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TURINYS

I skyrius. DIRVOTYRA IR AGROCHEMIJA

B. Jankauskas, G. Jankauskienë. Stacionariniai dirvoþemio erozijos tyrimai Þemaièiø aukðtumoje: 3. Antieroziniø fitocenoziø produktyvumas

L. Tripolskaja. Ilgalaikio tràðø naudojimo átaka dirvoþemio savybëms lizimetriniuose árenginiuose

S. Marcinkonis, L. Tripolskaja, A. Baniûnienë. Kompleksiniø ir vienanariø tràðø veiksmingumas Rytø Lietuvos dirvoþemiuose

A. Maðauskienë, L. Tripolskaja, A. Baniûnienë. Duoniniø javø grûdø derliaus ir kokybës priklausomumas nuo mineraliniø azoto tràðø iðplautþemiuose

D. Konèius, S. Bernotas. Kalkinimo ir træðimo átaka vasariniø rapsø derlingumui bei fosforo, kalio ir kalcio kiekiui dirvoþemyje

N. Daugëlienë, R. Butkutë. Ilgalaikio træðimo átaka judriojo fosforo ir kalio kiekiui skirtingo rûgðtumo ganyklos dirvoþemyje

II skyrius. ÞEMDIRBYSTË

D. Feizienë, V. Feiza, G. Subaèienë. Skirtingø þemës dirbimo sistemø ir træðimo átaka þieminiø kvieèiø derliui ir jo biologiniams parametrams Vidurio Lietuvos priemolingose dirvose

A. Magyla, A. Svirskienë, A. Ðlepetienë. Dirvoþemio agronominiø savybiø pokyèiai auginant þirnius po skirtingø prieðsëliø ir stebint jø poveiká þieminiams kvieèiams

III skyrius. AUGALØ APSAUGA

D. Januðauskaitë. Triazolø ir strobilurinø átaka grybiniø ligø þalingumui vasariniuose kvietrugiuose

IV skyrius. AUGALØ SELEKCIJA IR GENETIKA

Þ. Liatukas, V. Ruzgas. Þieminiø kvieèiø atsparumo miltligei genø efektyvumas skirtingais augimo tarpsniais

 

CONTENTS

Chapter 1. SOIL SCIENCE AND AGROCHEMISTRY

B. Jankauskas, G. Jankauskienë. Long - term soil erosion studies on the Þemaièiai upland: 3. Productivity of erosion-preventive phytocenoses

L. Tripolskaja. The effects of long -term fertilizer use on soil properties in the lysimetric stations

S. Marcinkonis, L. Tripolskaja, A. Baniûnienë. The effect of complex and single fertilisers in Eastern Lithuania‘s soils

A. Maðauskienë, L. Tripolskaja, A. Baniûnienë. Yield and quality of bread grain in relation to nitrogen fertilizers on luvisols

D. Konèius, S. Bernotas. Effects of liming and fertilization on spring rape yield and phosphorus, potassium and calcium amounts in the soil

N. Daugëlienë, R. Butkutë. Effects of long-term fertilization on the content of mobile phosphorus and potassium in pasture soil of different acidity

Chapter 2. AGRICULTURE

D. Feizienë, V. Feiza, G. Subaèienë. The influence of different tillage – fertilization systems on winter wheat yield and its biological parameters on loamy soils in Central Lithuania

A. Magyla, A. Svirskienë, A. Ðlepetienë. Changes in soil agronomical properties when growing peas after different preceding crops and monitoring of their effect on wheat

Chapter 3. PLANT PROTECTION

D. Januðauskaitë. Effect of triazoles and strobilurines on the harmfulness of fungal diseases in spring triticale

Chapter 4. PLANT BREEDING AND GENETICS

Þ. Liatukas, V. Ruzgas. Effectiveness of powdery mildew resistance genes of winter wheat at different growth stages


I skyrius. DIRVOTYRA IR AGROCHEMIJA

 ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 1, 85, 3-16

UDK  631.459(474.5)

STACIONARINIAI DIRVOÞEMIO EROZIJOS TYRIMAI ÞEMAIÈIØ AUKÐTUMOJE: 3. ANTIEROZINIØ FITOCENOZIØ PRODUKTYVUMAS

Benediktas JANKAUSKAS, Genovaitë JANKAUSKIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Kaltinënø bandymø stotis

Kaltinënai, Ðilalës rajonas

El. p. kaltbs@kaltbs.lzi.lt

Santrauka

Dirvoþemio erozijos stacionariniø bandymø tirtøjø fitocenoziø 36 tyrimø produktyvumo duomenimis, kalvø ðlaituose daugiausiai apykaitos energijos sukaupë þoliø - javø ir lauko sëjomainø augalai (atitinkamai po 68,4 ir 68,0 GJ ha-1). Maþiau tokios energijos sukaupë netræðiamo daugiakomponenèio þolyno (53,1 GJ ha-1) ir sëjomainos su juoduoju pûdymu (59,4 GJ ha-1) fitocenozës. Daugumos tirtø fitocenoziø produktyvumas ið esmës nesiskyrë – virðkinamøjø baltymø surinkta nuo 410 iki 440 kg ha-1. Tik sëjomainos su juoduoju pûdymu augalai virðkinamøjø baltymø sukaupë ið esmës maþiau – po 339 kg ha-1.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: Þemaièiø aukðtuma, dirvoþemio erozija; stacionariniai tyrimai, fitocenozës, apykaitos energija, virðkinamieji baltymai, paðariniai vienetai.

