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TURINYS

I skyrius. AGROCHEMIJA

D. Romanovskaja, L. Tripolskaja .

 
Ávairiø organiniø tràðø naudojimo priesmëlio dirvoþemyje agroekologinis ávertinimas

V. Kupèinskas, A. Baniûnienë, V. Þëkaitë, G. Ðidlauskas

.
Mineraliniø ir organiniø tràðø bei meteorologiniø sàlygø átaka bulviø produktyvumui priesmëlio dirvoje

A. Svirskienë, V. Maðauskas.

Træðimo fosforu ir kaliu kas keleri metai átaka dirvoþemio biologiniam aktyvumui ir sëjomainos produktyvumui

G. Greimas. Træðimo sistemø átaka skirtingø sëjomainø augalø produktyvumui ir NPK ûkiniam balansui

R. Repðienë. Lokalaus ir pakriko træðimo veiksmingumas sëjomainos augalams rûgðèiame ir pakalkintame dirvoþemyje

 

II skyrius. ÞEMDIRBYSTË

V. Petraitis.

Vasariniø kvieèiø derliaus priklausomumas nuo sëjos gylio lengvame priemolyje

III skyrius. ÞOLININKYSTË

J. Ðlepetys.

Rytiniø oþiarûèiø ilgaamþiðkumas auginant juos paðarui ir sëklai nukastoje þemapelkëje

J. Gutauskas, A. Maðauskienë, A. Ðlepetienë. Kalio tràðø normos ganyklai: þoliø botaninës sudëties, derliaus ir dirvoþemio kokybës pokyèiai

 

IV skyrius. AUGALØ SELEKCIJA IR GENETIKA

K. Baèelis, A. Blinstrubienë.

Pradinës sëmeniniø linø medþiagos ávertinimas selekcijos programoms

A. Ðimkûnas, I. Paðakinskienë.

Svidriø, eraièinø ir eraièinsvidriø ‘Punia’ ðaknø linijinio augimo pokyèiai veikiant grûdinimo temperatûroms

J. Bilis.

Apyniniø liucernø poliploidizavimas ir tetraploidiniø augalø atranka pagal citologinius-morfologinius poþymius

 V skyrius. FENOLOGIJA

D. Romanovskaja.

Fenologiniø sezonø pradþios augalø indikatoriø vystymosi dësningumai Lietuvoje 1961-2000 m. laikotarpiu

 

CONTENTS

Chapter 1. AGROCHEMISTRY

D. Romanovskaja, L. Tripolskaja . Agroecological estimation of aplication of different organic fertilizers in sandy loam soil

V. Kupèinskas, A. Baniûnienë, V. Þëkaitë, G. Ðidlauskas.  The influence of mineral and organic fertilizers and meteorological factors on the productivity of potatoes on a sandy loam soil

A. Svirskienë, V. Maðauskas.

 
The influence of phosphorus and potassium periodical application on the soil biological activity and crop rotation productivity 

G. Greimas. The influence of fertilization systems on the crop productivity of different crop rotations and field balance of NPK

R.Repðienë.

 
The efficiency of placement and broadcast fertilization on the crop rotation yield on the acid and limed soil

 Chapter 2. AGRICULTURE

V. Petraitis. Winter wheat development and productivity in relation to sowing depth on a light loam soil

Chapter 3. GRASSLAND HUSBANDRY

J. Ðlepetys. Longevity of fodder galega grown for forage and seed on a low moor soil with a removed peat layer

J. Gutauskas, A. Maðauskienë, A. Ðlepetienë.

Long-term investigation of different potassium fertilization rates in pasture: variation of biomass, floristic composition and soil nutrient content

 

Chapter 4. PLANT BREEDING AND GENETICS

K. Baèelis, A. Blinstrubienë.

 
Assessment of the initial linseed material for breeding programes

A. Ðimkûnas, I. Paðakinskienë.

 
Changes in linear root growth of Italian ryegrass, meadow fescue, festulolium ‘Punia’ and perennial ryegrass as affected by hardening temperatures

J. Bilis. Polyploidization and tetraploid black medic selection according to cytomorphological characters

 

Chapter 5. PHENOLOGY

D. Romanovskaja.

Development regularities of the plants-indicators of the beginning of phenological seasons in Lithuania during 1961-2000

I skyrius. AGROCHEMIJA

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 4, 84, 3-22

UDK 631.86:631.442.1

ÁVAIRIØ ORGANINIØ TRÀÐØ NAUDOJIMO PRIESMËLIO DIRVOÞEMYJE AGROEKOLOGINIS ÁVERTINIMAS

Danuta ROMANOVSKAJA, Liudmila TRIPOLSKAJA

Lietuvos þemdirbystës

institutas

Trakø Vokë, Vilnius

El. p. liudmila.tripolskaja@voke.lzi.lt

Santrauka

Straipsnyje apibendrinti 1997-2001 metais LÞI Vokës filiale atliktø ávairiø organiniø tràðø efektyvumo bei jø poveikio aplinkai tyrimø rezultatai. Bandymai daryti priesmëlio paprastajame iðplautþemyje. Nustatyta, kad priesmëlio dirvoþemyje þaliajai tràðai geriausia naudoti raudonøjø dobilø (

Trifolium pratense L.) atolà, o ið posëliniø augalø – aliejinius ridikus (Raphanus sativus L.) arba raudonøjø dobilø ásëlá. Kaip dirvoþemio organinës medþiagos papildymo ðaltiná ekstensyvios veiklos ûkiuose galima naudoti nedirbamo pûdymo augalijos biomasæ. Ðios agrotechnikos priemonës leidþia stabilizuoti organinës medþiagos kieká dirvoþemyje, taèiau padidina mineralinio azoto migracijà i ariamojo sluoksnio rudens laikotarpiu. Labiausiai mineralinio azoto iðplovimà padidina áterpta þiemkenèiams geltonþiedþiø lubinø (Lupinus luteus L.) ir dobilø atolo þaliosios tràðos biomasë.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: organinës tràðos, dirvoþemio agrocheminës savybës, organinë medþiaga, azoto migracija.

Chapter 1. AGROCHEMISTRY

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 4, 84, 3-22

UDK 631.86:631.442.1 

AGROECOLOGICAL ESTIMATION OF APLICATION OF DIFFERENT ORGANIC FERTILIZERS IN SANDY LOAM SOIL

D. Romanovskaja, L. Tripolskaja

Summary

The study was performed during 1997-2001 at the Vokë Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture. The experimental plots were established on sandy loam on carbonaceous fluvial-glacial gravel eluviated soil (Idp

), according to FAO-UNESCO classification Haplic Luvisol (LVh).

The aim of the present study was to investigate various sources of organic matter and the efficiency of their application in a fine textured soil, thus increasing the productivity of crop rotation, stabilising and improving fertility of soil and balance of nutrients.

