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TURINYS

I skyrius. DIRVOTYRA IR AGROCHEMIJA

A. Antanaitis, J. Lubytë, Ð. Antanaitis, G. Staugaitis. Seleno pasiskirstymo dësningumai Vidurio Lietuvos dirvoþemiuose

J. Maþvila, A. Antanaitis, J. Arbaèiauskas, J. Lubytë, T. Adomaitis, V. Maðauskas, Z. Vaiðvila. Kalio tyrimai skirtingais metodais ir jø tinkamumas Lietuvos dirvoþemiams 

N. Daugëlienë. Mineraliniø tràðø veiksmingumas fitocenoziø produktyvumui ir kalio migracijai dirvoþemyje  

J. Lubytë, A. Antanaitis, T. Adomaitis, J. Maþvila, Z. Vaiðvila, J. Arbaèiauskas. Ávairiø formø sunkiøjø metalø ir mikroelementø kiekio dirvoþemyje priklausomumas nuo træðimo   

A. Baniûnienë, V. Kupèinskas, V. Þëkaitë. Sideraciniø augalø veikimas bulviø sëjomainoje  

II skyrius. ÞEMDIRBYSTË IR AUGALININKYSTË

V. Seibutis, A. Magyla . Sliekø paplitimas bei dirvoþemio agregatø patvarumas lengvo priemolio dirvose, trumpinant sëjomainø rotacijas   

A. Arlauskienë, S. Maikðtënienë. Ankðtiniø augalø biomasës átaka dirvoþemio agrocheminëms savybëms ir javø agrocenoziø produktyvumui  

I. Kavoliûnaitë, E. Paliulytë. Paprastøjø varpuèiø augimo dinamikos tyrimai  

A. Velykis, A. Satkus, A. Ðlepetienë, A. Svirskienë. Þemës dirbimo ir sëjomainø átaka dirvoþemio biologinëms bei cheminëms savybëms ir augalø produktyvumui

E. Gruzdevienë, M. Bastys, V. Liakas, A. Ðiuliauskas. Agrotechnikos veiksniø átaka pluoðtiniø linø pasëlio biometriniams rodikliams 

III skyrius. ÞOLININKYSTË

R. Skuodienë. Þolynø botaninës sudëties nustatymo svorio ir saujø (De Vries) metodais palyginimas 

J. Ðlepetys. Mëlynþiedþiø liucernø pirmos þolës nuëmimo laiko átaka atolø sëklø derliui ir brendimui

IV skyrius. AUGALØ APSAUGA

R. Ðmatas, J. Ðurkus, K. Tamoðiûnas. Kompiuterio programos naudojimo galimybës amarø þalos maþinimui vasariniuose mieþiuose 

V skyrius. AUGALØ SELEKCIJA

R. Asakavièiûtë, I. Paðakinskienë, A. Leistrumaitë. Vasariniø mieþiø (Hordeum Vulgare L.) dvigubø haploidø linijø kûrimas dulkiniø kultûros metodu 

  

CONTENTS

 

Chapter 1. SOIL SCIENCE AND AGROCHEMISTRY

A. Antanaitis, J. Lubytë, Ð. Antanaitis, G. Staugaitis. Selenium distribution regularities in Central Lithuania’s soils 

J. Maþvila, A. Antanaitis, J. Arbaèiauskas, J. Lubytë, T. Adomaitis, V. Maðauskas, Z. Vaiðvila. Potassium tests using different methods and their suitability for Lithuanian soils 

N. Daugëlienë. Efficacy of mineral fertilizers on the productivity of phytocenoses and migration of potassium in the soil 

J. Lubytë, A. Antanaitis, T. Adomaitis, J. Maþvila, Z. Vaiðvila, J. Arbaèiauskas. The dependence of amounts of various forms of heavy metals and microelements in soils on fertilization rates

A.Baniûnienë, V.Kupèinskas, V.Þëkaitë. Effects of green manure of undersown crops in the green manure chain of the potato crop rotation 

Chapter 2. AGRICULTURE AND CROP PRODUCTION

V. Seibutis, A.Magyla. Occurrence of earthworms and stability of soil aggregates on light loam soils as affected by shortening of rotations 

A. Arlauskienë, S. Maikðtënienë. Effects of legumes biomass on soil agrochemical properties and on the productivity of cereal agrocenoses 

I. Kavoliûnaitë, E. Paliulytë. Investigation of growth dynamics 

A. Velykis, A. Satkus, A. Ðlepetienë, A. Svirskienë. The effects of soil tillage and crop rotations on the biological and chemical soil properties, and on the crop productivity  

E. Gruzdevienë, M. Bastys, V. Liakas, A. Ðiuliauskas. Effects of cultural practices on the biometrical indicators of fibre flax crops   

Chapter 3. GRASSLAND

R. Skuodienë. Comparison of grasslands botanical composition determination by weight and handful (De Vries) methods   

J. Ðlepetys. Effect of the cutting date of the first crop of lucerne (Medicago Sativa L.) on the seed yield and maturation in the aftermath  

Chapter 4. PLANT PROTECTION

R. Ðmatas, J. Ðurkus, K. Tamoðiûnas. Feasibility of the use of pc-p model for the reduction of harm done by aphids in spring barley crops 

Chapter 5. PLANT BREEDING

R. Asakavièiûtë, I. Paðakinskienë, A. Leistrumaitë. Production of spring barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) doubled haploid (dh) lines using anther culture 


I skyrius. DIRVOTYRA IR AGROCHEMIJA

 ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 3, 87, 3-11

UDK 631.416.323(474.5)

SELENO PASISKIRSTYMO DËSNINGUMAI VIDURIO LIETUVOS DIRVOÞEMIUOSE

 Antanas Antanaitis, Jadvyga Lubytë, Ðarûnas Antanaitis, Gediminas Staugaitis

 Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Savanoriø pr.287, Kaunas

El. p. analize@agrolab.lt

Santrauka

 Dirvoþemio ëminiai seleno koncentracijai nustatyti imti ið Vidurio Lietuvos skirtingos granuliometrinës sudëties, rûgðtumo, fosforingumo, kalingumo bei bazingumo dirvoþemiø.

Selenas ið dirvoþemio ekstrahuotas uþdaroje sistemoje virinant koncentruotoje azoto rûgðtyje (HNO3), nustatytas atominës absorbcijos spektrometru „Aanalyst 800”, naudojant beliepsnæ grafitinæ krosnelæ ir lempà EDL.

Seleno koncentracija Vidurio Lietuvos dirvoþemiuose yra maþa. Atskirø rajonø dirvo­þemiuose vidutinë jo koncentracija humusingame sluoksnyje (0-20 cm) buvo nuo 0,100 ± 0,0200 iki 0,278 ± 0,0354 mg kg-1 dirvoþemio.

Rûgðtokuose, maþo fosforingumo smëlio ir priesmëlio dirvoþemiuose seleno rasta vidutiniðkai 0,134, o lengvuose, vidutinio sunkumo ir sunkiuose priemoliuose bei moliuose – 0,215-0,264, fosforinguose ir labai didelio fosforingumo dirvoþemiuose – atitinkamai 0,115 ir 0,180-0,261 mg kg-1.

Neutralaus rûgðtumo ir ðarmiðkuose (pH 7,0-8,5), maþo fosforingumo smëlio ir priesmëlio dirvoþemiuose seleno rasta 0,133, o lengvuose, vidutinio sunkumo ir sunkiuose priemoliuose bei moliuose 0,158-0,240 mg kg-1 seleno.

Maþo rûgðtumo ir rûgðtokuose (pHKCl 5,1-6,0) smëliuose seleno rasta 0,106, o sunkiuose priemoliuose – 0,300 mg kg-1. Seleno koncentracija labiau priklausë nuo dirvoþemio granulio­metrinës sudëties, negu nuo rûgðtumo bei fosforingumo.

Nustatyta, kad didelio bazingumo (125,30-295,2 mmol kg-1) dirvoþemiuose seleno yra 0,172-0,188 mg kg-1, o maþiausio bazingumo dirvoþemiuose – vidutiniðkai tik 0,137 mg kg-1.

