SËKLØ INOKULIAVIMO BAKTERIJØ (RHIZOBIUM GALEGAE) PREPARATAIS TERMINAI IR BÛDAI

Edmundas LAPINSKAS, Dalia AMBRAZAITIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

El. p.: filialas@vezaiciai.lzi.lt; daliambr@hotmail.com; ekokat@gmf.ku.lt

Santrauka

1997-2002 m. atliktais laboratoriniais ir lauko bandymais nustatyti nitragino gamybos bei rytiniø oþiarûèiø inokuliavimo pagrindiniai parametrai.

Dirvoþemis – nepasotintasis giliau glëjiðkas balkðvaþemis (JI4-n), kurio pHKCl 5,4-5,8, humuso – 1,81-1,87 %, judriøjø P2O5 ir K2O – atitinkamai 135-148 mg kg-1 ir 122-140 mg kg-1 dirvoþemio.

Tyrimais nustatyta, kad nitragino ir sëklos inokuliavimo kokybæ lemia paruoðto preparato ir bakterizuotos sëklos laikymo sàlygos bei trukmë, taip pat sëklos inokuliavimo derinimas su apsau­ginëmis medþiagomis. Gerà nitragino preparatà, nepriklausomai nuo laikymo temperatûros (+4oC ar +26oC), galima iðsaugoti ne ilgiau kaip dvi savaites. Ilgesnis preparato ar Rhizobium biomasës, skirtos nitraginui gaminti, laikymas yra rizikingas. Laikant bakterizuotà sëklà, tinkamas titras iðsilaiko savaitæ, inokuliuojant su 10 % cukraus tirpalu – dvi savaites.

Nitraginas buvo veiksmingiausias oþiarûèiø pirmais ir antrais naudojimo metais, inoku­liuojant sëjos dienà ir iki septyniø dienø prieð sëjà. Inokuliuotà sëklà apdorojus 10 % cukraus tirpalu simbiozës efektyvumas nepadidëjo.

Tarp Rhizobium efektyvumo ir augalo gumbeliø skaièiaus bei sudëtingø gumbeliø formavi­mosi nustatyti vidutinio stiprumo ryðiai (r = 0,65 ir h = 0,71**).

Visi inokuliavimo deriniai ekonominiu poþiûriu buvo naudingi ir per dvejus þoliø naudojimo metus grynosios pajamos siekë iki 391,7 Lt ha-1.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: Rhizobium, oþiarûèiai, nitraginas, inokuliavimas, inokuliavimo terminai ir bûdai.

  

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 4, 88, 183-197

UDK 576.851.155: 633.37

TERMS AND METHODS OF GOAT’S RUE SEED INOCULATION WITH BACTERIA (RHIZOBIUM GALEGAE) PREPARATIONS

E.Lapinskas, D.Ambrazaitienë

Summary

Major parameters of nitragine production and goat’s rue inoculation were estimated in the laboratory and field experiments during the period 1997-2002. 

The soil of the experimental site is classed as Dystri-Endohypogleyic Albeluvisol (JI4-n), with a pHKCl value of 5.4-5.8, humus content 1.81-1.87 %, available P2O5 and K2O 135-148 and 122-140 mg kg-1 soil, respectively.

Our experimental evidence suggests that the quality of nitragine and seed inoculation is affected by the storage conditions and period of the preparation and bacteria-treated seed as well as by the combination of seed inoculation with protective materials. Regardless of the storage conditions (+4oC or +26oC), high efficacy of nitragine preparation can be maintained for no longer than two weeks. Longer storage of the preparation or Rhizobium biomass, intended for nitragine production, is risky. When storing bacteria-treated seed, the proper bacterial titre persists for a week, and while inoculating with 10 % sugar solution –for two weeks. 

The highest efficacy of nitragine was identified in the first and second year of use of goat’s rue when the seed was inoculated on the sowing day and up to 7 days before sowing. Treatment of inoculated seed with 10 % sugar solution did not contribute to the enhancement of the symbiosis efficiency.

