·Raðykite mums: lzi@lzi.lt


DIRVOTYRA IR AGROCHEMIJA

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 3, 83, 4-18

UDK 631.44(474.5):631.435

LIETUVOS DIRVOÞEMIØ GRANULIOMETRINËS SUDËTIES PALYGINAMIEJI TYRIMAI

Jonas MAÞVILA

1, Meèislovas VAIÈYS2, Algirdas MOTUZAS3,

Kazys GUSTAITIS4

1

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Savanoriø pr. 287, Kaunas

El. paðtas:

lzi_atc@euteka.lt

2

Lietuvos miðkø institutas

Girionys, Kauno rajonas

El. paðtas:

dirvo@mi.lt

3

Lietuvos
þemës ûkio universitetas

Akademija, Kauno rajonas

El. paðtas:

tempus@nora.lzua.lt

4

Valstybinis þemëtvarkos institutas

Sapiegos g. 12, Kaunas

El. paðtas: gustaitis@vzi.lt

Santrauka

Lietuvoje iki 2000 m. dirvoþemio granuliometrinei sudëèiai ávardinti buvo taikomas N. Kaèinskio metodas pagal fizinio molio santykiná kieká. Parengus Lietuvos dirvoþemiø naujàjà klasifikacijà (1999), tam taikoma tarptautinë J. Gibss’o - B. Rozenbom’o metodika pagal viso smulkþemio tri

jø frakcijø (smëlio, dulkiø ir molio) santykiná kieká grafinëje diagramoje, daþnai vadinamoje Fere trikampiu (FAO rekomenduojamu metodu).

2001-2002 metais ðiais metodais buvo iðanalizuoti mineraliniø grupiø dirvoþemiø ëminiai, ávardinta ir palyginta jø granuliometrinë sudëtis. Paaiðkëjo, kad naudojant Fere trikampá, reikia atsiþvelgti ne tik á trijø frakcijø (smëlio, dulkiø ir molio) kieká, bet ir á dirvodarinës uolienos kilmæ. Dirvoþemiai, susidaræ limnoglacialinëse uolienose, patenka á dulkiðkuosius granu

liometrinës sudëties poklasius, o susidaræ moreninëse – á smëlinguosius poklasius. Mëginiuose fizinio molio (< 0,01 mm) rasta 1,5-2,0 kartus daugiau negu molio (< 0,002 mm) frakcijos. Lyginant humusiniuose horizontuose skirtingais metodais nustatytø smëlio, dulkiø ir molio frakcijø santykinius kiekius, rasta, kad pastarosios pagal tarptautinæ metodikà yra 1,2-1,9 karto daugiau, negu maþesniø 0,001 mm daleliø (pagal Kaèinská). Pagal FAO, palyginus su Kaèinskio metodu, maþiausiai skiriasi smëliai, dalis priesmëliø vadinami smëlingais arba dulkiðkais lengvais priemoliais, lengvi priemoliai daþniausiai priskiriami prie smëlingø lengvø priemoliø, vidutinio sunkumo priemoliø, reèiau vadinami dulkiðkais lengvais ir vidutinio sunkumo priemoliais, dalis vidutinio sunkumo priemoliø tokiais ir lieka, kiti vadinami dulkiðkais vidutinio sunkumo priemoliais bei smëlingais sunkiais priemoliais. Dalis sunkiø priemoliø nesikeièia, kiti vadinami smëlingais ar dulkiðkais vidutinio sunkumo ir sunkiais priemoliais, nesikeièia ir dalis moliø, kiti tampa sunkiais priemoliais arba dulkiðkais moliais.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: dirvoþemis, granuliometrinës sudëties nustatymo metodai.

SOIL SCIENCE AND AGROCHEMISTRY

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 3, 83, 4-18

UDK 631.44(474.5):631.435

COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF LITHUANIA’S SOIL TEXTURE

J. Maþvila, M.Vaièys, A. Motuzas, K.Gustaitis

Summary

In Lithuania until 2000 soil texture was determined by the Katchinsky method according to the percentage of physical clay fraction (< 0.01). The new soil classification system involving application of the international J. Gibss - B. Rozenbom methodology according to percentage of sand, silt and clay fractions in the graphical diagram, often called Fere triangle (FAO recommended method) has been used since 1999.