Reikðminiai þodþiai : selenas, koncentracija, dirvoþemis.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 3, 87, 3-11

UDK 631.416.323(474.5)

SELENIUM DISTRIBUTION REGULARITIES IN CENTRAL LITHUANIA’S SOILS

A. Antanaitis, J. Lubytë, Ð. Antanaitis, G. Staugaitis

Summary

Selenium concentration was measured in the soil samples taken from Central Lithuania’s soils differing in texture, acidity, contents of phosphorus, potassium and bases.

In order to extract selenium the soil samples were boiled in concentrated HNO3 in a closed system. Selenium content was measured with an atomic absorption spectrometer “Aanalyst 800” using a flameless graphite furnace and EDL lamp.

Selenium concentration is low in Central Lithuania’s soils. In some regions average selenium concentration in humus-rich layer of soil (0-20 cm) was from 0.100±0.0200 to 0.278±0.0354 mg kg-1.

Selenium concentration in slightly acid, containing low amounts of phosphorus sand and sandy loam soils was on average 0.134 mg kg-1. Light loam, medium loam, clay loam and clay soils: 0.215-0.264 mg kg-1. Soils rich and very rich in phosphorus: 0.115 and 0.180-0.261 mg kg-1 accordingly.

Selenium concentration in neutral and alkaline, containing low amounts of phosphorus sand and sandy loam soils was 0.133 mg kg-1. Light loam, medium loam, clay loam and clay soils: 0.158-0.240 mg kg-1.

Selenium concentration in slightly acid and medium acid (pH 5.1-6.0) soils: sandy soils 0.106 mg kg-1, clay loams 0.300 mg kg-1. Selenium concentration depended on soil texture rather than acidity and amount of phosphorus.

Average concentration of selenium in soils with large amounts of bases (125.30-295.2 mmol kg-1) was 0.172-0.188 mg kg-1, and in soils with the lowest amount of bases  0.137 mg kg-1.

Key words: selenium, concentration, soil, soil texture, acidity, phosphorus amount, potassium amount, amount of bases.  


 ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 3, 87, 12-29

UDK 631.416.4:631.42.001.8

KALIO TYRIMAI SKIRTINGAIS METODAIS IR JØ TINKAMUMAS LIETUVOS DIRVOÞEMIAMS

Jonas MAÞVILA1, Antanas ANTANAITIS1, Jonas ARBAÈIAUSKAS1, Jadvyga LUBYTË1, Tomas ADOMAITIS1, Vytas MAÐAUSKAS2, Zigmas VAIÐVILA3

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

1Savanoriø pr. 287, Kaunas

El. p. agrolab@agrolab.lt

 2Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p. agrochemija@lzi.lt

 3Lietuvos þemës ûkio universitetas

Noreikiðkës, Kauno rajonas

El. p. vaisvila@nora.lzua.lt

Santrauka

Tinkamiausio analizavimo metodo parinkimui moreninës, fliuvioglacialinës ir limnoglacialinës kilmës dirvoþemiuose kalio kiekiams analizuoti buvo naudoti acetato-laktato (A-L metodas); 2% NaHCO3 + 0,76% (NH4)2SO4; 0,01M CaCl2; 0,03% MgSO4; 2N HCl; 0,5M CH3COONH4+0,05M CH3COOH+0,02M Na2EDTA (pH 4,65) ir 0,5M CH3COONH4+0,05M CH3COOH+0,02M Na2EDTA (pH 7,0) tirpalai.

Judriojo kalio kiekiai dirvoþemyje, nustatyti ávairiose iðtraukose, tampriai ir patikimai (h=0,75-0,92) priklausë nuo ðio elemento kiekio, nustatyto A-L metodu moreninës ir fliuvioglacialinës kilmës dirvoþemiuose, o limnoglacialinës kilmës dirvoþemiuose – silpniau, ir jø priklausomumas nuo ekstrahavimo tirpalo buvo nedësningas.

Smëlingame priemolyje atskirø augalø derliaus priedai, gauti dël kalio tràðø, ne visuomet statistiðkai patikimai priklausë nuo dirvoþemio kalio. Vidutinio tamprumo priklausomumo ryðiai su beveik visose tyrimuose naudotose iðtraukose nustatytais kalio kiekiais gauti auginant vienametes þoles ir cukrinius runkelius. Ávertinus vidutiná sëjomainos derliø, jo priedai dël kalio tràðø ið esmës priklausë nuo dirvoþemio kalingumo. Tamprûs (h=0,70-0,79) priklausomumo ryðiai gauti tarp apykaitos energijos priedø ir dirvoþemio kalingumo, nustatyto acetatinëje-laktatinëje, natrio bikarbonato, kalcio chlorido ir magnio sulfato iðtraukose.

Dulkiðkame priemolyje nuo kalio kiekio dirvoþemyje labiausiai priklausë dël kalio tràðø gautas bulviø derliaus priedas, ypaè kai kalio kiekis buvo nustatytas 0,03% MgSO4, 0,01M CaCl2 bei acetato-laktato iðtraukose,  taip pat nuo kalio kiekio gerai priklausë mieþiø derliaus priedas, kai ðis elementas buvo nustatytas A-L metodu.

Þemës ûkio augalø derliaus (ypaè vidutiniai apykaitos energijos) priedai dël kalio tràðø labiausiai priklausë nuo kalio kiekio dirvoþemyje, nustatyto 0,01M CaCl2 ir 0,03% MgSO4 iðtraukose, taèiau atsiþvelgiant á metodo universalumà ir juo gautø duomenø tikslumà, pirmenybæ reikëtø teikti acetato-laktato iðtraukai. Be to, ðiais metodais nustatyti kalio kiekiai dirvoþemyje pakankamai gerai priklausë ir nuo A-L iðtraukoje iðtirpintø ðio elemento kiekiø. Todël greta acetato-laktato iðtraukos, kalio kiekiui nustatyti galima naudoti ir 0,01M CaCl2 bei 0,03% MgSO4 tirpalus.

 Reikðminiai þodþiai: kalio analizavimo metodai, dirvoþemis, augalai, kalio tràðø efektyvumas.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 3, 87, 12-29

UDK 631.416.4:631.42.001.8

POTASSIUM TESTS USING DIFFERENT METHODS AND THEIR SUITABILITY FOR LITHUANIAN SOILS

J. Maþvila, A. Antanaitis, J. Arbaèiauskas, J. Lubytë, T. Adomaitis, V. Maðauskas,  Z. Vaiðvila

Summary

The most suitable analysis method for measuring of potassium in soils of moraine, fluvic and glacial lacustrine origin was selected from the following group: A-L method, 2% NaHCO3 + 0.76% (NH4)2SO4; 0.01M CaCl2; 0.03% MgSO4; 2N HCl; 0.5M CH3COONH4+0.05M CH3COOH+0.02M Na2EDTA (pH 4.65) ir 0.5M CH3COONH4+0.05M CH3COOH+0.02M Na2EDTA (pH 7.0) solutions.

The amounts of available potassium in the soil, measured in different extracts, correlated significantly and strongly (η=0.75-0.92) with the amount of potassium measured using A-L methods, when soils were  of moraine and fluvic origin. The correlation was less for soils of glacial lacustrine origin, here the dependence on extraction was irregular.

Yield increase of different crops, cultivated on sandy loam soils due to potassium fertilization did not always statistically significantly correlated with potassium in the soil. Medium strong correlation with potassium amounts measured was found for almost all extracts used when annual grass and sugar beet crops were cultivated. The average yield increase for the whole crop rotation depended mainly on potassium content in the soil. Strong (η=0.7-0.79) correlation was found between metabolizable energy increase and potassium content in soil, measured in extracts A-L, sodium bicarbonate, calcium chloride and magnesium sulphate.

Among the crops cultivated on silty loam soils the best correlation was identified between potassium content in the soil and potato yield increase due to potassium fertilization, especially in the cases where potassium was measured in magnesium sulphate, calcium chloride and A-L extracts. Barley yield increase correlated well if potassium was measured using A-L method.

An A-L extract should be given the priority from the point of view of universality and accurancy of data obtained. On the other hand, increase of crop yield, especially the average increase of metabolic energy due to the potassium fertilization were correalating best to potassium amount in soil measured in calcium chloride and magnesium sulphade extracts. In addition, potassium amounts in the soil measured using the aforementioned methods correlated quite well with potassium amounts dissolved in A-L extract. Therefore, besides A-L extract one may use calcium chloride and magnesium sulphate solutions for measuring of potassium amounts.