 

Chapter 1. SOIL SCIENCE AND AGROCHEMISTRY

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 1, 85, 3-16

UDK  631.459(474.5)

LONG - TERM SOIL EROSION STUDIES ON THE ÞEMAIÈIAI UPLAND: 3. PRODUCTIVITY OF EROSION-PREVENTIVE PHYTOCENOSES

B. Jankauskas, G. Jankauskienë

 Summary

Experimental evidence of 36 tests from the long-term stationary soil erosion inves­tigations carried out at the Kaltinënai Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture suggests different productivity of investigated phytocenoses. Phytocenoses of grass-grain and field crop rotations accumulated the highest amount of metabolizable energy (68.4 and 68.0 GJ ha-1 respectively). Only phytocenoses of not fertilised long-term perennial grasses (sward for soil formation) and of the crop rotation containing bare fallow accumulated a significantly lower amount of metabolizable energy (53.1 and 59.4 GJ ha-1 respectively). Only the phytocenose of the crop rotation containing bare fallow was significantly less productive (339 kg ha-1), than others investigated (410-440 kg ha-1) according to digestible protein accumulated.

Key words: Þemaièiai Upland, long-term stationary soil erosion investigations, phyto­cenoses, metabolizable energy, digestible protein, feed units.


ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 1, 85, 17-27

UDK  631.8:631.421.3:631.41

ILGALAIKIO TRÀÐØ NAUDOJIMO ÁTAKA DIRVOÞEMIO SAVYBËMS LIZIMETRINIUOSE ÁRENGINIUOSE

 Liudmila TRIPOLSKAJA

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filialas

Trakø Vokë, Vilnius

El. p. liudmila.tripolskaja@voke.lzi.lt

Santrauka

Vokës filiale buvo atlikti lizimetriniø árenginiø dirvoþemio (priesmëlio paprastasis iðplautþemis Idp, pagal FAO-UNESCO – Haplic Luvisols LVh ) savybiø pokyèiø tyrimai dël ilgalaikio organiniø ir mineraliniø tràðø naudojimo.

Nustatyta, kad sistemingai træðiant tik mëðlu arba mëðlu ir mineralinëmis tràðomis, gali pakisti dirvoþemio rûgðtumas ir maisto medþiagø kiekis ne tik armenyje, bet ir El bei B horizontuose. Træðiant mëðlu ir mineralinëmis NPK tràðomis, kinta dirvoþemio fosfatø migracijos intensyvumas ir pobûdis – suintensyvëja sujungtø su organiniais junginiais fosfatø iðplovimas. Pastebima dirvoþemio smulkiadispersinës frakcijos iðplovimas ið virðutiniø horizontø ir jø akumuliacija kvarcinio filtro smëlyje.

Po ilgalaikiø agrocheminiø tyrimø dirvoþemio savybës lizimetriniuose árenginiuose pakito skirtingu intensyvumu. Tai neleidþia pradëti naujø tyrimø nepakeitus dirvoþemio masës, nes paþeidþiamas pagrindinis tyrimø metodinis reikalavimas dël tipingumo ir dirvoþemio sàlygø vienodumo.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: lizimetriniai árenginiai, dirvoþemis, træðimas.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 1, 85, 17-27

UDK  631.8:631.421.3:631.41

THE EFFECTS OF LONG -TERM FERTILIZER USE ON SOIL PROPERTIES IN THE LYSIMETRIC STATIONS 

L. Tripolskaja

Summary

Changes in the lysimetric station’s soil properties (sandy loam eluviated soil Idp, according to FAO-UNESCO – Haplic Luvisol LVh) resulting from long-term organic and mineral fertilization were studied at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s Vokë Branch.

Experimental evidence suggests that systematic fertilization only with farmyard manure or with farmyard manure and mineral fertlizers can change soil acidity and nutrient content not only in the plough horizon but also in El and B horizons. Application of farmyard manure and mineral NPK fertilizers changes the intensity and character of phosphate migration, which results in a more intensive leaching of phosphates bound to organic compounds. Leaching of soil fine dispersion fraction from the upper horizons and accumulation in the arenaceous quartz filter was noticed.

After long-term agrochemical tests soil properties in the lysimetric station varied at different intensity. This does not allow to start new tests without changing soil mass, since this breaks the key requirement for experimental methodology concerning the representativeness and uniformity of soil conditions.

 Key words: lysimetric station, soil, fertilization. 


 ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 1, 85, 28-41

UDK  631.84+631. 89:[633.12+633.16+633.491]:631.559

KOMPLEKSINIØ IR VIENANARIØ TRÀÐØ VEIKSMINGUMAS RYTØ LIETUVOS DIRVOÞEMIUOSE

 Saulius MARCINKONIS, Liudmila TRIPOLSKAJA1, Alë BANIÛNIENË2

 Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

1Trakø Vokë, Vilnius

El. p. saulius.marcinkonis@voke.lzi.lt

2Perloja, Varënos rajonas

El. p. perlojabst@varena.omnitel.net

Santrauka

1999-2002 metais Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filiale ir Perlojos bandymø stotyje atlikti augalø træðimo sistemø normatyvø bandymai. Tikslas – atnaujinti duomenø bazæ duomenimis apie maisto medþiagø pasisavinimà ir sukaupimà mieþiø, grikiø ir bulviø derliuje, tràðø (ypaè azoto) poveiká derliaus dydþiui ir jo kokybës rodikliams. Tyrimai mieþiuose rodo, kad paprastajame iðplautþemyje optimali azoto tràðø norma buvo N60, paprastajame pajaurëjusiame iðplautþemyje – N30. Mineraliniø kompleksiniø tràðø ir vienanariø tràðø poveikis grikiø derliui ið esmës nesiskyrë. Kompleksiniø tràðø Cropcare 10-10-20 poveikis bendram bulviø gumbø derliui buvo analogiðkas vienanariø tràðø veikimui, bet didëjo prekiniø gumbø kiekis ir gumbø krakmolingumas.

Tyrimø rezultatai 2002 metais buvo átraukti á træðimo bandymø duomenø bazæ ir panaudoti tobulinant træðimo normatyvus ðiems þemës ûkio augalams.

 Reikðminiai þodþiai: træðimas, azotas, kompleksinës tràðos, mieþiai, bulvës, grikiai.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 1, 85, 28-41

UDK  631.84+631.98:[633.12+633.16+633.491]:631.559

THE EFFECT OF COMPLEX AND SINGLE FERTILIZERS IN EASTERN LITHUANIA’S  SOILS

S. Marcinkonis, L. Tripolskaja, A. Baniûnienë

Summary

The data of fertilizing normative experiments carried out at the Vokë Branch and the Perloja Experimental Station of LIA during 1998-2002 are discussed in the present paper. The main objectives of the study were to update fertilizing database with new data on plant nutrients uptake and concentrations in barley, buckwheat and potato yield, effects of fertilizers (especially nitrogen) on the yield and its quality. The efficiency of N fertilizers differed in various growing sites. Experimental data on barley suggest that on a Haplic Luvisol the optimal rate was 60 kg ha-1 N, in Haplic – Albic Luvisol – 30 kg ha-1 N. Buckwheat yield was not affected by the fertilizer form – the efficiency of single and complex fertilizers was similar. The effect of complex fertilizer Cropcare 10-10-20 on the total potato tuber yield was similar to that of single fertilizers, but an increase in marketable yield and starch content was recorded.

In 2002 the experimental results were included in the database for crop N fertilizing field trials data and were used for the improvement of fertilizing normatives.

Key words: fertilization, nitrogen, complex fertilizers, barley, potatoes, buckwheat. 


ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 1, 85, 42-55

UDK  633.1:631.84:631.442.1

DUONINIØ JAVØ GRÛDØ DERLIAUS IR KOKYBËS PRIKLAUSOMUMAS NUO MINERALINIØ AZOTO TRÀÐØ IÐPLAUTÞEMIUOSE

 Audronë MAÐAUSKIENË1, Liudmila TRIPOLSKAJA2, Alë BANIÛNIENË3

 Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

1Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p. masaudrone@lzi.lt

 2Trakø Vokë, Vilnius

El. p. liudmila.tripolskaja@voke.lzi.lt

 3Perloja, Varënos rajonas

El. p. perlojabst@varena.omnitel.net

 Santrauka

1998-2001 metais Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filiale ir Perlojos bandymø stotyje atlikti azoto tràðø efektyvumo tyrimai þieminiams rugiams ‘Duoniai’ ir vasariniams kvieèiams ‘Nandu’ bei ‘Munk’, siekiant nustatyti træðimo parametrø optimumà bei ávertinti jø poveiká netiesioginëms grûdø kepimo savybëms. Tyrimai daryti priesmëlio paprastajame iðplautþemyje (IDp) ir priesmëlio paprastajame pajaurëjusiame iðplautþemyje (IDe-p). Nustatyta, kad þieminiams rugiams ‘Duoniai’ optimali azoto norma yra 90-120 kg ha-1, træðiant pavasará krûmijimosi pradþioje, BBCH 21 tarpsniu. Derliaus priedas – 1,51-1,60 t ha-1. Nuo azoto tràðø didëjo grûdø baltymingumas ir kritimo skaièiaus vertës. Vasariniai kvieèiai Rytø Lietuvoje uþaugina vidutiniðkai 3-4 t ha-1 grûdø. Optimali azoto norma kvieèiams 90 kg ha-1, træðiant prieð sëjà. Derliaus priedas – 0,86-1,21 t ha-1. Ðia azoto tràðø norma pavasará patræðtø vasariniø kvieèiø grûdø baltymingumas, glitimo kiekis, kritimo skaièiaus ir sedimentacijos vertës atitiko duoniniø javø reikalavimus.