It was established that as a green manure on sandy loam soils it is better to use aftermath of red clover, oil radish, or undersown red clover can be selected from aftercrop plants. It is leasible to use biomass of uncultivated fallow for green manure as a source to increase soil organic matter content on extensive agricultural farms. These agrotechnical means allow to stabilize the content of organic matter in the soil, but during the autumn period increase migration of nitrogen from arable horizon in subsoil. Leaching of nitrogen was increased mostly when biomass of lupine and aftermath of red clover were ploughed under winter rye crop.

Key words: organic fertilizers, soil chemical properties, organic matter, migration of nitrogen.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 4, 84, 23-34

UDK 633.491:[631.8+551.5]:631.559

MINERALINIØ IR ORGANINIØ TRÀÐØ BEI METEOROLOGINIØ SÀLYGØ ÁTAKA BULVIØ PRODUKTYVUMUI PRIESMËLIO DIRVOJE

Vincas KUPÈINSKAS, Alë BANIÛNIENË, Vilma ÞËKAITË

1

Gvidas ÐIDLAUSKAS2

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

1

Perloja, Varënos rajonas

El. p.

perlojabst@varena.omnitel.net

2

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p.

gvidas@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Tikslu ávertinti meteorologiniø veiksniø ir mineraliniø azoto, fosforo bei kalio tràðø átakà bulviø, augintø priesmëlio dirvoje mëðlo ir be mëðlo fonuose, gumbø derliui, atlikta 23 metus daryto sëjomaininio lauko bandymo duomenø analizë. Tyrimai atlikti Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Perlojos bandymø stotyje

Hapli-Albic Luvisols (paprastasis pajaurëjæs iðplautþemis) dirvoþemyje 1979-2002 metais. Remiantis tyrimø duomenimis, mëðlo ir be mëðlo fonuose, nustatytas optimalus gumbø derliui krituliø kiekis per vegetacijà, optimali paros vidutinë vegetacijos periodo oro temperatûra, kalendorinë laikotarpio nuo sodinimo iki bulviø nukasimo trukmë, optimali sukaupta per vegetacijà aukðtesniø uþ 0o, 5o ir 10oC aktyviø temperatûrø suma. Paaiðkëjo, kad be mëðlo augintø bulviø gumbø derliui optimalus per vegetacijà krituliø kiekis buvo 384,9 mm, vidutinë vegetacijos periodo oro temperatûra – 15,2oC, kalendorinë vegetacijos periodo trukmë – 122,3 dienos ir per vegetacijà augalø sukaupta aukðtesniø uþ 0o, 5o ir 10oC aktyviø temperatûrø suma atitinkamai – 1940,3o, 1321,7o ir 672,6oC. Mëðlo fone augusiø bulviø gumbø derliui optimalus per vegetacijà krituliø kiekis buvo 351,7 mm, paros vidutinë oro temperatûra – 14,6oC, kalendorinë vegetacijos periodo trukmë – 131,1 dienos ir aukðtesniø uþ 0o, 5o ir 10oC augalø sukaupta aktyviø temperatûrø suma – atitinkamai 1943,5o, 1289,7o ir 635,7oC. Nuo mineraliniø azoto, fosforo ir kalio tràðø visais atvejais didëjo bulviø gumbø derlius, taèiau jø efektyvumas buvo didesnis mëðlu netræðtame fone. Træðiant mëðlu sumaþëjo mineraliniø tràðø ir meteorologiniø veiksniø átaka bulviø gumbø derliui.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: bulvës, træðimas, mëðlas, krituliai, oro temperatûra, aktyvios temperatûros.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 4, 84, 23-34

UDK 633.491:[631.8+551.5]:631.559 

THE INFLUENCE OF MINERAL AND ORGANIC FERTILIZERS AND METEOROLOGICAL FACTORS ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF POTATOES ON A SANDY LOAM SOIL

V. Kupèinskas, A. Baniûnienë, V. Þëkaitë, G. Ðidlauskas

Summary

With the aim of evaluating the effects of meteorological factors and mineral nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers on the yield of potatoes grown on a sandy loam soil with and without manure fertilization, the data of 23-year old field trials was analyzed. The trials were carried out on a Hapli - Albic Luvisol at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture Perloja Station during 1979-2002. According to the data collected the optimum precipitation rate during the vegetative growth period, optimum mean daily temperature of the growing period, calendar length of the growing period and optimum accumulated by plants during vegetative growth growing degree days with the baseline temperature of 0o, 5o and 10oC for the potato yield on two backgrounds (with and without manure) were found. The optimum parameters of the growing period for potato yield on the background without manure application were: 384.9 mm precipitation rate, 15.2oC mean daily temperature, 122.3 (days) calendar length of the growing period and 1940.3o, 1321.7o and 672.6oC accumulated by plants growing degree days with the baseline temperature of 0o, 5o and 10oC accordingly. When manure was applied the optimum indices were: 351.7 mm precipitation rate, 14.6oC mean daily temperature, 131.1 (days) calendar length of the growing period and 1943.5o, 1389.7o and 635.7oC accumulated by plants growing degree days with the baseline temperature of 0o, 5o and 10oC accordingly. The application of mineral nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers in all cases increased the yield of potatoes, however, the efficacy of mineral fertilizers was higher on the background without manure application. Manure application decreased the impact of agrotechnical and meteorological factors on potato yield.

Key words: potatoes, fertilization, manure, precipitation rate, mean daily temperature, growing degree days.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 4, 84, 35-48

UDK 631.582:[631.83+631.85]:631.461

TRÆÐIMO FOSFORU IR KALIU KAS KELERI METAI ÁTAKA DIRVOÞEMIO BIOLOGINIAM AKTYVUMUI IR SËJOMAINOS PRODUKTYVUMUI

Aldona SVIRSKIENË, Vytas MAÐAUSKAS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës inst

itutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p. agrochemija@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute Dotnuvoje tiriama fosforo tràðø, naudojamø kas ketveri metai bei kasmet, ir kalio tràðø, naudojamø kas ketveri, kas dveji ir kasmet, átaka keturlaukës sëjomainos augalø produktyvumui, dirvoþemio savybëms.

Straipsnyje pateikiami dirvoþemio biologinio aktyvumo ir sëjomainos produktyvumo duomenys, gauti 1997-2000 m. per 7-à rotacijà, kurios pradþioje buvo uþarti ðiaudai su mineralinio azoto priedu.

træðiant kartà per rotacijà fosforu amofoso pavidalu 240 kg ha

-1 ir kaliu – kalio chlorido pavidalu 360 kg ha-1, o azotu 45-90 kg ha-1 kasmet amonio salietros pavidalu, dirvoþemio bendras mikroorganizmø kiekis, taip pat ir bendras biologinis aktyvumas buvo ne maþesni, o mineraliná azoto reþimà atspindintys ir derliø lemiantys mikrobiologiniai rodikliai netgi neþymiai geresni, palyginus su kasmetiniu træðimu N45-90P60K90. Taèiau træðiant PK tràðomis kartà per rotacijà keturguba norma, invertazës aktyvumas buvo truputá maþesnis, mineralizacijos koeficientas didesnis, mikrobø cenozës struktûra pablogëjo, o tai rodo, kad organinës medþiagos mineralizacija turëjo tendencijà didëti.