 Key words: potassium analysis methods, soil, crops, efficacy of potassium fertilizers. 


ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 3, 87, 30-43

UDK 631.82:633.2.03:631.559:[631.416.4

MINERALINIØ TRÀÐØ VEIKSMINGUMAS FITOCENOZIØ PRODUKTYVUMUI IR KALIO MIGRACIJAI DIRVOÞEMYJE

Nijolë DAUGËLIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

El. p. nijole@vezaiciai.lzi.lt

Santrauka

Bandymas darytas Vakarø Lietuvoje. Dirvoþemis - tipingas paprastasis  iðplautþemis – Orthi-Haplic Luvisol (IDp-t ). Po kalkinimo dirvoþemio pHKCl 6,2, judriojo fosforo – 92, o judriojo kalio – 165 mg kg-1.

Pakalkintos ganyklos dirvoþemyje baltieji dobilai geriausiai plito, patræðus ganykliná þolynà P30K60, P60K90-120 normomis. Vidutiniais duomenimis, jø buvo 34-38 %. Daugiausiai sausøjø medþiagø gauta, patræðus ganyklà P30K30 norma. Tarp þolës sausøjø medþiagø derliaus ir kalio kiekio dirvoþemyje buvo stiprus (h = 0,715-0,925) koreliacinis ryðys. Didþiausià átakà þolës sausøjø medþiagø derliui turëjo K30 norma (P30N60 fone), kuri derliø nulëmë 95 %.

Organiniø ir mineraliniø medþiagø kiekis þolës sausøjø medþiagø derliuje patenkino produktyviø galvijø reikmes. Taèiau patræðus P60K90-120, beveik visais metais ir ganymais virðyta leistina 3 % kalio riba. Dël P60K90 normos átakos þolës sausøjø medþiagø derliuje 0,36 % sumaþëjo þaliø riebalø, 1,06 % - þaliø pelenø, o padaugëjo fosforo ir kalio (0,07 % fosforo ir 0,38 % kalio), palyginus su netræðtu variantu. P60K60 norma 1,9 % padidino þalios làstelienos kieká.

Kalio migracijos tyrimai dirvoþemyje rodo, kad iðbërus tràðas ant ganyklos pavirðiaus, judrusis kalis kaupiasi 10 cm dirvoþemio sluoksnyje. Didëjant kalio tràðø normai nuo K30 iki K120, judriojo kalio dirvoþemyje kasmet daugëja. Tarp judriojo kalio kiekio ir dirvoþemio pH   10 cm gylyje nustatytas vidutinio stiprumo (h = 0,449-0,561), o gausiai patræðus (P60K120) ir stiprus (h = 0,836) koreliacinis ryðys.

 Reikðminiai þodþiai: þolës derlius, kokybë, botaninë sudëtis, kalis.

  

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 3, 87, 30-43

UDK 631.82:633.2.03:631.559:[631.416.4

EFFICACY OF MINERAL FERTILIZERS ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF PHYTOCENOSES AND MIGRATION OF POTASSIUM IN THE SOIL

N. Daugëlienë

Summary

The experiment was carried out in western Lithuania on a Orthi-Haplic Luvisol (IDp-t). After liming the soil contained pHKCl 6.2, mobile phosphorus (P2O5) 92, and mobile  (K2O) potassium 165 mg kg-1.

In the soil of limed pasture white clover spread the best in the treatments where pasture sward was applied with P30K60, P60K90-120 rates. Averaged data suggest that white clover accounted for 34-38 %. The highest dry matter yield was obtained having fertilized the pasture with P30K30 rate. A strong correlation (h = 0.715-0.925) was identified between dry matter yield of herbage and potassium content in the soil. The rate K30 (on the background of P30N60) had the greatest effect on the dry matter yield of herbage, which determined the yield by 95 %.

The content of organic and mineral matter (except for potassium) in the dry matter yield of herbage met the needs of productive cattle. Having fertilized with P60K90-120, the permissible potassium level was exceeded by 3 % almost in all years and grazings. Under the effects of P60K90 rate the following decline occurred in the dry matter yield: crude fat by 0.36 %, crude ash by 1.06 %, while the contents of phosphorus and potassium increased by 0.07 % and 0.38 %, respectively compared with the unfertilized treatment. P60K60 rate increased the content of crude fibre by 1.9 %.

Investigation of potassium migration in the soil showed that when fertilizers were spread on the surface of the pasture, mobile potassium tended to accumulate in the 10 cm soil layer. When increasing potassium fertilizer rate from K30 to K120, the content of mobile potassium in the soil increased annually. A medium strong correlation (h = 0.449-0.561) was identified between mobile potassium content and soil pH in the 10 cm depth, while in the abundantly fertilized treatments (P60K120) a strong correlation (h = 0.836) was determined. 

Key words: pasture yield, quality, botanical composition, potassium. 


 ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 3, 87, 44-60

UDK 631.416.8:631.8

ÁVAIRIØ FORMØ SUNKIØJØ METALØ IR MIKROELEMENTØ KIEKIO DIRVOÞEMYJE PRIKLAUSOMUMAS NUO TRÆÐIMO

Jadvyga LUBYTË, Antanas ANTANAITIS, Tomas ADOMAITIS, Jonas MAÞVILA, Zigmas VAIÐVILA, Jonas ARBAÈIAUSKAS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Savanoriø pr. 278, Kaunas

El. p. analize@agrolab.lt

Santrauka

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Agrocheminiø tyrimø centre 1998-2002 m. daryti tyrimai, siekiant nustatyti ávairiø formø sunkiøjø metalø (Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni) ir mikroelementø (Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe) kiekius ir pokyèius dirvoþemyje, atsiþvelgiant á træðimo intensyvumà ir koreliacinius ryðius tarp jø. Nagrinëjami ávairiø formø sunkiøjø metalø ir mikroelementø koncentracijø pasiskirstymo dësningumai ávairiuose dirvoþemio sluoksniuose ir jø koreliaciniai ryðiai. Skirtinguose pagal genezæ, granuliometrinæ sudëtá, rûgðtumà dirvoþemiuose ëminiai paimti ið 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-90 cm sluoksniø Skëmiø (Radviliðkio r.), Kriûkø (Ðakiø r.), Rumokø (Vilkaviðkio r.) ir Vokës (Vilniaus r.) træðimo bandymuose. Juose sunkiøjø metalø suminës koncentracijos nustatytos HNO3-HF-HClO4, tirpiosios – 2 M HNO3 ir judriosios formos – amonio acetato buferiniame tirpale, kurio pH 4,8. Augalø pasisavinami mikroelementai Cu ir Fe analizuoti 1 M HCl tirpale, Mn – 0,05 M H2SO4 ir Zn – amonio acetatiniame buferiniame tirpale, kurio pH 4,8.

Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mn ir Fe suminiø ir tirpiøjø 2 M HNO3 formø koncentracija ir jos pasiskirstymas ávairiuose sluoksniuose labiausiai priklausë nuo dirvoþemio genezës ir granuliometrinës sudëties. Maþesnë jø koncentracija buvo fliuvoglacialiniame priesmëlio (IDp) Vokës ir smëlingame lengvo priemolio (RDg4-k1) Skëmiø, didesnë – limnoglacialinës kilmës dulkiðkame lengvo priemolio (IDg8-k) Rumokø, o didþiausia – dulkiðkame vidutinio sunkumo priemolio (RDg4-k1) Kriûkø bandymø dirvoþemyje.

Atlikus tyrimus, paaiðkëjo, kad sunkiøjø metalø ir mikroelementø judriosioms formoms analizuoti ávairiuose dirvoþemiuose (karbonatinguose ir nekarbonatinguose) gerai tinka amonio acetato buferinis tirpalas, pH 4,8. Ilgalaikis træðimas net ir didelëmis NPK normomis darë neþymø poveiká ávairiø formø sunkiøjø metalø ir mikroelementø susikaupimui dirvoþemyje, iðskyrus suminius Cr, Ni ir Pb Skëmiø (28 m.) træðimo bandyme.