During 2001-2002 these methods were used for analysing textural classes of Lithuania’s mineral soils. It was ascertained that when Fere triangle is used it is necessary to take into account not only the contents of the three fractions (sand, silt, and clay) but also origin of the parental rock. Soils that formed in glacial lacustrine deposits are attributed to the silty textural subclass, and those formed in moraine deposits are attributed to sandy textural class. The content of physical clay fraction (< 0.01 mm) in the soil samples was by 1.5-2.0 times higher than that of clay fraction (< 0.002 mm). Comparison of the contents of sand, silt and clay fractions identified in ochric horizon by different methods shows that the content of the latter fraction determined by the international methodology is 1.2-1.9 times higher than that of the fraction < 0.001 mm (according to Katchinsky).

According to FAO, compared with the Katchinsky method, the least differences are identified in sands, part of sandy loams can become sandy or silty light loams, light loams most often become sandy light loams, medium heavy loams, less frequently – silty light medium heavy loams, part of medium heavy loams remain as they are, the others become silty medium heavy loams and sandy heavy loams. Part of heavy loams do not change, the others become sandy or silty medium heavy and heavy loams, part of clays do not change either, the others become heavy loams or silty clays.

Key words: soil, determination methods of soil texture.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 3, 83, 19-30

UDK 631.41:631.58

ÁVAIRAUS INTENSYVUMO ÞEMDIRBYSTËS SISTEMØ POVEIKIS DIRVOÞEMIO AGROCHEMINËMS SAVYBËMS

Rita PUPALIENË, Antanas STANCEVIÈIUS

Lietuvos þemës ûkio universitetas

Akademija, Kauno rajonas

El. paðtas:

pupalien@nora.lzua.lt

Santrauka

Ávairaus intensyvumo þemdirbystës sistemø poveikio tyrimai daryti 1999-2002 m. LÞÛU Bandymø stotyje drenuotame priemolio sekliai glëjiðkame karbonatingame iðplautþemyje

LVg-p-w-cc(sc)-Calc(ar)i-Epihypogleyic Luvisol ir antropogenizuotame drenuotame priemolio sekliai glëjiðkame karbonatingame iðplautþemyje LVg-p-w-cc(sc,ah)-Calc(ar)i-Epihypogleyic Luvisol.

1991-1998 m. atliktas ekologinës, tausojanèiosios ir intensyviosios þemdirbystës sistemø palyginimo bandymas dirvoþemyje su vidutinio storio (25 cm) ir su dirbtinai pastorintu (40-50 cm) humusingu sluoksniu. 1999-2002 m. tirtas ðiø þemdirbystës sistemø liekamasis poveikis.

Tyrimo tikslas – nustatyti ávairaus intensyvumo þemdirbystës sistemø liekamojo poveikio trukmæ pagal judriøjø elementø – fosforo ir kalio kieká dirvoþemiuose su nevienodo storio humusingu sluoksniu. Taip pat iðaiðkinti mieþiø grûdø derliaus priklausomumà nuo dirvoþemyje besikeièianèio judriojo kalio ir j

udriojo fosforo kiekio ketverius metus ið eilës auginant mieþius be tràðø ir be pesticidø.

Nustatyta, kad per ketverius ávairaus intensyvumo þemdirbystës sistemø poveikio tyrimo metus judriojo fosforo ir judriojo kalio kiekiai dirvoþemyje nemaþëja. Didesnis judriojo fosforo kiekis 0-25 cm gylyje rastas dirvoþemyje su nepastorintu humusingu sluoksniu. Dirvoþemyje su nepastorintu humusingu sluoksniu judriojo fosforo kiekis skirtingø þemdirbystës sistemø poveikyje ið esmës nesiskyrë. Dirvoþemyje su pastorintu

humusingu sluoksniu intensyviosios þemdirbystës sistemos poveikyje rastas judriojo fosforo kiekis buvo ið esmës didesnis, palyginus su tausojanèiosios, ir neesmingai didesnis – palyginus su ekologinës þemdirbystës sistemos poveikiu. Maþesnis judriojo kalio kiekis ekologinës þemdirbystës sistemos laukeliuose iðliko visus ketverius poveikio tyrimo metus. Judriojo kalio kiekio skirtumai tarp variantø dirvoþemyje su nepastorintu humusingu sluoksniu didesni ir yra esminiai, o labiau sukultûrintame dirvoþemyje – neesminiai. Ávairaus intensyvumo þemdirbystës sistemø skirtingas poveikis atsëliuojamø mieþiø grûdø derliui iðlieka ketverius tyrimo metus. Stipriausias koreliacinis priklausomumas nustatytas tarp mieþiø grûdø derliaus ir dirvoþemyje esanèio judriojo kalio 0-25 cm gylyje (r = 0,84-0,88, P < 0,01).