Kasmet naudojant NPK tràðas, kuriø sudëtyje buvo superfosfato, turinèio sieros, dirvoþemio biologinis aktyvumas ir mineralizacija buvo neþymiai didesni nei naudojant NPK tràðas, kuriø sudëtyje buvo amofoso, neturinèio sieros.

Mikromicetø gentinë sudëtis, naudojant PK tràðas kartà per ketverius metus, agronominiu poþiûriu buvo neþymiai geresnë, negu træðiant kasmet. Gausiau paplito struktûrà gerinanèiø ir antifitopatogeniðkai veikianèiø Trichoderma ir maþiau potencialiø fitopatogenø ir fitotoksinø gamintojø – Penicillium genties grybø. Superfosfatas ðiuo poþiûriu buvo palankesnis negu a

mofosas.

Træðiant fosforo ir kalio keturgubomis normomis kartà per rotacijà, bendras rotacijos augalø (bulviø, mieþiø, dobilø, þieminiø kvieèiø) derlius gautas 26250 pað. vnt., arba 766 GJ ha

-1, kasmet træðiant N45-90P60K90 – 25050 pa.vnt., arba 732 GJ ha-1.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: PK tràðos, dirvoþemio biologinis aktyvumas, mikroorganizmai, fermentai, sëjomainos produktyvumas.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 4, 84, 35-48

UDK 631.582:631.8:631.559

THE INFLUENCE OF PHOSPHORUS AND POTASSIUM PERIODICAL APPLICATION ON THE SOIL BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY AND CROP ROTATION PRODUCTIVITY

A. Svirskienë, V. Maðauskas

Summary

The effect of phosphorus fertilizers applied every year and that of potassium fertilizers applied annually, every two and every four years on the productivity of a four-course crop rotation and soil properties have been investigated at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in Dotnuva since 1971. The soil of the experimental site is light-textured, Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol-CMg-n-w-can with the following characteristics of the plough layer: pH-7, humus – 2.3-2.7 % P2O5 – 156-198 mg kg-1, K2O – 88-104 mg kg-1 soil (A-L method).

At application of the seventh (last) rotation (potatoes, barley, clover, winter wheat) with phosphorus at a rate of 240 kg ha-1 in the form of ammophos and potassium at a rate of 360 kg ha-1 in the form of potassium chloride once per four years, and nitrogen at rates of 45-90 kg ha-1 annually, the total number of microorganisms and the total biological activity in the soil was the same or slightly higher than in the case of annual fertilization. Mineralization coefficient under the effect of periodical or annual fertilization was 2.26 and 1.54, respectively. Invertase activity, related with humification process was 54.3 and 52.0 mg glucose per 48 h per 1g soil. Periodical phosphorus and potassium fertilization increased the ratio between spore-forming and nonspore-forming bacteria, enhanced the content of mineral nitrogen assimilating and nitrifying bacteria and declined the content of azotobacters. This leads to the conclusion that a more intensive organic matter mineralization occurs under the effect of periodical phosphorus and potassium fertilization.

Periodical application of phosphorus 240 kg ha-1 and potassium 360 kg ha-1 once per four years on the background of nitrogen 45-90 kg ha-1 annually resulted in the highest yield of 26250 feed units, or 766 GJ ha-1 energy yield of the crop rotation plants. The annual application of N45-90P60K90 rates resulted in the 25050 feed units or 732 GJ ha-1 energy yield.

Key words: phosphorus, potassium fertilizers, soil biological activity, microorganisms, enzymes, productivity of crop rotation.


ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 4, 84, 49-62

UDK 631.582:631.8:631.559

TRÆÐIMO SISTEMØ ÁTAKA SKIRTINGØ SËJOMAINØ AUGALØ PRODUKTYVUMUI IR NPK ÛKINIAM BALANSUI

Gintautas GREIMAS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filialas

Trakø Vokë, Vilnius

El. p. sekretoriatas@voke.lzi.lt

Santrauka

1979-1996 metais LÞI Vokës filiale, stacionariniame bandyme tirta skirtingø sëjomainø træðimo sistemø átaka augalø derliui, NPK sukaupimui, ûkiniam balansui bei bendrosios energijos kiekiui. Tyrimai rodo, kad didþiausias augalø derlius bei bendrosios energijos kiekis lauko sëjomainoje (50 % javø) gautas áterpiant per rotacijà 104 t ha

-1 mëðlo kartu su mineralinëmis NPK tràðomis. NPK sukaupimas derliuje bei ûkinis jø balansas lauko sëjomainoje tiesiogiai priklausë nuo organiniø tràðø kiekio, tenkanèio sëjomainos rotacijai. Azoto ir fosforo balansas visais atvejais buvo teigiamas. Neigiamas kalio balansas gautas áterpus per rotacijà 52 t ha-1 mëðlo kartu su NPK bei taikant mineralinæ træðimo sistemà.

Javø sëjomainoje (83 % javø) organiniø tràðø kiekis turëjo maþesnës reikðmës. Tiek augalø derlius t ha

-1, tiek bendrosios energijos kiekis GJ ha-1 gauti beveik vienodi treiant 104 t ha-1, arba 52 t ha-1 mëðlo kieká áterpus du kartus per rotacijà. NPK sukaupimas derliuje bei ûkinis jø balansas tiesiogiai priklausë nuo mëðlo kiekio, tenkanèio rotacijai. Abi træðimo sistemos garantavo teigiamà NPK balansà, taèiau áterpus per rotacijà 52 t ha-1 mëðlo kartu su NPK arba taikant mineralinæ træðimo sistemà, kalio balansas buvo artimas nuliniam.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: sëjomaina, produktyvumas, NPK sukaupimas, balansas.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 4, 84, 49-62

UDK 631.582:631.8:631.559 

THE INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION SYSTEMS ON THE CROP PRODUCTIVITY OF DIFFERENT CROP ROTATIONS AND FIELD BALANCE OF NPK

G. Greimas

Summary

Two fertilization systems (organic-mineral and mineral) were studied in a field crop rotation containing 50 % cereals and in a cereal crop rotation containing 83 % cereals in South-East Lithuania over the period 1978-1996. The experimental findings suggest that farmyard manure (FYM) applications at rates of 104 t ha-1 in combination with N300P162K362 once (104 t ha-1) or twice (52 + 52 t ha-1) per rotation significantly increased the yield of main production in both crop rotations. This fertilization system markedly increased the accumulation of NPK in crop yield, and its removal. Combination of FYM at a rate of 52 t ha-1 with N300P162K362 also markedly increased crop yield as well as removal of NPK. In both rotations NPK field balance directly depended on the rates of FYM. In the field crop rotation field balance of NP was positive under all fertilization systems. Application of FYM at a rate of 104 t ha-1 maintained a more intensive field balance of NPK, than application of FYM at 52 t ha-1 and mineral fertilizers only. In this case total field balance of potassium was negative. Field balance of NPK in the cereal crop rotation was possitive under all fertilization systems. Although application of FYM at a rate of 52 t ha-1 mineral fertilizers maintained a possitive balance of potassium, it was close to zero.