Koreliacinë regresinë duomenø analizë rodo, kad ryðiai tarp ávairiø sunkiøjø metalø formø 0-20 cm dirvoþemio sluoksnyje yra ávairaus stiprumo (r = 0,07-0,91) ir daþniausiai patikimi.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: sunkieji metalai, mikroelementai, dirvoþemis, metodai, tirpikliai, koncentracija, træðimas.

  

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 3, 87, 44-60

UDK  631.416.8:631.8

THE DEPENDENCE OF AMOUNTS OF VARIOUS FORMS OF HEAVY METALS AND MICROELEMENTS IN SOILS ON FERTILIZATION RATES

J. Lubytë, A. Antanaitis, T. Adomaitis, J. Maþvila, Z. Vaiðvila, J. Arbaèiauskas

Summary

In order to find the most suitable method for determining the concentration of heavy metals and microelements as well as the correlation of their different forms in Lithuania’s soils, special trials were carried out during 1998-2002. We investigated Lithuania’s soils differing in genesis, texture and reaction. The samples were collected in Skëmiai (Radviliðkis dist.), in the moraine deposits sandy light loam Epicalcari - Endohypogleyic Cambisols(CMg-n-w-cap), in Kriûkai (Ðakiø dist.) in the glacial lacustrine deposits silty medium loam with clay in deeper  layers  Epicalcari - Endohypogleyic Cambisols (CMg-n-w-cap) and in Rumokai (Vilkaviðkis dist.) in the glacial lacustrine deposits silty light loam and medium loam with clay  in deeper layers Calc(ar)i-Epihypogleyic Luvisols (LVg-p-w-cc). Fertilization trials were conducted by the Agrochemical Research Centre. The soil samples, taken from the field crop rotation at the Vokë Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in he fluvioglacial deposit sandy loam with calcari gravel in deeper layers Orthi-Haplic Luvisols (LVh-or) were used as well.

General forms of heavy metals and microelements in soil samples were determined in – HNO3-HF-HClO4, soluble – 2 M HNO3 and mobile forms in ammonium acetate buffer solution (AAB) with pH 4.8. The following microelements absorbed by plants were determined: Cu, Fe – 1 M HCl in solution, Mn – 0.05 M H2SO4 and Zn in ammonium acetate buffer solution with     pH 4.8.

The content and correlation of different forms of heavy metals and microelements in the soils are discussed in the paper.

Mineral NPK fertilizers slightly changed the concentrations of heavy metals and microelements in soils. Meanwhile in the long-term (28 years) Skëmiai crop rotation fertilization trial, where total Cr (in 0-20 cm layer) in fertilized plots increased by 34.2, Pb – 24.3, Ni – 21.9, Mn – 17.4 % , mobile forms of Cu and Mn – twice, and Fe – 1,2 times.

Key words: heavy metals, microelements, soil, methods, solvents, concentration, fertilization.


ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 3, 87, 61-72

UDK 631.874:[633.491+633.16]:631.559

SIDERACINIØ AUGALØ VEIKIMAS BULVIØ SËJOMAINOJE

Alë BANIÛNIENË, Vincas KUPÈINSKAS, Vilma ÞËKAITË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Perloja, Varënos rajonas

El. p. perlojabst@varena.omnitel.net

Santrauka

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Perlojos bandymø stotyje lengvos granuliometrinës sudëties paprastajame iðplautþemyje (Ide-p) 1996-2002 m. tirta ávairiø ásëliniø sideraciniø augalø þalios masës ir mëðlo átaka bei jø uþarimo laikas bulviø produktyvumui  ir jø poveikis mieþiams. Á þieminius rugius buvo ásëti sideraciniai augalai: paprastosios ðunaþolës, daugiameèiai lubinai, raudonieji dobilai, seradëlës ir vienametës svidrës.

Nustatyta, kad sideraciniai vienameèiai augalai þalios masës derliø iðaugino 1,8 karto maþesná (vid. 3,2 t ha-1) negu daugiameèiai, ið jø rudená ir pavasará gauta dobilø atitinkamai 7,2 ir 5,3 t ha-1, paprastøjø ðunaþoliø – 5,6 ir 5,8 t ha-1, lubinø – 4,7 ir 4,3 t ha-1. Organiniø tràðø uþarimo laikas bulvëms turëjo maþai átakos  jø derliui. Abiejuose fonuose bulviø derlius padidëjo ið esmës – nuo 1,9 iki 2,8 t ha-1 uþarus mëðlà ir daugiameèius lubinus. Nuo ðunaþoliø þaliosios tràðos bulviø derlius padidëjo 1,2 ir 1,5 t ha-1. Po raudonøjø dobilø bulviø derlius padidëjo        1,3 t ha-1 biomasæ áterpus tik pavasará. Mieþiams esminës átakos turëjo rudená prieðsëliui uþarta paprastøjø ðunaþoliø ir lubinø þalioji masë bei mëðlas, o pavasará – tik mëðlas.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: ásëliniai sideraciniai augalai, þalioji tràða, mëðlas, bulviø produktyvumas, mieþiø derlius.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 3, 87, 61-72

UDK 631.874:[633.491+633.16]:631.559

EFFECTS OF GREEN MANURE OF UNDERSOWN CROPS IN THE GREEN MANURE CHAIN OF THE POTATO CROP ROTATION

A.Baniûnienë, V.Kupèinskas, V.Þëkaitë

Summary

A series of field experiments was carried out at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s Perloja Experimental Station on a light-textured haplic luvisol over the period 1996-2002 with a view to ascertaining the effects of green mass of various undersown green manure plants and farmyard manure and their ploughing-down time on the productivity of potatoes and their impact on barley. Winter rye was undersown with the following green manure plants: orchard grass, perennial lupine, red clover, bird’s foot, and annual ryegrass.

Experimental evidence suggests that annual green manure plants produced by 1.8 times lower green mass yield (on average 3.2 t ha-1) compared with perennial plants. The yield of clover harvested in autumn and spring amounted to 7.2 and 5.3 t ha-1, respectively, of orchard grass – 5.6 and 5.8 t ha-1, respectively, of lupine – 4.7 and 4.3 t ha-1, respectively. The time of organic fertiliser ploughing-down for potatoes had an insignificant effect on their yield. On both backgrounds potato yield significantly increased from 1.9 to 2.8 t ha-1 having ploughed-down farmyard manure and perennial lupine. Green manure of orchard grass increased potato yield by 1.2 and 1.5 t ha-1. After red clover potato yield increased by 1.3 t ha-1 having incorporated the biomass only in spring. Barley was significantly affected by autumn ploughed-down green mass of orchard grass and lupine for the preceding crop and by farmyard manure, while in spring a significant effect was exerted only by farmyard manure.

Key words: undersown green manure plants, green manure, farmyard manure, potato productivity, barley yield.


II skyrius. ÞEMDIRBYSTË IR AUGALININKYSTË

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 3, 87, 73-86

UDK 631.442.4:631.468.514.239:631.582

SLIEKØ PAPLITIMAS BEI DIRVOÞEMIO AGREGATØ PATVARUMAS LENGVO PRIEMOLIO DIRVOSE, TRUMPINANT SËJOMAINØ ROTACIJAS

Vytautas SEIBUTIS, Algimantas MAGYLA

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p. vytautas@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute, Dotnuvoje, atliekamas trumpø sëjomainø rotacijø parinkimo bandymas, kuriame 2001-2003 m. tirtas sliekø skaièius ir masë. Atskirais tyrimø metais sliekø gausumas buvo skirtingas: 2001 m. rasta vidutiniðkai 58,6 vnt. m-2, 2002 ir  2003-iaisiais – atitinkamai 90,5 ir 41,1 vnt. m-2.

Sliekø gausumas priklausë nuo rotacijos trumpinimo, prieðsëlio parinkimo ir nuo to, kiek metø augalai gali bûti auginami toje paèioje vietoje. Vidutiniais trejø metø duomenimis, keturlaukëje, trilaukëse ir dvilaukëse sëjomainose sliekø skaièius nuosekliai maþëjo – atitinkamai 64,3, 62,1 ir 57,7 vnt. m-2. Vasariniø mieþiø, cukriniø runkeliø, þirniø sëjomainø pasëliuose 2001-2003 m. sliekø rasta vidutiniðkai atitinkamai 66,9, 67,7 ir 61,4 vnt. m-2, o po þieminiø kvieèiø – 53,4 vnt. m-2.