Reikðminiai þodþiai: þemdirbystës sistemø poveikis, vasariniai mieþiai, judrusis fosforas, judrusis kalis, koreliacinë priklausomybë.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 3, 83, 19-30

UDK 631.41:631.58

THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS ON SOIL AGROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES

R. Pupalienë, A. Stancevièius

Summary

The field experiment was caried out at LUA Research Station in 1999-2002 on LVg-p-w-cc(sc)-Calc(ar)i-Epihypogleyic Luvisol and LVg-p-w-cc(sc,ah)-Calc(ar)i-Epihypogleyic Luvisol.

During the period of 1991-1998 comparative studies of organic, integrated and intensive agricultural systems in the soil with normal topsoil (25 cm) and with extra-deep topsoil (40-50 cm) were done. In 1999-2002 the remanant effect of the agricultural systems was tested.

The aim of this experiment was to determine the content of soil available elements phosphorus and potassium, to evaluate the relationship between the grain yield and soil available elements phosphorus and potassium when barley was grown without fertilisers and pesticides.

The content of available phosphorus and potassium in the soil did not decline during 4 years of investigation. The greater content of available phosphorus was established in the soil with normal topsoil. The remanant effect of different agricultural systems on the available phosphorus content was not significant in the soil with normal topsoil. The remanant effect of intensive agricultural system on available phosphorus content was significant in comparison with integrated, and not significant in comparison with ecological agricultural system in the soil with extra deep topsoil. The remanant effect of ecological agricultural system on the available potassium content persisted during 4 years of investigation. This effect was significant in the soil with normal topsoil, but in the soil with extra - deep topsoil it was not significant. The effect of different agricultural systems on the continous barley grain yield persisted during 4 years of investigation. The strongest relationship was established between barley grain yield and content of available potassium in the soil in 0-25 cm layer (r = 0.84 - 0.88, P < 0.01).

Key words: effect of agricultural systems, spring barley, available phosphorus, available potassium, correlation, dependence.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 3, 83, 31-39

UDK 631.445.2:631.8:631.46

DIRVOÞEMIO BIOLOGINIO AKTYVUMO IR SËJOMAINOS PRODUKTYVUMO POKYÈIAI NUO ILGALAIKIO TRÆÐIMO

Kristina GRIGALIÛNIENË, Jonas KUÈINSKAS, Danguolë ZAKARAUSKAITË

Lietuvos þemës ûkio uni

versitetas

Akademija, Kauno rajonas

El. paðtas:

danguole@nora.lzua.lt

Santrauka

Lietuvos þemës ûkio universiteto Bandymø stotyje 1966 metais karbonatingame sekliai glëjiðkame iðplautþemyje (

Calc(ar)i-Epihypogleyic Luvisol) árengti du daugiameèiai træðimo bandymai. Straipsnyje pateikta 1999-2002 metø (IX rotacija) tyrimø duomenys apie ilgalaikio træðimo skirtingomis mineraliniø ir organiniø tràðø normomis bei jø deriniais poveiká dirvoþemio biologiniam aktyvumui ir sëjomainos augalø produktyvumui.

Atliktø tyrimø duomenimis, þemës ûkio augalø træðimas mineralinëmis ar organinëmis tràðomis bei jø deriniais didino jø derliø ir dirvoþemio biologiná aktyvumà, taèiau didelio skirtumo tarp ðiø bandymø neiðryðkëjo. Pirmame bandyme, augalus kasmet patræðus vien tik NPK deriniu, ið esmës padidëjo þemës ûkio augalø derlius ir dirvoþemio fermentø aktyvumas, kvëpavimo intensyvumo kitimas neiðryðkëjo. Antrame bandyme N

315P200K300 ir 100 t ha-1 mëðlo normos dirvoþemio biologiná aktyvumà didino labiausiai, didþiausias – 57 % derliaus priedas per ketveriø metø rotacijà gautas augalus patræðus 50 t ha-1 mëðlo ir mineralinëmis N150P160K300 tràðomis.