 Reikðminiai þodþiai: þieminiai rugiai, vasariniai kvieèiai, træðimas, derlius, netiesioginës kepimo savybës.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 1, 85, 42-55

UDK  633.1:631.84:631.442.1

YIELD AND QUALITY OF BREAD GRAIN IN RELATION TO NITROGEN FERTILIZERS ON LUVISOLS

A. Maðauskienë, L. Tripolskaja, A. Baniûnienë

Summary

Field trials were carried out at the Vokë Branch and Perloja Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during 1998-2001 on a Haplic Luvisol (Vokë) and Hapli-Albic Luvisol (Perloja). The aim of the study was to estimate the effects of N fertilizer on winter rye and spring wheat, to identify optimum fertilization parameters and to identify the influence on chemical and technological grain properties. Experimental findings suggest that the optimum rate of N for winter rye was 90-120 kg ha-1, applied in spring at BBCH-21. A yield increase of 1.51-1.60 t ha-1 was obtained. Nitrogen fertilizer led to on increase in protein content and falling number values in grain. On a sandy loam of East Lithuania spring wheat yields on average 3-4 t ha-1. The optimum N rate for spring wheat was 90 kg ha-1 applied before sowing. It gave a yield increase of 0.86-1.21 t ha-1, and the content of protein, wet gluten, falling number and sedimentation values in grain met the requirements set for bread grain.

 Key words: winter rye, spring wheat, fertilization, yield, indirect bread-making quality. 


 ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 1, 85, 56-67

UDK  631.445.24:631.41.631.415.1

KALKINIMO IR TRÆÐIMO ÁTAKA VASARINIØ RAPSØ DERLINGUMUI BEI FOSFORO, KALIO IR KALCIO KIEKIUI DIRVOÞEMYJE

Donatas KONÈIUS, Stasys BERNOTAS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filialas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

El. p. kodo@vezaiciai.lzi.lt

Santrauka

Straipsnyje apibendrinti LÞI Vëþaièiø filiale vykdomo ilgalaikio stacionarinio daugiafaktorinio lauko bandymo ir laboratoriniø analiziø duomenys 2001 metais. Tirtas judriojo fosforo, kalio ir kalcio kiekio kitimas dirvoþemio profilyje, taikant skirtingas mineraliniø tràðø normas ávairaus rûgðtumo dirvoþemyje bei ðios sàveikos átaka vasariniø rapsø derlingumui.

Tyrimai daryti ðeðiuose dirvoþemio rûgðtumo (pH) lygiuose bei keturiuose træðimo lygiuose. Po kiekvienos rotacijos numatytas pH buvo palaikomas periodiðkai kalkinant.

Didþiausias vasariniø rapsø derlingumas (2,38-2,84 t ha-1) gautas esant dirvoþemio pHKCl > 5,7 ir patræðus N140P120K180 – N210P180K270. Nustatytas stiprus ir patikimas (R = 0,95**) ryðys tarp vasariniø rapsø derlingumo bei kalkinimo ir træðimo. Per 25 metø tyrimø laikotarpá dirvoþemio ariamajame bei gilesniuose sluoksniuose susidarë skirtingas dirvoþemio rûgðtumas bei skirtingi judriojo fosforo ir kalio kiekiai. Nustatyta, kad judriojo fosforo kiekio padidëjimas 0-20 cm gylyje maþiau priklausë nuo dirvoþemio rûgðtumo (R = 0,08), taèiau didëjo dël iðbertø tràðø kiekio (R = 0,95**): nuo 53-112 iki 245-349 mg kg-1 dirvoþemio. Analogiðka priklausomybë nustatyta ir judriojo kalio, kurio buvo nuo 239-290 iki 285-340 mg kg-1 dirvoþemio. Dirvoþemio profilyje didþiausias judriojo fosforo kiekis susikaupë iki 0-40 cm, o judriojo kalio, atsiþvelgiant á træðimà – iki 1 metro gylio. Periodiðkai kalkinant, per 25 metus ið esmës padidëjo judriojo kalcio kiekis dirvoþemio profilyje iki 1 metro gylio.

 Reikðminiai þodþiai: periodiðkas kalkinimas, træðimas, vasariniø rapsø derlingumas, elementø kiekis dirvoþemio profilyje.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 1, 85, 56-67

UDK  631.445.24:631.41.631.415.1

EFFECTS OF LIMING AND FERTILIZATION ON SPRING RAPE YIELD AND PHOSPHORUS, POTASSIUM AND CALCIUM AMOUNTS IN THE SOIL

D. Konèius, S. Bernotas

Summary

The present paper generalises the data of the long-term, multiple-factor trial carried out at the Vëþaièiai Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture. Changes in the contents of mobile phosphorus, potassium and calcium in the soil profile, when different rates of mineral fertilizers were applied in the soils differing in pH and the effect of this interaction on spring rape yield were investigated.

Six pH levels and four fertilization backgrounds were formed. The planned pH levels were kept by periodical liming after each rotation.

The highest spring rape yield (2.38-2.84 t ha-1) was obtained when soil pHKCl was >5.7 under N140P120K180 – N210P180K270 fertilization. A significant and strong correlation (R = 0.95**) between rape yield, liming, and fertilization was determined. Different soil acidity, amounts of phosphorus and potassium formed in the arable and deeper soil layers during the 25 experimental years. It was determined that the increase in the amount of mobile phosphorus in 0-20 cm soil layer was less dependent on soil pH (R = 0.08), but increased from 53-112 to 245-349 mg kg-1 because of the applied fertilizers (R = 0.95**). An analogous relationship was identifical for mobile potassium, too. The content of potassium ranged from 239-290 to 285-340 mg kg-1. The largest contents of mobile phosphorus accumulated in 0-40 cm depth and those of mobile potassium, depending on fertilizing, to 1 meter depth. Periodical liming during the 25 years’ period significantly increased the amount of mobile calcium in the soil profile to 1 meter depth.