The level of total energy GJ ha-1 in the field crop rotation was significantly higher under application of FYM at a rate of 104 t ha-1 than at a rate 52 t ha-1 or mineral fertilizers only. The level of total energy in the cereal crop rotation increased similarly under all fertilization systems.

Key words: rotation, productivity, NPK removal, balance.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai,

2003, 4, 84, 63-82

UDK 631.416:631.821

LOKALAUS IR PAKRIKO TRÆÐIMO VEIKSMINGUMAS SËJOMAINOS AUGALAMS RÛGÐÈIAME IR PAKALKINTAME DIRVOÞEMYJE

Regina REPÐIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

El. p. regina@vezaiciai.lzi.lt

Santrauka

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filiale 1997-2001 metais rûgðèiame ir pakalkintame nepasotintame balkðvaþemyje JIn (

Dystric Albeluvisols ABd) tirtas lokalaus ir pakriko træðimo veiksmingumas sëjomainos augalams taikant programuotà træðimà mineraliniø tràðø normomis, kurios apskaièiuotos atsiþvelgiant á dirvoþemio savybes.

Nustatyta, kad kalkintame 1 ir 2 klintmilèiø normomis dirvoþemyje sëjomainos augalø derlius gautas didesnis nei rûgðèiame. Rûgðèiame ir pakalkintame dirvoþemyje lokaliai áterpus tràðas, gautas þieminiø kvieèiø grûdø ir bulviø gumbø derliaus priedas, palyginus su pakriku. Mieþiø grûdø derliui – tik rûgðèiame dirvoþemyje. Antsëlá patræðus lokaliai, maþëjo tik pirmøjø naudojimo metø daugiameèiø þoliø sausøjø medþiagø derlius

ir tik kalkintuose fonuose. Nuo didesniøjø tràðø normø, palyginus su maþesnëmis, gautas didesnis augalø derlius: mieþiø tik rûgðèiame dirvoþemyje, kvieèiø ir bulviø – visuose fonuose. Antsëlá patræðus didesniàja norma (N95P100K28) I naudojimo metø daugiameèiø þoliø sausøjø medþiagø derlius didëjo tik rûgðèiame dirvoþemyje, o II naudojimo metø þoliø – rûgðèiame ir kalkintame 1 norma dirvoþemyje. Visiems sëjomainoje augintiems augalams tràðø normos, apskaièiuotos planuotam pagrindinës produkcijos derliui pagal agrochemines dirvoþemio savybes, apsimokëjo tik ið dalies. Planuotas sàlyginai maþesnis derlius (mieþiø 2,5, kvieèiø 3,0 ir bulviø 20 t ha-1) gautas kalkintame dirvoþemyje tik kai kuriais atvejais. Planuotas sàlyginai didesnis derlius (mieþiø 3,5, kvieèiø 4,5 ir bulviø 25 t ha-1) nepasiektas.

Rûgðèiame dirvoþemyje sëjomainos augalø iðauginimo energetinës sànaudos sudarë 30,1-68,1 GJ ha

-1, kalkintame 1 norma – 64,6-102,8 GJ ha-1, kalkintame 2 normomis – 85,5-137,3 GJ ha-1. Daugiausia (30-65 %) energetiniø sànaudø sunaudota kalkinimui. Taèiau visais atvejais gauto derliaus energetinë vertë gauta didesnë uþ energetines sànaudas, reikalingas augalams iðauginti.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: rûgðtus ir pakalkintas dirvoþemis, lokalus ir pakrikas træðimas, sëjomainos augalø derlius

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 4, 84, 63-82

UDK 631.416:631.821 

THE EFFICIENCY OF PLACEMENT AND BROADCAST FERTILIZATION ON THE CROP ROTATION YIELD ON THE ACID AND LIMED SOIL

R.Repðienë

Summary

A field trial was c

arried out at the Vëþaièiai Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during 1997-2001. The efficiency of placement and broadcast fertilization on the crop rotation yield on an acid and limed soil (Dystric Albeluvisols ABd) was investigated. A programmed mineral fertilization according to soil agrochemical properties was applied.

It was revealed that placement fertilization was more effective than broadcast for winter wheat and potato yield on both limed and acid soil, and for barley yield on acid soil only. Placement fertilization of barley cover crop decreased the dry matter yield of perennial grasses (first year of use) on limed (at one and two rates) soil only. When the highest fertilizer rates were applied, the largest crop yield was identified: for barley on acid soil only, and for winter wheat, potatoes on both limed and acid soil. Fertilization of cover crop with the highest rate increased the dry matter yield of perennial grasses in the first year of use on acid soil and in the second year of use on both acid and limed soil at one rate.

Liming had an essential effect on soil acidity indicators (pHKCl, hydrolytic soil acidity, mobile Al and absorbed bases). At the end of crop rotation the soil acidity indicators increased by 1.1-1.3 times. The same trend was obtained on limed soil. At the end of crop rotation the amount of mobile P2O5 increased 10-16 mg kg-1 compared with the amount at the beginning of crop rotation, but the amount of mobile K2O and humus decreased by 51-65 mg kg-1 and 0.5-0.96 percentage units, respectively.

Energy expenditure of the crop rotation grow on acid soil made up 30.1-68.1 GJ ha-1 and on limed soil at 1 rate 64.6-102.8 GJ ha-1 at 2 rates – 85.5-137.3 GJ ha-1. Liming requires the greatest (30-65 %) energy expenditure, but in all cases the value of crop yield was higher than the crop growing costs.

Key words: acid and limed soil, placement and broadcast fertilization, crop rotation yield.

 

II skyrius. ÞEMDIRBYSTË

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 4, 84,

83-91

UDK 633.11<321>:631.531.04

VASARINIØ KVIEÈIØ DERLIAUS PRIKLAUSOMUMAS NUO SËJOS GYLIO LENGVAME PRIEMOLYJE

Vaclovas PETRAITIS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p.

albinas@lzi.lt

Santrauka

1998-2000 metais Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute Dotnuvoje velëniniame glëjiðkame lengvo priemolio dirvoþemyje giliau karbonatiniame giliau glëjiðkame rudþemyje (RDg 4-k2), kurio armens pHKCl – 6,7, humuso – 1,86 %, judriøjø P

205 – 172 ir K2O – 155 mg kg-1 dirvoþemio, atlikti vasariniø kvieèiø sëjos gylio tyrimai. Tyrimø tikslas – nustatyti sëjos gylio ribà, nuo kurios pradeda maþëti vasariniø kvieèiø derlius lengvame priemolyje. Nustatyta, kad optimalus jø sëjos gylis 1-4 cm. Sëjant kvieèius 1-4 cm gyliu, grûdø prikulta 0,48-0,82 t ha-1, arba 14,1-24,0 % daugiau, negu sëjant 6-8 cm sëjos gyliu. Sëjant giliau, sumaþëjo lauko daigumas, vegetacijos metu iki derliaus nuëmimo maþiau iðsivystë produktyviø stiebø. Ðiaudø derlius sëjant tuo paèiu gyliu buvo atitinkamai maþesnis 0,61-0,93 t ha-1, arba 15,7-24,0 proc.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: vasariniai kvieèiai, sëjos gylis, grûdai, ðiaudai, produktyvûs stiebai, lauko daigumas.