Vidutiniais 2001-2002 metø duomenimis, trumpinant sëjomainø rotacijas nuo keturiø iki trijø ar dviejø nariø, patvarûs agregatai turëjo tendencijà gausëti. Vandenyje patvariø agregatø >0,25 mm daugiausia buvo po vasariniø rapsø – 60,4 proc., maþiausiai – po cukriniø runkeliø –53,8 procento.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: sëjomainos rotacija, sliekai, dirvoþemio struktûra.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 3, 87, 73-86

UDK 631.442.4:631.468.514.239:631.582

OCCURRENCE OF EARTHWORMS AND STABILITY OF SOIL AGGREGATES ON LIGHT LOAM SOILS AS AFFECTED BY  SHORTENING OF ROTATIONS

V. Seibutis, A.Magyla

Summary

An experiment on the choice of short rotations is being conducted at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in Dotnuva. During the period 2001-2003 the tests were focused on the number of earthworms and their mass. In individual experimental years the abundance of earthworms was varied: in 2001 the number amounted to on average 58.6 earthworms m-2, in 2002 and 2003 to 90.5 and 41.1 earthworms m-2, respectively.

The abundance of earthworms depended on the shortening of the rotation, choice of he preceding crop, and on how long the crops can be grown in the same place. Averaged tree years’ data suggest that in the four-course, three-course, and two-course crop rotations the number of earthworms consistently declined: 64.3, 62.1 and 57.7 earthworms m-2, respectively. During the period 2001-2003 the stands of barley, sugar beet, peas rotations contained on average 66.9, 67.7, and 61.4 earthworms m-2, respectively, and after winter wheat 53.4 earthworms m-2.

Averaged experimental findings from 2001-2002 indicate that when crop rotations are shortened from 4 to 3 and 2 members, a trend of stable aggregates increasing is noted. The highest content of water stable aggregates >0.25 mm was identified after spring oilseed rape  60.4 per cent, whereas the lowest content was estimated after sugar beet 53.8 per cent.

Key words: crop rotation, earthworms, soil structure.


ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 3, 87, 87-105

UDK 631.417:[633.1+633.31].37

ANKÐTINIØ AUGALØ BIOMASËS ÁTAKA DIRVOÞEMIO AGROCHEMINËMS SAVYBËMS IR JAVØ AGROCENOZIØ PRODUKTYVUMUI

Auðra ARLAUSKIENË, Stanislava MAIKÐTËNIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Joniðkëlis, Pasvalio rajonas

El. p. joniskelio_lzi@post.omnitel.net

Santrauka

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Joniðkëlio bandymø stotyje 1996-2000 metais giliau karbonatingame giliau glëjiðkame rudþemyje (Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol) atlikti kompleksiniai lauko tyrimai, siekiant nustatyti prieðsëliø ir þaliøjø tràðø átakà dirvoþemio agrocheminiø savybiø kitimui, auginant skirtingø grandþiø javus. Tirta raudonøjø dobilø (Trifolium pratense L.), mëlynþiedþiø liucernø (Medicago sativa L.), vikiø ir aviþø miðinio (Vicia sativa L., Avena sativa L.) bei jø þalios masës, panaudotos þaliajai tràðai, poveikis dirvoþemio savybëms. Nustatyta, kad uþarus raudonøjø dobilø, mëlynþiedþiø liucernø biomasæ, á dirvoþemá áterpta azoto atitinkamai 179,7 ir 349,0 kg ha-1. Tai lëmë áterptos biomasës siauresnis anglies ir azoto santykis negu vikiø ir aviþø miðinio. Auginant varpinius javus skirtingose grandyse, áterptø organiniø medþiagø mineralizacija sunkios granuliometrinës sudëties dirvoþemyje vyko lëtai, todël nustatytas nedidelis mineralinio azoto kiekis. Po javø auginimo trimetëse grandyse dirvoþemio organinës anglies ir ypaè bendrojo azoto sumaþëjo. Teigiamà organinës anglies balansà palaikë træðimas mëðlu. Judriøjø fosforo ir kalio maþëjo, ypaè variantuose, træðtuose mineralinëmis azoto tràðomis.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: sunkus priemolis, prieðsëliai, þaliosios tràðos, azotas, organinë anglis, javø grandis.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific Articles, 2004, 3, 87, 87-105

UDK 631.417:[633.1+633.31].37 

EFFECTS OF LEGUMES BIOMASS ON SOIL AGROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF CEREAL AGROCENOSES

A. Arlauskienë, S. Maikðtënienë

Summary

During the period 1996-2000 complex field experiments were carried out at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s Joniðkëlis Experimental Station on an Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol. The objective of the experiments was to identify the effects of preceding crops and green manure on the variation of soil agrochemical properties when growing cereals in different sequences. The impact of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), sown lucerne (Medicago sativa L.), and vetch and oats mixture (Vicia sativa L., Avena sativa L.) and their green material used as green manure on soil properties was estimated. Experimental evidence suggests that with red clover and sown lucerne biomass the soil received 179.7 and 349.0 kg ha-1 nitrogen, which determined a narrower ratio of carbon to nitrogen of the incorporated biomass compared with that of vetch and oats mixture. When growing cereals in different sequences, mineralisation of the incorporated organic matter in the soil was slow, therefore a small content of mineral nitrogen was identified. The content of organic carbon, and especially total nitrogen, declined after cereals cultivation in three-year sequences. A positive balance of organic carbon was maintained by farmyard manure application. The content of mobile phosphorus and potassium declined, especially in the treatments, applied with mineral nitrogen fertilizers.

Key words: heavy loam, preceding crops, green manure, nitrogen, organic carbon, cereal sequence.


ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 3,87, 106-115

UDK 632.51

PAPRASTØJØ VARPUÈIØ AUGIMO DINAMIKOS TYRIMAI

Irena KAVOLIÛNAITË, Eglë PALIULYTË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Trakø Vokë, Vilnius

El. p. sekretoriatas@voke.lzi.lt

Santrauka

Paprastøjø varpuèiø (Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski) augimo dinamika þieminiuose rugiuose, bulvëse, vasariniuose mieþiuose, vasariniuose mieþiuose su daugiameèiø þoliø ásëliu, pirmø naudojimo metø daugiametëse þolëse, juodajame pûdyme ir nedirbamoje dirvoje buvo tirta 1997-1999 m. LÞI Vokës filiale paprastajame priesmëlio iðplautþemyje (IDp). Agrotechnika áprasta, cheminës priemonës nenaudotos.

Nustatyta, kad paprastieji varpuèiai sparèiausiai dauginosi nedirbamoje dirvoje ir pirmø naudojimo metø daugiametëse þolëse, o labiausiai sumaþëjo juodajame pûdyme, kuriame rudená ðakniastiebiø ilgis buvo 47, o masë net 53 kartus maþesni, palyginus su nedirbama dirva.

Vasariniuose mieþiuose ir juose su daugiameèiø þoliø ásëliu dël pavasarinio þemës dirbimo, o bulvëse dar ir dël pasëliø prieþiûros varputëtumas vegetacijos viduryje buvo gerokai sumaþëjæs, bet rudeniop vël padidëjo, ypaè bulvëse. Maþiausi paprastøjø varpuèiø pokyèiai buvo þieminiø rugiø pasëliuose.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: piktþolës, paprastieji varpuèiai (Elytrigia repens), ðakniastiebiai, augimo dinamika.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 3, 87, 106-115

UDK 632.51

INVESTIGATION OF GROWTH DYNAMICS

I. Kavoliûnaitë, E. Paliulytë

Summary

Growth dynamics of Elytrigia repens was studied during the period 1997-1999 at the Vokë Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture on a haplic luvisol sandy loam soil.

The objective of the study was to determine the growth dynamics and development regularities of Elytrigia repens in different agrophytocenoses, such as  winter rye, potato, spring barley, undersown spring barley, perennial grasses, bare fallow and untilled soil.