Key words: periodical liming, fertilization, spring rape yield, amount of elements in the soil profile. 


ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 1, 85, 68-82

UDK  633.2.033(254):631.8+631.821.1]:631.415.1

ILGALAIKIO TRÆÐIMO ÁTAKA JUDRIOJO FOSFORO IR KALIO KIEKIUI SKIRTINGO RÛGÐTUMO GANYKLOS DIRVOÞEMYJE

Nijolë DAUGËLIENË, Rûta BUTKUTË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filialas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

El. p. nijole@vezaiciai.lzi.lt, ruta@vezaiciai.lzi.lt

Santrauka

Bandymas darytas 1992-2001 m. paprastajame giliau glëjiðkame iðplautþemyje (IDg4-p) (Hapli-Endohypogleyic Luvisols) árengtoje ganykloje. Ganykla kalkinta prieð þoliø sëjà ir pakartotinai po penkeriø metø. Dël skirtingo træðimo susiformavo baltøjø dobilø ir varpiniø bei vien varpiniø þolynai.

Fosforo ir kalio tràðomis træðiant ant ganyklos pavirðiaus judriojo P2O5 padidëjo 0-5, o K2O – 0-5 ir 5-10 cm dirvoþemio sluoksnyje. Dirvoþemio pHKCl judriøjø P2O5 ir K2O kiekiams, nustatytiems A-L metodu, ariamajame sluoksnyje turëjo nedidelæ átakà. Ariamajam sluoksniui gilëjant, judriojo fosforo ir kalio dirvoþemyje maþëjo.

Palaikomasis kalkinimas turëjo didesnæ átakà judriojo kalio migracijai á gilesnius sluoksnius nei pagrindinis kalkinimas. Jo efektyvumas didesnis, kai ilgalaikë kultûrinë ganykla træðiama N120P60K60, o dirvoþemio pHKCl yra nuo 5 iki 6.

 Reikðminiai þodþiai: kultûrinë ganykla, træðimas, kalkinimas, dirvoþemio pH, judrusis fosforas, judrusis kalis.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 1, 85, 68-82

UDK  633.2.033(254):631.8+631.821.1]:631.415.1

EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM FERTILIZATION ON THE CONTENT OF MOBILE PHOSPHORUS AND POTASSIUM IN PASTURE SOIL OF DIFFERENT ACIDITY

N. Daugëlienë, R. Butkutë

Summary

The trial was carried out in a pasture, established on a Hapli-Endohypogleyic Luvisol (IDg4-p). The pasture was limed before sowing of herbs and after 5 years. Two sward types: white clover/grass and grass formed under the effect of different fertilization.

The content of mobile phosphorus and potassium, determined by A-L method, depended on fertilization. Mobile P2O5 accumulated in the 0-5 and mobile K2O in the 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers. Soil pHKCl had a slight influence on mobile phosphorus and potassium accumulation in the soil plough layers. In deeper plough layers the content of phosphorus and potassium declined.

Migration of mobile potassium in to deeper layers was more dependent on the maintenance liming rather than on the main liming. The effect of maintenance liming was greater when fertilized with N120P60K60, and soil pHKCl ranged from 5 to 6.

Key words: cultivated pasture, soil pH, liming, fertilization, mobile phosphorus and mobile potassium. 


II skyrius. ÞEMDIRBYSTË

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 1, 85, 83-101

UDK  633.11<324>:[631.51+631.8]:631.559

SKIRTINGØ ÞEMËS DIRBIMO SISTEMØ IR TRÆÐIMO ÁTAKA ÞIEMINIØ KVIEÈIØ DERLIUI IR JO BIOLOGINIAMS PARAMETRAMS VIDURIO LIETUVOS PRIEMOLINGOSE DIRVOSE

 Dalia FEIZIENË, Virginijus Feiza, Graþina Subaèienë

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuvos sen., Këdainiø rajonas

El. p. daliaf@lzi.lt

Santrauka

LÞI lengvo priemolio giliau karbonatingame sekliai glëjiðkame rudþemyje 2000-2001 m. dviejuose dvifaktoriniuose bandymuose, pirmus metus taikant skirtingas þemës dirbimo-træðimo sistemas ir auginant þieminius kvieèius, nustatyta, kad træðimas tiek vidutinëmis, tiek padidintomis tràðø normomis gerino augalø krûmijimàsi. Dirvoþemio agrocheminës savybës labai stipriai koreliavo su pasëlio tankumu ir kvieèiø stiebø ilgiu, vidutiniðkai stipriai – su 1000-èio grûdø mase. Koreliacija tarp dirvoþemio agrocheminiø savybiø ir kitø þieminiø kvieèiø biologiniø parametrø nebuvo stipri.