Þemës ûkio augalø derlius, iðreikðtas apykaitos energija, labiausiai koreliavo su ureazës aktyvumu. Auginant javus, didesnis buvo ureazës, auginant daugiametes þoles – sacharozës ir dehidrogenaziø aktyvumas, mieþius – kvëpavimo intensyvumas. Stiprus koreliacinis santykis gautas tarp hidrolaziø aktyvumo ir bendrojo azoto kiekio bei tarp

sacharazës aktyvumo ir judriojo kalio kiekio dirvoþemyje, vidutinis – tarp dehidrogenaziø aktyvumo ir judriojo fosforo kiekio.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: mineralinës ir organinës tràðos, fermentø aktyvumas, dirvoþemio kvëpavimo intensyvumas.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 3, 83, 31-39

UDK 631.445.2:631.8:631.46

CHANGES IN SOIL BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY AND CROP ROTATION PRODUCTIVITY IN RELATION TO LONG-TERM FERTILIZATION

K. Grigaliûnienë, J. Kuèinskas, D. Zakarauskaitë

Summary

Two long-term trials were established on a Calc(ar)i-Epihypogleyic Luvisol at the Experimental Station of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture in 1966. Experimental data of the period 1999-2002 show the impact of long-term mineral and organic fertilization and its combinations on biological activity of soil and crop productivity.

Experimental findings suggest that fertilization of agricultural crops with mineral or organic fertilizers and their combinations increased the yield and biological activity of soil, however, no significant difference was observed between these trials of fertilization. In the trial I annual application of only NPK fertilizers significantly increased enzymes activity in the soil and the crop productivity, but no effect was observed on soil respiration intensity. In trial II biological soil activity was mostly influenced by the application rate of N315P200K300 fertilizers and 100 t ha-1 of manure per crop rotation, but the highest (57 %) crop yield increase was in the soil applied with 50 t ha-1 manure and N150P160K300.

The crop productivity was strongly correlated with urease activity. Urease activity was higher under growing of grain crops, saccharase and dehydrogenases – under perennial grasses, soil respiration intensity under spring barley. The strong relationship between hydrolases activity and the amount of total nitrogen and between the amount of available potassium and saccharase activity was obtained. A significant relationship was observed between the amount of available phosphorus in the soil and dehydrogenases activity.

Key words: mineral and organic fertilizers, enzyme activities, soil respiration intensity.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 3, 83, 40-51

UDK 631.51:633.16:631.4

ILGAMEÈIO ARIMO IR BEPLÛGIO ÞEMËS DIRBIMO ÁTAKA DIRVOÞEMIUI IR VASARINIØ MIEÞIØ PASËLIUI

Antanas STANCEVIÈIUS, Darija Jodaugienë, Nijolë ÐPOKIENË,

Steponas RAUDONIUS, Kostas TREÈIOKAS

Lietuvos þemës ûkio universitetas

Akademija, Kauno rajonas

El. paðtas:

afze@nora.lzua.lt

Santrauka

Ilgametis arimas ir beplûgis þemës dirbimas palyginti bandyme, árengtame 1988 m. LÞÛU Bandymø stotyje drenuotame lengvo priemolio ant priesmëlio, paklotu moreniniu moliu giliau glëjiðkame pasotintame palvaþemyje (

Endohypogleyic-Eutric Planosol – Ple-gln-w). Bandymas darytas ðeðialaukëje sëjomainoje: vasariniai mieþiai su daugiameèiø þoliø ásëliu, I naudojimo metø daugiametës þolës, II naudojimo metø daugiametës þolës, þieminiai kvieèiai, paðariniai runkeliai, vasariniai rapsai. Straipsnyje pateikiami 1995-2000 m. tyrimø duomenys.

Nustatyta, kad gilø arimà (23-25 cm) pakeitus sekliu (12-14 cm) arba giliu (23-25 cm) bei sekliu (12-14 cm) beplûgiu þemës dirbimu, dirvos tankis ir drëgnumas skirtingais mieþiø vystymosi tarpsniais ið esmës nepakito. Viena ið prieþasèiø yra ta, kad atsisakius arimo ir taikant beplûgá þemës dirbimà, gausëjo sliekø (kiekis padidëjo 23,4-53,4 %, biomasë – 18,3-62,7 %), kurie iðpureno dirvoþemá ir neleido jam sutankëti.