 

Chapter 2. AGRICULTURE

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 4, 84, 83-91

UDK 633.11<321>:631.531.04 

WINTER WHEAT DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTIVITY IN RELATION TO SOWING DEPTH ON A LIGHT LOAM SOIL

V. Petraitis

Summary

Investigation of the sowing depth of spring wheat was carried out over the period 1998-2000 at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in Dotnuva on a sod gleyic light loamy soil (according to FAO classification Endocalcari-Endohypogleeyic Cambisol CMg-n-w Can). The soil contained: pHKCl – 6.7, humus – 1.86 %, available P2O5 – 172 and K2O – 155 mg kg-1 soil. The experimental objective was to ascertain from which sowing depth limit the yield starts to decline. It was found that the optimal sowing depth of spring wheat was 1-4 cm. When sown at this depth spring wheat yielded 0.48-0.82 t ha-1 or 14.1-24.0 % more compared with that sown at the 6-8 cm depth. Spring wheat sown deeper had a lower field germination, and fewer productive stems developed from the vegetative growth period to harvesting. Straw yield, when sown at the same depths, was lower by 0.61-0.93 t ha-1 or 15.7- 24.0 %, respectively.

Key words: spring wheat, sowing depth, grain, straw, productive stems, field germination.

 

III skyrius. ÞOLININKYSTË

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 4, 84, 92-103

UDK 633.37:631.445.12

R

YTINIØ OÞIARÛÈIØ ILGAAMÞIÐKUMAS AUGINANT JUOS PAÐARUI IR SËKLAI NUKASTOJE ÞEMAPELKËJE

Jonas ÐLEPETYS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p. jonas.slepetys@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Rytiniai oþiarûèiai (

Galega orientalis Lam.) yra vertinga ankðtinë paðarinë þolë, kurios auginimas maþiau tirtas, palyginus su kitomis ankðtinëmis þolëmis. Visai maþai tyrimø su rytiniais oþiarûèiais yra padaryta drenuotuose nukastø þemapelkiø dirvoþemiuose.

Tyrimø tikslas – iðsiaiðkinti, kaip skirtingas oþiarûèiø naudojimas veikia pasëliø produktyvumà ir ilgaamþiðkumà. Tyrimai daryti 1998-2001 metais penktø – aðtuntø naudojimo metø oþiarûèiø þolyne. Oþiarûèiø þolynas naudotas taip: 1. Paðarui kasmet. 2. Sëklai kasmet. 3. Sëklai kas antri metai.

Paskutiniais tyrimø metais, sekant poveiká, oþiarûèiai nupjauti paðarui du kartus. Pasëlio naudojimo bûdas turëjo didelæ átakà oþiarûèiø ilgaamþiðkumui ir þolyno botaninei sudëèiai. Oþiarûèiai, kasmet pjaunami paðarui, aðtuntais naudojimo metais iðretëjo. Jø kiekis þolës metinio derliaus sausosiose medþiagose sumaþëjo iki 22 %. Kur sëkla buvo imama kasmet, oþiarûèiø buvo 78 %, kur kas antri metai – liko 47 %. Paskutiniais tyrimø metais sausøjø medþiagø derlius buvo atitinkamai 6,16, 8,00 ir 7,02 t ha-1. Iretëjusio þolyno vietoje formavosi nauja fitocenozë su pelkinëmis miglëmis (Poa palustris), paprastaisiais varpuèiais (Elytrigia repens), pievinëmis miglëmis (Poa pratensis), paprastosiomis kiaulpienëmis (Taraxacum officinale), pelkiniais vëdrynais (Ranunculus lingua). Dël vëlyvø ðalnø, kurios durpyne pasitaiko gana daþnai, sëklø derlius gautas nedidelis – 32-179 kg ha-1.

Prieita prie iðvados, jog nukastose þemapelkëse, norint prailginti oþiarûèiø pasëlio amþiø, reikia juos naudoti paðarui ir sëklai.

Reik

miniai þodþiai: rytiniai oþiarûèiai, nukasta þemapelkë, botaninë sudëtis, þolës derlius, sëklø derlius.

 

Chapter 3. GRASSLAND HUSBANDRY

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 4, 84, 92-103

UDK 633.37:631.445.12 

LONGEVITY OF FODDER GALEGA GROWN FOR FORAGE AND SEED ON A LOW MOOR SOIL WITH A REMOVED PEAT LAYER

J. Ðlepetys

Summary

Fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam.) is a valuable forage legume. Compared with the other legumes, its cultivation has been insufficiently investigated so far. Very little research has been done into galega growing on drained low moor soil with a removed peat layer. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effect of different galega management regimes on the productivity and persistence of galega stands. Experiments were conducted during 1998-2001 in the galega sward of the 5th-8th year of use. The following galega management regimes were used: 1. For forage annually; 2. For seed annually; 3. For seed every second year. In the last year of the experiment all treatments were cut for forage twice in order to follow the aftereffect. Management regime of the galega stand had a significant effect on persistence and botanical composition of the sward. Galega stands annually cut for forage thinned out in the eighth year of use. Its share in the dry matter declined to 22 %. In the treatments where the seed was harvested annually, galega accounted for 78 %, and in the treatments where the seed was harvested every second year galega accounted for 47 %. In the last year of the experiment dry matter yield was 6.16; 8.00 and 7.02 t ha-1, respectively. A new phytocenosis with Poa palustris, Elytrigia repens, Poa pratensis, Taraxacum officinale, Ranunculus lingua formed in place of the thinned out sward. Due to late frosts, that are quite frequent in low moor peat soil, the seed yield was low 32-179 kg ha-1. It can be concluded that in order to extend the age of galega stand on a low moor peat soil, it should be used both for forage and seed production.

Key words: fodder galega, low moor soil with a removed peat layer, botanical composition, forage yield, seed production.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 4, 84, 104-119

UDK 633.2.003:631.83

KALIO TRÀÐØ NORMOS GANYKLAI: ÞOLIØ BOTANINËS SUDËTIES, DERLIAUS IR DIRVOÞEMIO KOKYBËS POKYÈIAI

Jonas GUTAUSKAS, Audronë MAÐAUSKIENË, Alvyra ÐLEPETIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p.

jonasgut@lzi.lt; masaudrone@lzi.lt; alvyra@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Ilgalaikiai stacionarûs tyrimai atlikti 1993-2001 m. Þemdirbystës instituto Dotnuvos eksperimentinio ûkio Valinavos ganykloje, tæsiant nepertraukiamà lauko bandymø ciklà. Lauko bandymas nuo 1961 m. daromas pagal ðià schemà: 1. P

0K0. 2. P60K0. 3. P60K30. 4. P60K60. 5. P60K90. Dirvoþemis – glëjiðkasis rudþemis, lengvas priemolis. Darbo tikslas – nustatyti ávairiø kalio tràðø normø átakà produktyviam ganomo þolyno ilgaamþiðkumui ir þolës derliaus paðarinei vertei, stebëti ilgalaikiø þolynø floristinës sudëties kaitos pobûdá bei dirvoþemio agrocheminiø parametrø pokyèius.