Mitybos elementø (PK) turtingame dirvoþemyje, træðiant mineraliniø tràðø vidutinëmis normomis, gautas 2 t ha-1 (arba 36%) grûdø derliaus priedas, taèiau padidintos tràðø normos grûdø derliaus daugiau ið esmës nebekeitë – prikulta tik 0,1 t ha-1 grûdø daugiau nei træðiant vidutinëmis mineraliniø tràðø normomis. Vidutiniðkai mitybos elementais turtingame dirvoþemyje didinant mineraliniø tràðø normà (netræðta → vidutinë norma → padidinta norma), þieminiø kvieèiø grûdø derlius visose þemës dirbimo sistemose nuosekliai didëjo. Þieminiø kvieèiø grûdø derlius teigiamai ir stipriai koreliavo su augalø produktyviuoju krûmijimusi, varpø ilgiu bei 1000-èio grûdø mase. Þemës dirbimo seklinimas neturëjo átakos grûdø derliui, kai dirvoþemis buvo labai turtingas. Taèiau vidutiniðkai mitybos elementø turtingame dirvoþemyje seklinimas sàlygojo þiemkenèiø derliaus maþëjimà. Koreliacija tarp pagrindinio ir prieðsëjinio þemës dirbimo gyliø bei þieminiø kvieèiø biologiniø parametrø nebuvo stipri.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: træðimas, þemës dirbimas, þieminiai kvieèiai, statistinë Takø analizë.

 

Chapter 2. AGRICULTURE 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 2004, 1, 85, 83-101

UDK  633.11<324>:[631.51+631.8]:631.559

THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT TILLAGE – FERTILIZATION SYSTEMS ON WINTER WHEAT YIELD AND ITS BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS ON LOAMY SOILS IN CENTRAL LITHUANIA

D. Feizienë, V. Feiza, G. Subaèienë

Summary

Two bi-factorial field experiments were set up at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during 2000-2001 on a loamy Endocalcari - Epihypogleyic Cambisol. The results of the first year of the investigation by managing different tillage – fertilization systems for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) revealed that application of either moderate or high rates of mineral fertilizers increased crop tillering capacity. Very strong correlation was identified between soil agrochemical properties and stand density, and moderately strong correlation occurred between soil agrochemical properties and 1000-grain weight. The correlation between soil agrochemical properties and other indices was weak. In the soil rich in PK the application of moderate rates of fertilizers produced 2 t ha-1 (or 36%) of an extra grain yield, while application of high rates of fertilizers favoured the further grain yield increase only to 0.1 t ha-1 as compared with the moderate ones.

In the soil moderately rich in PK the grain yield of winter wheat consistently increased by applying higher rates of fertilizers (not fertilized → moderate rate → high rate). Grain yield positively and strongly correlated with productive tillering, ear length and 1000-grain weight.

In the soil very rich in PK the reduced tillage management did not have any influence on grain yield, while crop yielded lower by applying a reduced tillage system in the soil moderately rich in PK. The correlation between primary and presowing tillage with winter wheat yield components was weak.

 Key words: fertilization, soil tillage, winter wheat, statistical Path analysis. 


ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 1, 85, 102-119

UDK  633.358:631.584:[631.41+631.461

DIRVOÞEMIO AGRONOMINIØ SAVYBIØ POKYÈIAI AUGINANT ÞIRNIUS PO SKIRTINGØ PRIEÐSËLIØ IR STEBINT JØ POVEIKÁ ÞIEMINIAMS KVIEÈIAMS

Algimantas MAGYLA, Aldona SVIRSKIENË, Alvyra ÐLEPETIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva., Këdainiø rajonas

El. p. alvyra@lzi.lt

Straipsnis parengtas vykdant ðviesaus atminimo dr. Algimanto Magylos paskutinæ valià, atsiþvelgus á jo nurodymus ir pageidavimus

Santrauka

1995-2001 m. Dotnuvoje padaryti keturi po ketverius metus trukæ dviejø faktoriø (A - prieðsëliai, B - træðimas) lauko bandymai, tyrinëjant þirniø prieðsëlius ir ðalutinës produkcijos uþarimo tràðai efektyvumà bei nustatant poveiká þieminiams kvieèiams. Ið keturiø þirniø prieðsëliø – cukriniø runkeliø, þieminiø kvieèiø, vasariniø mieþiø ir þieminiø rapsø – dirvoþemio agrocheminës savybës pagerëjo tik auginant træðiamus mëðlu runkelius. Po kitø prieðsëliø auginant þirnius, P2O5 kiekis þirniø dirvos armenyje buvo 16-21 %, K2O kiekis – 16-27 % maþesnis, taip pat humuso buvo 0,10 proc. vnt. maþiau, o mineralinio azoto þirniø vegetacijos pradþioje – 28-38 % maþiau, negu po runkeliø. Bendras dirvoþemio biologinis aktyvumas buvo neþymiai didesnis þirniams augant po runkeliø ir rapsø. Runkelius træðiant mëðlu, suaktyvëjo azoto transformacijoje dalyvaujanèiø mikroorganizmø ir fermentø veikla, o rapsai sudarë palankesnes sàlygas azotà fiksuojanèioms azotobakterëms plisti. Uþarus prieðsëliø ðalutinæ produkcijà su mineralinio azoto priedu, didëjo dirvoþemio biologinis aktyvumas, bendrasis poringumas ir aktyvëjo organinës medþiagos mineralizacija. Þirniø prieðsëliai runkeliai ir rapsai turëjo gerà poveiká dirvoþemio mikrobiologinëms, cheminëms ir fizikinëms savybëms po þirniø auginant kvieèius.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: þirniø prieðsëliai, dirvoþemis, cheminës, mikrobiologinës ir fizikinës savybës.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 1, 85, 102-119