The highest increase in Elytrigia repens was identified in untilled soil and in the first-year perennial grasses. Disappearance of Elytrigia repens was most noticeable in bare fallow (Fig. 1). In untilled soil the amount of Elytrigia repens by autumn increased 6.4-7.2 times, the rhizome length per hectare reached 377 km and the air-dry weight amounted to 747 kg. In the first-year perennial grasses the amount of Elytrigia repens rhizomes in the course of the growing season increased 2-3 times. In autumn, rhizome weight per hectare was as high as 650 kg. Conditions for Elytrigia repens stem growth in perennial grasses were worse.

In winter rye, conditions for Elytrigia repens growth and development were not favourable. The rhizome length of Elytrigia repens in spring barley and undersown spring barley decreased 2.2 and 1.8 times and weight 1.8 and 1.6 times, respectively.

In potato, conditions for Elytrigia repens spread were favourable. Its stem number and rhizome weight at potato harvesting time increased 1.8 times.

In bare fallow, with intensive soil cultivation, only scanty amounts of Elytrigia repens remained. In autumn, rhizome length per hectare amounted to 8 km and air-dry weight – 14 kg.

Key words: weeds, Elytrigia repens, rhizomes, growth dynamics.


ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 3, 87, 116-129

UDK  631.51+631.582]:631.442.4:[631.41+631.46

ÞEMËS DIRBIMO IR SËJOMAINØ ÁTAKA DIRVOÞEMIO BIOLOGINËMS BEI CHEMINËMS SAVYBËMS IR AUGALØ PRODUKTYVUMUI

Aleksandras VELYKIS1, Antanas SATKUS1, Alvyra ÐLEPETIENË2, Aldona SVIRSKIENË2

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

1Joniðkëlis, Pasvalio rajonas

El. p. joniskelio_lzi@post.omnitel.net

 2Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p. alvyra@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Kompleksiniai tyrimai, siekiant dirvoþemio biologiniø ir cheminiø savybiø gerinimo, daryti 1998-2002 metais Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto (LÞI) Joniðkëlio bandymø stotyje limnoglacialiniame sunkaus priemolio ant dulkiðkojo molio glëjiðkame rudþemyje. Tirta: A. Sëjomainos su skirtinga þieminiø ir vasariniø augalø pasëliø struktûra (0, 25, 50, 75 ir 100 % þieminiø augalø), auginant jose vienametes ir daugiametes þoles, vasarinius ir þieminius kvieèius, kvietrugius bei mieþius; B. Pagrindinio þemës dirbimo sistemos – áprasta (verstuvinis arimas visiems augalams) ir tausojanti (verstuvinis arimas kvieèiams po þoliø ir þemës dirbimas be arimo augalams, augintiems po javø).

Nustatyta, kad nuo tausojanèio þemës dirbimo dirvoþemyje padidëjo amonifikuojanèiø mikroorganizmø, mineraliná azotà asimiliuojanèiø bakterijø, mikromicetø paplitimas ir invertazës aktyvumas, huminiø rûgðèiø ir humuso kiekis, humifikacijos laipsnis, sumaþëjo sporiniø bakterijø ir organinës medþiagos mineralizacijos intensyvumas, taèiau 6,4 % sumaþëjo vidutinis javø grûdø derlingumas, palyginus su áprastu dirbimu. Pagal augalø produktyvumà, tausojantis þemës dirbimas buvo lygiavertis áprastam sëjomainose, kur þieminiai augalai sudarë 50, 75 ir 100 % jø ploto.

Þieminiø augalø ploto sëjomainoje didinimas turëjo maþesnæ teigiamà átakà dirvoþemio biologinëms ir cheminëms savybëms, negu þemës dirbimo sistemos, taèiau lëmë bendràjá vidutiná augalø produktyvumo padidëjimà iki 44,7 %.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: sunkus priemolis, sëjomainos, þemës dirbimas, humusas, mikrobo-loginis aktyvumas, augalø derlius.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific Articles, 2004, 3, 87, 116-129

UDK  631.51+631.582]:631.442.4:[631.41+631.46

THE EFFECTS OF SOIL TILLAGE AND CROP ROTATIONS ON THE BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL SOIL PROPERTIES, AND ON THE CROP PRODUCTIVITY

A. Velykis, A. Satkus, A. Ðlepetienë, A. Svirskienë

Summary

Seeking to improve the soil biological and chemical properties complex investigations were carried out over the period 1998-2002 at the  Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s Joniðkëlis Research Station on a glacial lacustrine clay loam on a silty clay Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol.

Design of the trial: A. Rotations with a different structure of winter and spring crops (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of winter crops), growing annual and perennial grass, spring and winter wheat, triticale and barley; B. Primary soil tillage systems - conventional (mouldboard ploughing for all crops) and sustainable (mouldboard ploughing for wheat after grass and ploughless soil loosening for crops grown after cereals).

Application of the sustainable soil tillage system resulted in an increase in the occurrence of ammonifying microorganisms, content of bacteria assimilating mineral nitrogen, micromycetes and activity of invertase, amount of humic acids and humus, and in a reduction of spore-forming bacteria and intensity of organic matter mineralisation. Moreower the cereals grain yield decreased by 6.4 % compared with the conventional tillage. Sustainable soil tillage was equivalent to conventional tillage according to the crop productivity in the rotations containing 50, 75 and 100 % of winter crops.

Expansion of winter crop area in the rotation had a lesser positive effect on soil biological and chemical properties compared with the effects of soil tillage systems however dermined an increase in the crop productivity up to 44.7 %.

Key words: clay loam, rotations, soil tillage, humus, microbiological activity, crop yield.


ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 3, 87, 130-144

UDK  633.521:631.5

AGROTECHNIKOS VEIKSNIØ ÁTAKA PLUOÐTINIØ LINØ PASËLIO BIOMETRINIAMS RODIKLIAMS

Elvyra GRUZDEVIENË1, Mindaugas BASTYS2, Vytautas LIAKAS2, Albinas ÐIULIAUSKAS2

1Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Upytë, Panevëþio rajonas

El. p. upyte@lzi.lt

2 Lietuvos þemës ûkio universitetas

Akademija, Kauno rajonas

El. p. vytas@nora.lzuu.lt

Santrauka

Ðakiø rajono Kriûkø þemës ûkio bendrovëje (ÞÛB) 1997-2000 m. ir Lietuvos  þemdirbystës instituto Upytës bandymø stotyje 1999-2001 m. daryti bandymai, siekiant iðtirti agrotechnikos veiksniø átakà pluoðtiniø linø pasëliø biometriniams rodikliams. Linø veislës: ‘Ariane’ Kriûkuose, ‘Baltuèiai’ Upytëje.

Nustatytas linø pasëliø biometriniø rodikliø parametrø tarpusavio tamprus ryðys. Jei optimalaus tankumo (14-16 mln. ha-1) pasëliuose linø stiebeliø vidutinis bendras ilgis buvo 90-100 cm, o jø diametras – 1,25-1,50 mm, tai retesniuose (6,5-8,0 mln. ha-1) pasëliuose stiebeliai iðaugdavo net iki 115-120 cm ilgio, o jø vidutinis diametras siekë 2,5-3,0 mm. Padidinus pasëliø tankumà iki 18-20 mln. ha-1, stiebeliø ilgis sumaþëdavo iki 80-85 cm, o jø diametras – iki 1,00-1,15 mm. Padidinus fosforo kalio tràðø normà, nors ir didëjo pasëliø tankumas, taèiau turëjo ir teigiamos átakos stiebeliø ilgiui bei storiui. Padidinus sëklos normà, visais atvejais maþëjo stiebeliø ilgis ir jø diametras. Linø sëklos beicavimas ið esmës maþino pasëliø retëjimà, didino stiebeliø ilgá ir maþino jø diametrà. Linø pasëliø purðkimas fungicidais neturëjo esminës átakos linø pasëliø biometriniams parametrams.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: pluoðtiniai linai, agrotechnikos veiksniai, biometriniai rodikliai.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific Articles, 2004, 3, 87, 130-144

UDK  633.521:631.5

EFFECTS OF CULTURAL PRACTICES ON THE BIOMETRICAL INDICATORS OF FIBRE FLAX CROPS

E. Gruzdevienë, M. Bastys, V. Liakas, A. Ðiuliauskas

Summary

Field experiments were carried out at the Kriûkai agricultural company during 1997-2000 and at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s Upytë Experimental Station during 1999-2001 with a view to testing the effects of cultural practices on the biometrical indicators of fibre flax varieties ‘Ariane’ (in Kriûkai) and ‘Baltuèiai’ (in Upytë).