Po dviejø sëjomainos rotacijø dirvoþemio armuo diferencijavosi pagal maisto medþiagø kieká á virðutiná (0-15 cm) derlingesná ir apatiná (15-25 cm) maþiau derlingà sluoksnius. Ryðkiausia armens sluoksniø diferenciacija pasireiðkë naudojant beplûgá þemës dirbimà: humuso kiekio skirtu

mas tarp virðutinio ir apatinio armens sluoksniø – 2,0-7,5 %, judriojo fosforo – 33,3-45,0 %, judriojo kalio – 43,7-47,6 %. Maisto medþiagø kiekis visame armenyje po dviejø sëjomainos rotacijø didesnis buvo supaprastinus þemës dirbimà: humuso – 2,0-5,0 %, fosforo – 6,5-11,1 %, kalio – 10,3-15,5 %.

Supaprastinus þemës dirbimà, piktþoliø masë mieþiø pasëlyje vidutiniðkai padidëjo 15,1-26,0 %. Taikant seklø arimà ir beplûgá þemës dirbimà energijos sànaudos maþëjo atitinkamai 3,1 % ir 10,9-13,1 %, o energijos efektyvumas didëjo – 2,2 % ir 8,9-10,9 %.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: arimas, beplûgis þemës dirbimas, mieþiø pasëlis, agrofizikinës ir agrocheminës dirvoþemio savybës, piktþolëtumas, energijos efektyvumas, CO

2 emisija.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 3, 83, 40-51

UDK 631.51:633.16:631.4

THE INFLUENCE OF LONG-TERM PLOUGHING AND PLOUGHLESS SOIL TILLAGE ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND SPRING BARLEY CROP

A. Stancevièius, D. Jodaugienë, N. Ðpokienë, S. Raudonius, K. Treèiokas

Summary

Long-term ploughing and ploughless soil tillage were investigated in a field experiment setup in 1988 at the Experimental Station of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture on a drained medium loam Endohypogleyic-Eutric Planosol – Ple- gln-w soil. A six-course crop rotation was applied: spring barley + undersown clover and timothy, perennial grasses of the 1st year, perennial grasses of the 2nd year, winter wheat, fodder beet, spring rape. Data from 1995-2000 are presented in this paper.

Our findings suggest that shallow (12-14 cm) and deep (23-25 cm) ploughing or shallow ploughless soil tillage had no significant effect on soil bulk density and soil moisture content at different growth stages of spring barley, compared with conventional ploughing. One of the reasons is that the amount of earthworms was greater (number by 23-53 %, biomass by 18-63 %) when reduced soil tillage, especially ploughless soil tillage, had been used. Earthworms loosened the soil and protected it from compaction.

After two crop rotations arable horizon according to nutrient content differentiated into upper more fertile and lower less fertile layers. The highest fertility differentiation of arable horizon was in ploughless tillage plots: the difference in humus content between upper and lower layers was 2.0-7.5 %, mobile phosphorus – 33.3-45.0 %, mobile potassium – 43.7-47.6 %. After two crop rotations nutrient content in all arable horizon was higher when reduced soil tillage had been applied, compared with conventional ploughing: humus – by 2.0-5.0 %, phosphorus – by 6.5-11.1 %, potassium – by 10.3-15.5 %.

Long-term reduced soil tillage increased weed infestation (15.1-26.0 %) in barley crop. Shallow ploughing and ploughless soil tillage enabled to decrease energy input (3.1 % and 10.9-13.1 %, respectively) and to increace energy efficiency (2.2 % and 8.9-10.9 %, respectively).