Ilgalaik

is ganyklos naudojimas be mineraliniø PK tràðø lëmë nedidelá þolës sausøjø medþiagø derliø – 2,59 t ha-1, taèiau derlingumas neturëjo tendencijos maþëti. Træðimo fosforo tràðomis fone ganomø þolynø metinis þolës sausøjø medþiagø derlius siekë 3,81 t ha-1, patræðus kalio tràðomis – 4,62-5,32 t ha-1. Veiksmingiausios kalio tràðø normos buvo K30 ir K60. Træðimo fosforu fone nuo K30 ir K60 labiau plito baltieji dobilai, maþëjo ávairiaþoliø. Træðiant maþesnëmis normomis, þolynø konkurencinë galia buvo maþesnë, o ávairiaþolës sudarë 26,9-28,2 %.

Træðimo fosforo tràðomis fone padidëjo þaliø baltymø þolëje. Nuo didëjanèiø kalio tràðø normø ðis rodiklis turëjo tendencijà didëti. Þalia làsteliena ir neazotinës ekstraktinës medþiagos þolëje maþai tepakito. Træðiant fosforo tràðomis, fosforo koncentracija þolëje ið esmës didëjo, o maþëjo gausiau træðiant kaliu. Kalio kiekis þolëje nevirðijo leidþiamos normos ir buvo artimas optimaliam, t. y. 2,13-2,70 %.

Ilgalaikis ganyklos naudojimas turëjo didelës átakos visø dirvoþemio agrocheminiø rodikliø pokyèiams kokybës gerëjimo kryptimi. Nuolat træðiant kalio tràðomis, daug humuso, azoto ir fosforo susikaupë virðutiniame dirvoþemio sluoksnyje, o gilesniame – kalio. Didþiausia jo koncentracija nustatyta giliausiame – 30-50 cm t

irtame dirvoþemio sluoksnyje.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: ganykla, agrocheminiai rodikliai, þoliø botaninë sudëtis, derlius, humusas, PK tràðos.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 4, 84, 104-119

UDK 633.2.003:631.83 

LONG-TERM INVESTIGATION OF DIFFERENT POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION RATES IN PASTURE: VARIATION OF BIOMASS, FLORISTIC COMPOSITION AND SOIL NUTRIENT CONTENT

J. Gutauskas, A. Maðauskienë, A. Ðlepetienë

Summary

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the residual effects of different K fertilization rates on soil chemical properties, DM yield, botanical diversity and to study the efficiency of long-term pasture management.

Long-term trials were conducted at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture over the period 1993-2001. Before this period the experiments were carried out during 1961-1992. Five fertilization treatments were investigated: 1) P0K0. 2) P60K0. 3) P60K30. 4) P60K60. 5) P60K90. The soil of the experimental site is sod gleyic light loam (Endohypogleyic Cambisol).

Discontinued PK fertilization resulted in a significant lower pasture productivity – 2.59 t ha-1, but no trend of DM yield reduction was observed in long-term perspective. During the nine -year experimental period the average grass DM yield on the background of P60 fertilization was 3.81 t ha-1, on the background of P60K30-90 fertilization DM yields of 4.62-5.32 t ha-1 were obtained without N application. The most efficient K fertilizer rates were found to be K30 and K60. On the background of P60 and K60-90 the grasses accounted for 53.5-59.2 % of DM yield, legumes – 19.3-21.9 %, forbs – 19.5-27.2 %. The lower level of K and P fertilization increased the portion of herbs in the sward up to 26.9-28.2 % of DM yield. The change in PK fertilization level had a significant effect on crude protein, phosphorus and potassium concentration in DM yield.

Long-term grazing management of multi-component grass-legume-forbs swards maintains natural soil fertility and in the long run improves its quality parameters.

The application of the inorganic PK fertilizer on the background of grazing had a strong and stable effect on the processes of nitrogen, humus, phosphorus and potassium accumulation in the soil. The concentration of total phosphorus and potassium in the soil horizons of the pasture had a different nature: phosphorus tended to accumulate in the topsoil, whereas the highest concentration of potassium was observed in the subsoil. The content of potassium increased most in the subsoil 30-50 cm soil layer.

Key words: biomass yield, botanical composition, humus, pasture, PK fertilization, soil nutrient content.

 

IV skyrius. AUGALØ SELEKCIJA IR GENETIKA

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 4, 84, 120-129

UDK 633.521:631.523

PRADINËS SËMENINIØ LINØ MEDÞIAGOS ÁVERTINIMAS SELEKCIJOS PROGRAMOMS

Kæstutis BAÈELIS

1, Auðra BLINSTRUBIENË2

1

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Upytë, Panevëþio rajonas

El. p.

upytë@upytë.lzi.lt

2

Lietuvos þemës ûkio universitetas

Akademija, Kauno rajonas

El. p.

ausrb@one.lt

Santrauka

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Upytës bandymø stotyje 1998-2002 m. tirta per 150 sëmeniniø linø veisliø bei numeriø kolekcija ið ávairiø pasaulio ðaliø. Kai kurios sëmeniniø linø veislës tirtos (2000-2002 m.) ir Lietuvos þemës ûkio universitete. Veislës tirtos produktyvumo, 1000-èio sëklø masës, þaliø riebalø procento, augalø aukðèio, vegetacijos periodo trukmës, atsparumo iðgulimui ir ligoms atþvilgiais. Atrinktos vertingos ve

islës bei numeriai – ‘Mikael’, ‘Barbara’, ‘Szaphir’, ‘Norlin’, ‘Blue Chip’, ‘Lirina’, ‘Gold Merchant’, ‘Baikal’, ‘Symphonia’, ‘Kubanskij I’, ‘Nevskij’, ‘Donskoj 95’, Sv.66185, K-5483, K-7191, K-6129, K-7201, rekomenduojami átraukti á sëmeniniø linø selekcijos programas. Kai kurios veislës – ‘Barbara’, ‘Mikael’, ‘Lirina’, ‘Szaphir’ átraukiamos á biotechnologijos procesà, kuriant pradinæ selekcinæ medþiagà ir greitinant jos tempus.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: sëmeniniai linai, produktyvumas, 1000-èio sëklø masë, vegetacijos periodo trukmë, augalø aukðtis.