A strong correlation between the parameters of biometrical measurements was identified. In the flax crops with an optimal stand density (14-16 million ha-1) the average length of flax stems was 90-100 cm and the stem diameter 1.25-1.50 mm. In the crops with a lower stand density (6.5-8.0 mln.ha-1) the stems were as high as 115-120 cm, and their average diameter was 2.5-3.0 mm. Having increased the stand density to 18-20 million ha-1 the stem length declined to 80-85 cm, and their diameter to 1.00-1.15 mm. Although enhancement of phosphorus and potassium fertiliser rates tended to increase flax stand density, it also had a positive effect on stem length and stem thickness. Seed rate increasing in all cases reduced stem length and diameter. Treatment of flax seed significantly declined thinning out of crops, increased stem length and declined the stem diameter. Fungicidal treatment of flax crops did not have any significant effect on the biometrical parameters of flax crops.

Key words: fibre flax, factors of cultural practices, biometrical indicators.


III skyrius. ÞOLININKYSTË

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 3, 87, 145-156

UDK 633.2.03:633.2/.3

ÞOLYNØ BOTANINËS SUDËTIES NUSTATYMO  svorio IR SAUJØ (DE VRIES) METODais PALYGINIMAS

Regina SKUODIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

El. p. rskuod@vezaiciai.lzi.lt

Santrauka

Straipsnyje pateikti þolynø botaninës sudëties nustatymo svorio ir saujø (De Vries) metodais palyginimo duomenys. Analizuojami ilgalaikiø ir trumpalaikiø þolynø bei natûraliø pievø botaninës analizës duomenø palyginimo statistiniai rodikliai. Svorio ir saujø metodais gauti botaninës analizës duomenø rezultatai yra susijæ stipriais koreliaciniais ir regresiniais ryðiais, todël tarpusavyje palyginami. Geriausi statistiniai rodikliai gauti analizuojant natûraliø pievø botaninës sudëties rodiklius. Tyrimai rodo, kad, vertinant þolynø botaninæ sudëtá, galima naudotis abiem metodais atsiþvelgiant á tyrimø tikslà. Saujø metodo pritaikymo galimybës platesnës, todël ðá metodà tikslinga taikyti natûraliuose (daugiarûðiuose) þolynuose, norint visapusiðkos informacijos apie augalø bendrijà ir jos augavietës sàlygas. Sëtuose þolynuose, kur dël ûkinës þmogaus veiklos panaðios augalø bendrijos yra sukuriamos skirtingose augavietëse, tinkami abu metodai, taèiau saujø metodo tinka tik viena dalis – botaninës sudëties analizë. Palyginus su svorio metodu, saujø metodas turi privalumø: maþesnës darbo sànaudos, didesnis darbo naðumas, palengvinamas darbas, duomenys perskaièiuojami kompiuteriu, gaunama daugiau ávairiø rodikliø.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: metodai, þolynø botaninë sudëtis.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 3, 87, 145-156

UDK 633.2.03:633.2/.3

COMPARISON OF GRASSLANDS BOTANICAL COMPOSITION DETERMINATION BY WEIGHT AND HANDFUL (DE VRIES) METHODS

R. Skuodienë

Summary

This article presents a description and comparison of weight and handful (De Vries) methods used for the determination of swards botanical composition. Also, statistical indicators of botanical analysis data comparison are given. The data of botanical analysis obtained by the weight and handful (De Vries) methods were closely related by correlative and regressive links, therefore could be compared. While analysing botanical composition of natural meadows, best statistical data were obtained.

Compared with the weight method, handful (De Vries) method has many advantages lower labour input, higher labour productivity, facilitation of work, data are recalculated by computer and more information is generated. Research showed that the data obtained by the handful (De Vries) method reflect not only the biodiversity of meadows, but also their quality from the standpoint of economy. When applying handful (De Vries) method, biodiversity changes can be observed and factors determining these changes can be ascertained.

Key words: methods, botanical composition of swards.


ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 3, 87, 157-172

UDK 633.37:631.445.12

MËLYNÞIEDÞIØ LIUCERNØ PIRMOS ÞOLËS NUËMIMO LAIKO ÁTAKA ATOLØ SËKLØ DERLIUI IR BRENDIMUI

Jonas ÐLEPETYS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p. jonas.slepetys@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Bandymai daryti Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute Dotnuvoje, 1998-2001 metais. Tirtas mëlynþiedþiø liucernø ‘Birutë’ sëklø auginimas ið pirmos þolës ir atolø. Liucernø pirmoji þolë buvo pjaunama kas savaitæ nuo balandþio 30 d. iki birþelio 11 d. Geguþës 21 d. ir vëliau liucernoms buvo nupjaunamos 5 cm virðûnëlës. Geguþës treèià deðimtadiená nenupjautos liucernos nupurkðtos reglonu 1 l ha.-1 Tyrimø tikslas – palyginti liucernø vystymàsi ir sëklø derliø ið pirmos þolës  ir atolø, nupjautø skirtingu laiku, bei iðtirti reglono, kaip alternatyvios priemonës pjovimui, poveiká liucernoms.

Nustatyta, kad pirmà þolæ nupjovus maþëjo atolø piktþolëtumas, stiebø ilgis, storis ir iðgulimas. Nupjovus (05 28 ir vëliau) þymiai (24-35 dienomis) vëliau praþysdavo atolas ir jame subræsdavo sëklos, ið esmës sumaþëjo ankðteliø kiekis. Pirmø naudojimo metø liucernø pirmà þolæ nupjovus prieð butonizcijà iki geguþës 21 d., atolø sëklø derlius prilygo nepjautø liucernø sëklø derliui. Antrø ir treèiø naudojimo metø liucernas nupjovus geguþës 14 dienà, sëklø derlius ið esmës padidëjo, o pjaunant butonizcijos tarpsniu (05 28 ir vëliau), sëklø derlius sumaþëjo. Geguþës treèià deðimtadiená nupjovus liucernoms 5 cm virðûnëles, sëklø derlius padidëjo ið esmës; pjaunant vëliau, kai liucernos pagulë ar pasirodë pirmieji þiedai, sëklø derlius sumaþëjo. Vietoj pirmos þolës pjovimo nupurðkus (05 21) reglonu, sëklø derlius nepadidëjo, o nupurðkus savaite vëliau (05 28), labai sumaþëjo. Reglonu nupurkðtos liucernos labiau iðgulë, o piktþolëtu-mas ið esmës nesumaþëjo. Nupjovus liucernø pirmàjà þolæ geguþës 28 d. ir vëliau, atoluose subrendusiø sëklø dygimo energija sumaþëjo, o kietalukðèiø sëklø gerokai padaugëjo. Sëklø daigumas ir ðvarumas ið pirmos þolës ir ið atolø buvo panaðûs.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: Medicago sativa, pjûties laikas, sëklø derlius ir kokybë, brendimas.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 3, 87, 157-172

UDK 633.37:631.445.12

EFFECT OF THE CUTTING DATE OF THE FIRST CROP OF LUCERNE (MEDICAGO SATIVA L.) ON THE SEED YIELD AND MATURATION IN THE AFTERMATH

Jonas Ðlepetys

Summary

Experiments were conducted at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture (Dotnuva) during 1998-2001 with a lucerne variety ‘Birutë’. The seed was grown from the first and second crop. The first crop of lucerne was cut at weekly intervals from April 30 to June 11. On May 21st and later 5cm tops were cut from lucerne plants. Lucerne cut in the third ten-day period of May was sprayed with Reglone at 1 l ha-1. The aim of this study was to investigate combined use of lucerne, when the first crop is cut at different times for forage and the seed yield is taken from the second crop.