UDK  633.358:631.584:[631.41+631.461

CHANGES IN SOIL AGRONOMICAL PROPERTIES WHEN GROWING PEAS AFTER DIFFERENT PRECEDING CROPS AND MONITORING OF THEIR EFFECT ON WHEAT

A. Magyla, A. Svirskienë, A. Ðlepetienë

Summary

Four bifactorial experiments (factor A - preceding crop, factor B - fertilization), each lasting for four years, were conducted in Dotnuva during the period 1995-2001 with a view to testing the effectiveness of preceding crops of peas and ploughing in of the by produce as green manure and identifying its impact on winter wheat. Out of the four preceding crops of peas: sugar beet, winter wheat, spring barley and winter rape, only cultivation of sugar beets treated with farmyard manure improved soil agrochemical properties. When peas were grown after the other preceding crops the content of P2O5 in the plough layer of soil under peas was by 16-21 %, K2O by 16-27 % lower, as well as humus content was by 0.10 % units, and mineral nitrogen content at the beginning of peas growing season was by 28-38 % lower, than after sugar beet. The total biological activity of soil was slightly higher when peas grew after sugar beet and rape. Sugar beet fertilization with farmyard manure increased the action of micro-organisms and enzymes involved in nitrogen transformation, and rape created more favourable conditions for the spread of nitrogen fixing azotobacters. Ploughing in of the by produce of preceding crops with the addition of mineral nitrogen increased soil biological activity, total porosity and promoted organic matter mineralisation. Preceding crops of peas: sugar beet and rape, and wheat cultivation after peas had a good effect on some microbiological, chemical and physical properties of soil.

Key words: preceding crops of peas, soil, chemical, microbiological and physical properties.  


III skyrius. AUGALØ APSAUGA

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 1, 85, 120-132

UDK  633.112.9:632.4:632.952

TRIAZOLØ IR STROBILURINØ ÁTAKA GRYBINIØ LIGØ ÞALINGUMUI VASARINIUOSE KVIETRUGIUOSE

Dalia JANUÐAUSKAITË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p. daliaj@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Straipsnyje pateikti 2000-2002 m. grybiniø ligø vasariniuose kvietrugiuose þalos maþinimo priemoniø lauko bandymø duomenys. Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filiale tirta vasariniø kvietrugiø ‘Gabo’ apsauga nuo lapø ligø, naudojant triazolø ir strobilurinø grupës fungicidus juventus (metkonazolas) ir allegro (kresoksim-metilas + epoksikonazolas). Kvietrugiai fungicidais purkðti visa, trijø ketvirèiø ir puse rekomenduojamos normos vienà ir du kartus. Fungicidø efektyvumas nuo rûdþiø (Puccinia dispersa) buvo 88,3-100 %, nuo septoriozës (Stagonospora nodorum) – 81,1-98,5 %, nuo kvieèiø dryþligës (Drechslera tritici-repentis) – 67,0-93,4 %. Efektyvesnis nuo visø ligø buvo allegro. Net ir pusiau sumaþintos fungicidø normos, panaudotos vienà kartà, buvo pakankamai efektyvios nuo kvietrugiø lapø ligø. Nuo fungicidø, naudotø ávairiomis normomis vienà ir du kartus, derlius 2000 m. padidëjo nuo 0,28 iki 0,70 t ha-1, 2001 – nuo 0,24 iki 1,12 t ha-1 ir 2002 m. – nuo 0,11 iki 0,45 t ha-1. Nustatyta, kad didþiausias derlius gautas naudojant fungicidà juventus du kartus 1,0 l ha-1 ir 0,75 l ha-1 bei naudojant allegro vienà ar du kartus 1,0 l ha-1 ir 0,75 l ha-1.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: vasariniai kvietrugiai, grybinës ligos, fungicidø efektyvumas, derlingumas.

 

Chapter 3. PLANT PROTECTION

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 1, 85, 120-132

UDK  633.112.9:632.4:632.952

EFFECT OF TRIAZOLES AND STROBILURINES ON THE HARMFULNESS OF FUNGAL DISEASES IN SPRING TRITICALE

D. Januðauskaitë

Summary

Testing of two fungicides against fungal diseases of spring triticale (cv. ‘Gabo’) was carried out at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Vëþaièiai Branch during 2000-2002. The fungicides Juventus (metkonazol 60 g l-1) and Allegro (kresoxim-methyl 125 g l-1+ epoxikonazol 125 g l-1) were used at full, two-third and half doses once and twice. Both of the fungicides were quite effective against leaf rust (Puccinia dispersa) and septoria (Stagonospora nodorum), and less effective against tan spot (Drechslera tritici-repentis). Biological efficacy of Juventus applied at any dose or time against rust was 88.3-100 %, against septoria – 81.1-98.5 %, against tan spot – 67.0-93.4 %. Allegro efficacy against the diseases was slightly higher. The higher doses of fungicides were not vastly superior to the lower ones.