 

Chapter 4. PLANT BREEDING AND GENETICS

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 4, 84, 120-129

UDK 633.521:631.523 

ASSESSMENT OF THE INITIAL LINSEED MATERIAL FOR BREEDING PROGRAMES

K. Baèelis, A. Blinstrubienë

Summary

Over 150 linseed varieties and numbers were investigated at the Upytë Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during 1998-2002. Some of the linseed varieties were analysed at the Lithuanian University of Agriculture dur

ing 2000-2002. The varieties were tested for productivity, 1000 seed weight, crude fat content, plant height, growth period duration, disease and lodging resistance. The following valuable varieties and numbers were selected: ‘Mikael’, ‘Barbara’, ‘Szaphir’, ‘Norlin’, ‘Blue Chip’, ‘Lirina’, ‘Gold Merchant’, ‘Baikal’, ‘Symphonia’, ‘Kubanskij I’, ‘Nevskij’, ‘Donskoj 95’, Sv.66185, K-5483, K-7191, K-6129, K-7201, which are recommended for inclusion in the breeding programs. Some of the varieties – ‘Barbara’, ‘Mikael’, ‘Lirina’, ‘Szaphir’, are included in the biotechnologycal process, while developing the new initial breeding material and accelerating this process.

Key words: linseed, productivity, 1000 seed weight, growth period, plant height.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 4, 84, 130-140

UDK 633.264+633.265]:581.1

SVIDRIØ, ERAIÈINØ IR ERAIÈINSVIDRIØ ‘PUNIA’ ÐAKNØ LINIJINIO AUGIMO POKYÈIAI VEIKIANT GRÛDINIMO TEMPERATÛROMS

Alvydas ÐIMKÛNAS, Izolda PAÐAKINSKIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institu

tas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p. genetik@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Gausiaþiedës svidrës (

Lolium multiflorum Lam.), tikrieji eraièinai (Festuca pratensis Huds.), eraièinsvidrës ‘Punia’ ir daugiametës svidrës (Lolium perenne L.) tirtos grûdinimo reþimuose +8oC ir +2oC temperatûrose. Nustatytas ðaknø augimo greitis v ir jo kitimà nulemiantys làsteliø dalijimosi greitis V, santykinis làsteliø tásimo greitis k ir vidutinis iðtásusiø þievës làsteliø ilgis l. Grûdinant augalus +8ºC temperatûroje, þymiø ðaknø augimo ir já charakterizuojanèiø rodikliø skirtumø tarp tirtø rûðiø nenustatyta. Tai rodo, kad ðios rûðys +8ºC temperatûroje nëra streso bûklës. Paþeminus temperatûrà iki +2ºC, tikrøjø eraièinø ðaknø augimo greitis sumaþëjo apie 8,7 karto, gausiaþiedþiø svidriø – apie 2,7, daugiameèiø svidriø – apie 3,5, o eraièinsvidriø – 3,9 karto. Nustatyta, kad tikrøjø eraièinø iðskirtiná ðaknø augimo sumaþëjimà lëmë iðskirtinis làsteliø dalijimosi greièio sulëtëjimas. Akivaizdu, kad þeminant temperatûrà tikrøjø eraièinø ðaknø meristemoje ávyksta kokybiniai pokyèiai ir augalai +2ºC temperatûroje jau patiria stresà. Eraièinsvidrës pagal làsteliø dalijimosi greièio sumaþëjimà uþëmë artimesnæ gausiaþiedëms svidrëms padëtá, kas rodo, kad esant +2°C temperatûrai, jos dar nepereina á streso bûklæ. Nustatyta, kad þeminant temperatûrà nuo +8ºC iki +2ºC, tásimo zonos ilgis gali tarnauti kaip streso bûklës indikatorius: eraièinai suformuoja 3 kartus trumpesnæ tásimo zonà, o svidriø ir eraièinsvidriø – beveik nepakinta. Þeminant temperatûrà, visø tirtø þoliø rûðiø santykinis làsteliø tásimo greitis k sumaþëjo vienodai, taèiau làstelës iðtáso iki beveik tokio pat ilgio (250-350 m m). Vadinasi, þemos temperatûros nepakeitë làsteliø tásimo programos, tik sulëtino tásimà. Taèiau kai kuriuose tikrøjø eraièinø, grûdintø +2ºC temperatûroje, mëginiuose stebëtos sutrumpëjusios ir ágavusios suapvalëjusius kontûrus làstelës. Manoma, kad stiprus làsteliø dalijimosi pristabdymas ir làsteliø formos pokyèiai grûdinant augalus, yra sietini su streso bûkle ir didesniu tikrøjø eraièinø atsparumu ðalèiui.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: gausiaþiedës svidrës, daugiametës svidrës, tikrieji eraièinai, eraièinsvidrës ‘Punia’, ðaknø augimas, làsteliø augimas, grûdinimo temperatûros.

 

I

SSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 4, 84, 130-140

UDK 633.264+633.265]:581.1 

CHANGES IN LINEAR ROOT GROWTH OF ITALIAN RYEGRASS, MEADOW FESCUE, FESTULOLIUM ‘PUNIA’ AND PERENNIAL RYEGRASS AS AFFECTED BY HARDENING TEMPERATURES

A. Ðimkûnas, I. Paðakinskienë

Summary

Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.) Festulolium ‘Punia’ and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) were investigated under hardening regimes, at +8ºC and +2ºC temperatures. The components affecting the rate of root growth, namely cell division rate V, relative cell elongation rate k and average length of root cortex cells l, were determined. Under the hardening conditions at +8ºC, there were no evident differences in the parameters characterising root growth among the studied species, indicating that they were not in the state of stress. By lowering the temperature from +8ºC down to +2ºC, the root growth rate decreases by approximately 8 times for meadow fescue, by 2.7 for Italian ryegrass, by 3.5 for perennial ryegrass and by 3.9 times for Festulolium. The dramatic decrease in root growth of meadow fescue was caused by an exceptional reduction in the rate of root cell division. This result demonstrates that qualitative changes occur in the root meristem of meadow fescue and that plants are in a stress at +2ºC. In terms of reduced rates of cell division the hybrid ‘Punia’ was closer to Italian ryegrass, suggesting that ‘Punia’ was not in the state of stress at +2ºC temperature. When the temperature is lowered from +8ºC to +2ºC, the reduction of the length of the elongation zone can be used as an indicator of stress; and for meadow fescue this zone became 3 times shorter while for the ryegrass and Festulolium it remained approximately of the same lenght. The relative elongation rate k decreased equally for all species, but the final length of cortex cell was not affected and remained almost the same at a level of between 250-350 m m, showing that the influence of low temperatures did not change the programme of cell elongation but only slowed down the elongation. There were exceptions found in some cases where meadow fescue samples were displaying shortened cells with rounded outlines. We suggest that a considerable reduction of cell division rate and change of cell form are stress-related, and provide the basis for the higher cold resistance of meadow fescue.