It was determined that having cut the first crop a reduction occurred in weed incidence in aftermaths, stem length of lucerne, stem thickness and lodging. Having cut (on 28 May and later) aftermath started flowering much later (by 24-35 days) and seed maturition  was delayed, which resulted in a significant reduction in the number of pods. In the first year of use having cut the first herbage before May 21the seed yield of aftermaths was identical with that of uncut lucerne. Having cut lucerne of the second and third year of use on May 14 the seed yield increased significantly. When cutting on 28 May and later the seed yield declined. Having cut 5 cm tops of lucerne in the third ten-day period of May the seed yield increased significantly. When cutting later, after lucerne had lodged a little or first flowers had emerged, the seed yield declined. Having sprayed with Reglone ( 1 l ha-1) on 21 May instead of cutting of first herbage, the seed yield did not increase, and having sprayed a week later, on 28 05, declined significantly. Reglone-sprayed lucerne was more lodged, and the weed incidence did not decline. Having cut first herbage of lucerne on May 28 and later, the germination power of the seed matured in aftermaths declined, and the content of hard-husked seed increased significantly. Germination and purity of the seed from the first and second crops were similar.  

Key words: Medicago sativa, cutting time, seed yield and quality, maturation.


IV skyrius. AUGALØ APSAUGA

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 3, 87, 173-185

UDK  633.16:632:681.3

KOMPIUTERIO PROGRAMOS NAUDOJIMO GALIMYBËS AMARØ ÞALOS MAÞINIMUI VASARINIUOSE MIEÞIUOSE

Remigijus Ðmatas, Jonas Ðurkus, Kæstutis Tamoðiûnas

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p. remigijus@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Bandymai daryti 1999-2002 m. Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute bendradarbiaujant su Danijos þemës ûkio mokslø institutu. Bandyme buvo lyginamos dvi insekticidø purðkimo nuo amarø mieþiuose sistemos. Viename variante insekticidai buvo naudojami pagal Lietuvoje naudojamà þalingumo ribà (toliau VÞR), kitame – pagal kompiuterio programos (toliau PC-P) nurodytà laikà. Kasmet buvo daryta po du bandymus skirtingø veisliø vasariniuose mieþiuose: 1999-2001 m. ‘Alsa’ ir ‘Ûla’, 2002 m. ‘Luokë’ ir ‘Ûla’.

Ketveriø metø tyrimai rodo, kad mieþiø pasëlyje skirtingais metais nevienodai gausiai plito amarai. 1999 m. amarai plito intensyviai, taèiau neilgai. 2000 ir 2001 m. amarø nebuvo gausu – tik pavieniai individai. 2002 m. jie plito anksèiau negu 1999 m. ir labai gausiai. Mieþiai nuo amarø pagal PC-P buvo purkðti 1999 ir 2002 m., 2000 ir 2001 m. PC-P nerodë mieþiø purðkimo nuo amarø bûtinybës. Visi atlikti purðkimai laiko atþvilgiu buvo vëlyvesni pagal PC-P negu pagal VÞR. Vidutiniais 1999-2002 m. duomenimis, purðkiant mieþius nuo amarø pagal   PC-P nurodytà laikà, grûdø derliaus priedai gauti 3,6-5,1 proc. maþesni, nei purðkiant pagal VÞR.

1999-2002 m. tyrimø duomenimis, norint taikyti kompiuterinæ programà mieþiø apsaugai nuo amarø Lietuvos sàlygoms, reikëtø jà dar tobulinti. Ateityje teks paruoðti ir iðbandyti kompiuterinæ programà mieþiø apsaugai nuo viso svarbiausiø kenkëjø komplekso.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: vasariniai mieþiai, amarai, purðkimo laikas, þalingumo riba, kompiuterio programa.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 3, 87, 173-185

UDK 633.16:632:681.3

FEASIBILITY OF THE USE OF PC-P MODEL FOR THE REDUCTION OF HARM DONE BY APHIDS IN SPRING BARLEY CROPS

R. Ðmatas, J. Ðurkus, K. Tamoðiûnas

Summary

Testing of the computer model PC-P intended for the control of aphids was carried out at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in the crop rotation of the Plant Protection Department during 1999-2002. Two experiments were carried out in different spring barley varieties each year: in 1999-2001 ‘Alsa’ and ‘Ûla’, in 2002 ‘Luokë’ and ‘Ûla’.

The results of four years investigations suggest that the spread of aphids in spring barley crop was varied in individual years. During the first year (1999) the spread of aphids was intensive, but short. In 2000 – 2001 the occurrence of aphids was low, only a few aphids were spotted. In 2002 the spread of aphids was earlier and very abundant, but not long. Spring barley was sprayed according to the PC-P model in 1999 and 2002. In 2000 and 2001 the PC-P model did not recommend spraying against aphids. All spray applications according to PC-P model were made later, compared to the LWS (Spray application was made according to the local warning system) treatment. According to averaged results from 1999-2002, spraying spring barley against aphids according to the PC-P resulted in a lower yield increase.

The results of 1999-2002 experimental years suggest that PC-P for spring barley protection against aphids under Lithuania conditions needs further adjustment. A computer model for the control of the main pest complex in spring barley should be developed in the future.

Key words: spring barley, aphids, spray application dates, threshold, computer programme.


V skyrius. AUGALØ SELEKCIJA

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 3, 87, 186-193

UDK 633.16<321>:631.527.8

VASARINIØ MIEÞIØ (HORDEUM VULGARE L.) DVIGUBØ HAPLOIDØ LINIJØ KÛRIMAS DULKINIØ KULTÛROS METODU

Rita ASAKAVIÈIÛTË, Izolda PAÐAKINSKIENË, Algë LEISTRUMAITË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p. rita@lzi.lt

Santrauka

2001-2003 m. Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Genetikos ir fiziologijos laboratorijoje atlikti vasariniø mieþiø dulkiniø kultûrø bandymai. Tyrimuose naudotos 9 vasariniø mieþiø F1 kartos hibridinës linijos. Tirta donorinës medþiagos auginimo sàlygos, dulkiniø inkubavimo þemoje temperatûroje bûdai ir palyginti skirtingi dulkiniø kultûros metodai.

Nustatyta, kad dulkinës, izoliuotos ið ðiltnamyje auginamø mieþiø, formavo daugiau þaliø regenerantø (8,4 þalio regeneranto 100-ui produktyviø dulkiniø), negu dulkinës, paimtos ið lauko sàlygomis augintø augalø (6,7 þalio regeneranto 100-ui produktyviø dulkiniø). Palyginus skirtingus varpø ðaldymo bûdus nustatyta, kad ðaldymas Petri lëkðtelëse buvo efektyvesnis     (12,6 % þalio regeneranto) nei in situ (3,2 % þaliø regenerantø). Caredda metodu þaliø regenerantø iðeiga buvo vidutiniðkai 1,5 karto didesnë, negu ðaldant dulkines Petri lëkðtelëse pagal Szarejko. Aptikti genotipai Nr. 8317, Nr. 8332 ir Nr.8620, kurie pakankamai efektyviai produkavo þalius regenerantus dulkiniø kultûroje.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: vasariniai mieþiai, dulkiniø kultûra, donorinë medþiaga, dulkiniø ðaldymas.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 3, 87, 186-193

UDK 633.16<321>:631.527.8

PRODUCTION OF SPRING BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE L.) DOUBLED HAPLOID (DH) LINES USING ANTHER CULTURE

R. Asakavièiûtë, I. Paðakinskienë, A. Leistrumaitë

Summary

The experiment was carried out at the Laboratory of Genetics and Physiology of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during 2001-2003. The research was carried out using 9 F1 hybrid lines of spring barley. Growth conditions of donor material and ways of incubation of anthers at a low temperature were studied and different methods of anther culture were compared.

It was found that the anthers isolated from the barley, grown in the greenhouse formed 8.4 green regenerants/100 responding anthers, while the anthers taken from the plants grown in the field conditions produced 6.7 green regenerants/100 responding anthers. Comparing different ways of cold pre-treatment it was found that the method of Caredda was the most efficient, when anthers were pre-treated in the solution of mannitol. The outcome of green regenerants by the Caredda method was higher at the average 1,5 times than the outcome by cold pre-treatment method in Petri dishes (according to Szarejko).

Three genotypes, No. 8317, No. 8332 and No. 8320 were efficiently established in the anther culture for haploid production.

Key words: spring barley, anther culture, donor material, cold pre-treatment of anthers.

 


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