A medium strong correlation was identified between Rhizobium efficacy and number of plant nodules, and formation of complex nodules (r = 0.65 and h = 0.71**).

All inoculation combinations were economically useful. During the two years of swards use net profit totalled up to 391.7 Lt ha-1.

Key words: Rhizobium, goat’s rue, inoculum (nitragin), inoculation, inoculation terms and methods.


ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 4, 88, 198-205

UDK 631.415.1+631.82]:631.461

DIRVOÞEMIO RÛGÐTUMO IR MINERALINIØ TRÀÐØ ÁTAKA AMONIFIKUOJANÈIØ BEI MINERALINÁ AZOTÀ ASIMILIUOJANÈIØ MIKROORGANIZMØ PAPLITIMUI

Loreta PIAULOKAITË-MOTUZIENË, Edmundas LAPINSKAS,

Dalija ÈIUBERKIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filialas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

El. p. lucra@one.lt

Santrauka

2001-2002 m. Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filiale tirtas dirvoþemio amonifi-kuojanèiø bei mineraliná azotà asimiliuojanèiø mikroorganizmø paplitimas. Bandymo dirvoþemis glëjiðkas nepasotintas balkðvaþemis (JI2) – Dystrict Albeluvisol (ABd) (velëninis jaurinis glëjiðkas JP1v) – lengvas ant vidutinio sunkumo priemolis. Dirvoþemio ëminiai mikrobiologinëms analizëms imti keturiø dirvoþemio pHKCl lygiø (< 4,7; 4,7-5,2; 5,2-5,7; > 6,7) ir trijø træðimo lygiø (be tràðø; 1 NPK norma, 3 NPK normos), ið 0-20 cm armens sluoksnio pavasará, prasidëjus vegetacijai, ir rudená, vegetacijos pabaigoje.

Rezultatai rodo, kad amonifikuojantys ir mineraliná azotà asimiliuojantys mikroorga­nizmai labiausiai paplitæ maþo rûgðtumo (pHKCl 5,2-5,7) ir viena NPK tràðø norma træðtame dirvo­þemyje. Organiniø medþiagø mineralizacija intensyviausia buvo artimame neutraliam (pHKCl > 6,7) dirvoþemyje, patræðus  trimis NPK tràðø normomis.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: mikroorganizmai, amonifikuojantys, mineraliná azotà asimiliuo­jantys, paplitimas, dirvoþemio rûgðtumas, mineralinis træðimas.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004,4, 88, 198-205

UDK 631.415.1+631.82]:631.461

THE EFFECTS OF SOIL ACIDUTY AND MINERAL FERTILIZERS ON THE OCCURRENCE OF AMMONIFYING AND MINERAL NITROGEN ASSIMILATING MICROORGANISMS IN THE SOIL

L. Piaulokaitë Motuzienë, E. Lapinskas, D. Èiuberkienë

Summary

The occurrence of ammonifying and mineral nitrogen assimilating microorganisms was studied at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s Vëþaièiai Branch over the period 2001-2002. The soil of the experimental site is characterised as (JI2) dystrict albeluvisol (ABd) (sod podzolic gleyic JP1v) light on medium heavy loam. For microbiological analyses the soil was sampled at 4 soil pHKCl levels (< 4.7; 4.7-5.2; 5.2-5.7; > 6.7) and 3 fertilization levels (no fertilizers, 1 NPK rate, 3 NPK rates) at the 0-20 cm ploughlayer in the spring after the resumption of vegetative growth and in the autumn at the end of growing season. 

Our experimental evidence suggests that the highest occurrence of ammonifying and mineral nitrogen assimilating microorganisms was found in the soil with a low acidity (pHKCl 5.2-5.7), fertilized with one NPK rate. The abundance of microorganisms was determined by both soil acidity and mineral fertilization. The most intensive mineralisation was identified in the soil close to neutral (pHKCl > 6.7) aplied with three NPK rates.

Key words: microorganisms, ammonifying, mineral nitrogen assimilating, occurrence, soil acidity, mineral fertilization.

 


·Raðykite mums: lzi@lzi.lt