Key words: Italian ryegrass, meadow fescue, Festulolium ‘Punia’, perennial ryegrass, root growth, cell growth, hardening temperatures.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 4, 84, 141-149

UDK 633.31:631.527

APYNINIØ LIUCERNØ POLIPLOIDIZAVIMAS IR TETRAPLOIDINIØ AUGALØ ATRANKA PAGAL CITOLOGINIUS-MORFOLOGINIUS POÞYMIUS

Juozas BILIS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. p.

selekcentras@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Siekiant sukurti apyniniø liucernø (

Medicago lupulina L.) poliploidus bei atrinkti tetraploidinius augalus, tyrimai daryti 2002-2003 m. Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute Augalø selekcijos centre. Pradinë medþiaga tetraploidams kurti – 2002 m. Lietuvoje registruota apyniniø liucernø veislë ‘Arka’. Ðios veislës tetraploidiniai augalai buvo gauti veikiant jaunus liucernø ‘Arka’ daigelius skilèialapiø tarpsniu 0,3 % kolchicino tirpalu. Pradþioje, juvenilinio lapelio tarpsniu, ið kolchicinu paveiktø augalø tetraploidai buvo atrenkami vizualiai. Paðalinti nuo kontrolinio varianto (daigeliai veikti vandeniu) nesiskiriantys augalai. Palikti daigeliai su sustorëjusiais skilèialapiais, sulëtëjusiu vystymosi ritmu. Kituose etapuose atranka daryta pagal juvenilinio lapelio apatiniame epidermyje esantá varstomøjø þioteliø chloroplastø skaièiø, varstomøjø þioteliø ilgá bei plotá, taip pat ir epiderminiø làsteliø skaièiø mikroskopo matymo lauke. Augalams suþydus, kiekvienas augalas ávertintas pagal þiedadulkiø formà bei jø dydþius m m (ilgá ir plotá). Ðalinami augalai, kurie pagal ðiuos poþymius nesiskyrë nuo kontroliniø (diploidiniø) augalø. Sëkloms sunokus, tetraploidiniai augalai dar buvo vertinti pagal sëklø dydá mm (ilgá, plotá, storá) ir 1000-èio sëklø masæ (g). Bandymø eigoje buvo iðskirta 12 tetraploidiniø augalø. Jø iðeiga siekë 12 % nuo kolchicinu veiktø daigeliø skaièiaus.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: apyninës liucernos, poliploidija, citologiniai ir morfologiniai poþymiai.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture, Scientific articles, 2003, 4, 84, 141-149

UDK 633.31:631.527 

POLYPLOIDIZATION AND TETRAPLOID BLACK MEDIC SELECTION ACCORDING TO CYTOMORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS

J. Bilis

Summary

A Lithuania-registered diploid (2n = 16) black medic cv. ‘Arka’ was used as initial material for the development of tetraploids. Polyploids of this variety were produced by 0.3 % colchicine treatment of young seedlings of cv. ‘Arka’ at the stage of cotyledon. Initially, at the stage of juvenile leaf, tetraploids were selected visually: the plants not differing from the control were removed. In the subsequent stages selection was performed according to the number of stomatal guard cells in the lower epidermis of the juvenile leaf as well as according to the length and width of stomatal guard cells, and the number of epidermic cells per area unit. At anthesis stage selection was conducted according to the form and size (length and width) of pollen. At seed ripening stage tetraploid plants were estimated according to seed size (mm) (length, width, thickness), 1000 seed weight (g).

In the course of experiments 12 tetraploid plants were distinguished. Their output amounted to 12 %.

Key words: black medic, polyploidy, cytology, morphology, seed.

 

V skyrius. FENOLOGIJA

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 4, 84, 150-164

UDK 581.543(474.5)

FENOLOGINIØ SEZONØ PRADÞIOS AUGALØ INDIKATORIØ VYSTYMOSI DËSNINGUMAI LIETUVOJE 1961-2000 m. LAIKOTARPIU

Danuta ROMANOVSKAJA

Lietuvos

þemdirbystës institutas

Trakø Vokë, Vilnius

El. p. sekretoriatas@voke.lzi.lt

Santrauka

Fenologiniai stebëjimai atlikti 1961-2000 m. Buvo stebimi augalai, kurie daþniausiai naudojami fenologiniø sezonø riboms charakterizuoti: paprastasis lazdynas (

Corylus avellana L.), paprastoji ieva (Padus avium Mill.), darþelinis jazminas (Philadelphus coronarius L.), maþalapë liepa (Tilia cordata Mill.) ir paprastasis klevas (Acer platanoides L.).

Tyrimø tikslas – patikslinti fenologiniø sezonø pradþios augalø – indikatoriø vystymosi dësningumus ir nustatyti jø pritaikymo galimybes fenologiniam prognozavimui.

Tirtø augalø indikatoriø fenofaziø pasireiðkimo dësningumai atskiruose Lietuvos fenoklimatiniuose rajonuose atitiko anksèiau atliktø tyrimø (1961-1980 m.) nustatytus dësningumus, bet klimatui ðiltëjant, fenofazës prasidëdavo anksèiau. Ypaè ryðkûs pokyèiai buvo pastebëti analizuojant fenologinio pavasario augalø indikatoriø faziø pasireiðkimo dinamikà.

Nustatyta, kad augalø panaudojimo fenoindikacijai tinkamumas priklausë nuo pasirinktø fenoindikatoriø tarpfazinës trukmës. Vidutinio stiprumo koreliaciniai ryðiai gauti tada, kai tarp faziø trukmë nevirðija 45 dienø. Kai augalø indikatoriø trukmë tarp faziø ilgesnë, panaudoti fenoindikacijai netikslinga.

Reikminiai

þodþiai: fenologiniai sezonai, fenoindikatoriai, fenologinis prognozavimas.

 

Chapter 5. PHENOLOGY

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 4, 84, 150-164

UDK 581.543(474.5) 

DEVELOPMENT REGULARITIES OF THE PLANTS-INDICATORS OF THE BEGINNING OF PHENOLOGICAL SEASONS IN LITHUANIA DURING 1961-2000

D. Romanovskaja

Summary

Phenological observations were carried out during the period 1961-2000 on the plants that are typically used for the characterisation of the limits of phenological seasons: nut-tree (Corylus avellana L.), eve (Padus avium Mill.), jasmine (Philadelphus coronarius L.), lime (Tilia cordata Mill.) and maple (Acer platanoides L.).

The objective of the present study was to specify development regularities of the plants – indicators of the beginning of phenological seasons and to verify their application possibilities for phenological predictions.

The regularities of the manifestation of the tested plants-indicators’ phenophases in individual phenoclimatic regions of Lithuania conformed to those obtained during previous studies (1961-1980), however, due to the warming of the climate plant phenoses tended to start earlier. Especially marked changes were noticed while analysing dynamics of manifestation of phenological spring phases of plants-indicators.

The evidence of our study suggests that the suitability of plants for the use as phenoindicators depended on the interphase length of the selected phenoindicators. A medium strong correlation was determined when interphase length did not exceed 45 days. The plants whose interphase period is longer than 45 days are not suitable for use as phenoindicators.

Key words: phenological seasons, phenoindicators, phenological prediction.

 

 


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