The fungicides increased the yield by 0.28-0.70 t ha-1 in 2000, 0.24-1.12 t ha-1 in 2001 and in 0.11-0.45 t ha-1. A significant yield increase was obtained through the apllication of Juventus twice at 1.0 and 0.75 l ha-1 doses, and all Allegro applications twice and single application at 1.0 and 0.75 l ha-1.

 Key words: spring triticale, fungal diseases, fungicide efficacy, yield. 


IV skyrius. AUGALØ SELEKCIJA IR GENETIKA

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2004, 1, 85, 133-144

UDK 633.11<324>:632.938.1

ÞIEMINIØ KVIEÈIØ ATSPARUMO MILTLIGEI GENØ EFEKTYVUMAS SKIRTINGAIS AUGIMO TARPSNIAIS

Þilvinas LIATUKAS, Vytautas RUZGAS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p. liatukas@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute 2001-2003 m. tirta Europos ðaliø þieminiø kvieèiø 91 veislës atsparumo miltligei genø efektyvumas krûmijimosi ir plaukëjimo tarpsniais. Tyrimø laikotarpiu meteorologinës sàlygos buvo skirtingos ir tai turëjo didelës átakos miltligës vystymuisi.

Þieminiø kvieèiø krûmijimosi tarpsniu didþiausias vidutinis miltligës intensyvumas buvo 2002 m. (4 balai), o plaukëjimo tarpsniu – 2001 metais (4,9 balo). Tyrimø metais ligos intensyvumas svyravo tarp 1 ir 8 balø. Stipriausias duomenø koreliacijos ryðys (r = 0,39-0,82) gautas lyginant atskirus metus ir jø vidurkius.

Tyrimø metais maþiausiai miltligës buvo paþeistos þieminiø kvieèiø veislës, turinèios Pm4b+ bei Pm8+(4b) genus. Vidutinis paþeidimo balas buvo 1,3-3,7. Veislës, neturinèios pagrindiniø atsparumo genø ar turinèios Pm2, 6 genø kombinacijas ir genus Pm5, 6, uþëmë tarpinæ padëtá. Tokios veislës sudarë 29,7 proc. tirtøjø.

Daugumos veisliø þieminiai kvieèiai, turintys ávairius Pm genus ir ðiø genø kombinacijas, miltlige plaukëjimo tarpsniu buvo paþeisti labiau negu krûmijimosi tarpsniu, ypaè tie, kurie turi Pm2 genà. Veislës, turinèios MlHa2 ar Pm4b + genus, vëlesniu tarpsniu miltligës buvo paþeisti maþiau.

Veisliø atsparumas miltligei labai priklausë nuo to, koks genø Pm rinkinys yra konkreèios veislës genotipe. Tirtose veislëse daþniausiai buvo po 2-3 Pm genus, tarp kuriø daþniausiai buvo Pm5 ir Pm6 genai.

Tarp Lietuvoje auginamø veisliø atspariausios miltligei buvo ‘Zentos’ su daliniu atsparumu bei ‘Kosack’ su Pm4b + genais.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: þieminiai kvieèiai, miltligë, augimo tarpsniai, Pm genai, atsparumas.

 

Chapter 4. PLANT BREEDING AND GENETICS

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2004, 1, 85, 133-144

UDK  633.11<324>:632.938.1

EFFECTIVENESS OF POWDERY MILDEW RESISTANCE GENES OF WINTER WHEAT AT DIFFERENT GROWTH STAGES

Þ. Liatukas, V. Ruzgas

Summary

Effectiveness of powdery mildew resistance genes of winter wheat were investigated at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during 2001-2003. The experiment included 91 winter wheat varieties from European countries. The tests were conducted at the tillering and heading stages. The weather conditions were varied during the experimental period and markedly affected the development of powdery mildew.

The most severe attack of powdery mildew at the tillering stage was identified in 2002 (4.0 scores), at the heading stage in 2001 (4.9 scores). The disease severity ranged between    1-8 scores. The best correlation of data (r = 0.39-0.82) was obtained between individual years and their averages.

The least powdery-mildew affected were the varieties, containing genes Pm4b+ as well as Pm8, + (4b). The average score of severity was 1.3-3.7. The varieties without Pm genes and with a combination of Pm2, 6 and Pm5, 6 were ranked as intermediate and accounted for 29.7 % of all investigated varieties.

Most of the varieties with Pm genes or their various combinations at the heading stage were more attacked by powdery mildew compared with the tillering stage, especially when gene Pm2 was included in the genotype. The varieties containing genes MlHa2, Pm4b at heading stage were less affected by powdery mildew.

The effectiveness of Pm resistance genes depended on the set of Pm genes present in a specific variety. Most of the tested varieties contained 2 or 3 Pm genes, among which Pm5 and Pm6 genes were most frequent.

The most resistant to powdery mildew among the varieties grown in Lithuania were found to be ‘Zentos’ and ‘Kosack’.

 Key words: wheat, powdery mildew, growth stages, Pm genes, resistance.

 


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