Key words: ploughing, ploughless soil tillage, barley crop, agrophysical and agrochemical soil properties, weediness, energy effectiveness, CO2 emission.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 3, 83, 52-65

UDK 631.416.4:631.442.4:633:631.559

KALIS SMËLINGO IR DULKIÐKO PRIEMOLIO DIRVOÞEMYJE IR JO VAIDMUO AUGALAMS

Jonas ARBAÈIAUSKAS

1, Zigmas VAIÐVILA, Virginijus BUTKUS2,

Arûnas BALTUÐNIKAS

3

1

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Savanoriø pr.287, Kaunas

El. paðtas:

lzi_atc@euteka.lt

2

Lietuvos þemës ûkio universitetas

Akademija, Kauno rajonas

El. paðtas: af@nora.lt

3

Kauno technologijos universitetas

Radvilënø pl. 19, Kaun

as

El. paðtas:

abalt@isag.lei.lt

Santrauka

Þemës ûkio augalø træðimo bandymai lauko sëjomainoje buvo daryti Vidurio Lietuvos þemumos moreninës kilmës smëlingo ir Nemuno þemupio limnoglacialinës kilmës dulkiðko priemolio rudþemiuose.

Atliktø tyrimø duomenimis, molio (< 0,002 mm) daleliø smëlingame priemolyje rasta 9,1, o dulkiðkame – 18,5 %. Kalio mineralo muskovito-2 ðioje tirtø dirvoþemiø frakcijoje rasta atitinkamai maþai ir vidutiniðkai. Be to, smëlingame ir dulkiðkame priemoliuose nustatyti maþi ir labai maþi montmorilonito bei labai maþi kalio aliuminio sulfato kiekiai. Grinalito yra atitinkamai maþai ir vidutiniðkai, o kvarco – labai daug ir daug.

Dulkiðkame priemolyje esant gausesniam kalio mineralø kiekiui, j

ame nustatyta net 624 mg kg-1 (V = 8,5 %) nemainø kalio, o smëlingame dirvoþemyje ðios formos kalio rasta tik 153 mg kg-1 (V = 19,8 %). Judriojo kalio A-L metodu ðiuose dirvoþemiuose rasta atitinkamai 58 mg kg-1 (V = 10,4 %) ir 87 mg kg-1 (V = 9,6 %), o Skofildo metodu – 9,2 mg kg-1 (V = 17,4 %) ir 13,4 mg kg-1 (V = 10,4 %). Tarp judriojo kalio, nustatyto A-L metodu, ir nemainø kalio kiekiø smëlingame dirvoþemyje koreliacinio priklausomumo santykis gautas h = 0,56; o dulkiðkame – h = 0,44; tarp kalio, nustatyto Skofildo metodu, ir nemainø kalio atitinkamai – h = 0,54-0,58; o tarp Skofildo ir A-L metodais nustatytø ðio elemento kiekiø – h = 0,66 ir h = 0,62.

Dirvoje esant beveik vienodam A-L metodu nustatytam judriojo kalio kiekiui, kalio tràðos, sàveikoje su vidutinëmis azoto ir fosforo tràðø normomis, dulkiðko priemolio dirvoþemyje þieminiø kvieèiø ir cukriniø runkeliø derliaus nepadidino, o vasariniø mieþiø ir vienameèiø þoliø derlius padidëjo ið esmës. Tuo tarpu smëlingo priemolio dirvoþemyje ðiø visø aug

alø derlius dël kalio tràðø ið esmës padidëjo.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: dirvoþemis, mineraloginë sudëtis, kalio formos, derlius.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 3, 83, 52-65

UDK 631.416.4:631.442.4:633:631.559

POTASSIUM IN A SANDY SILTY LOAM SOIL AND ITS ROLE ON CROPS

J. Arbaèiauskas, Z. Vaiðvila, V. Butkus, A. Baltuðnikas

Summary

A series of crop fertilization experiments was carried out in a field crop rotation established on an Epicalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol on moraine sandy loam in Central Lithuania and on a glacial lacustrine silty loamy soil in the Lower Nemunas.

According to the experimental results the content of clay particles (< 0.002 mm) in sandy loam accounted for 9.1 %, and in silty loam for 18.5 %. Small and medium contents of potassium mineral muscovite-2 were found in this fraction of the investigated soils. Furthermore, very small and small contents of montmorilonite and potassium aluminium sulphate were identified in sandy and silty loam. Greenalite content in these soils was found to be small and medium respectively, while that of quarts very large and large.

In a silty loam soil, with a higher content of potassium minerals the amount of non-exchangeable potassium identified in the topsoil was as high as 624 mg kg-1 (V = 8.5 %), while as little as 153 mg kg-1 (V = 19,8 %) of this potassium form was found in a sandy loam soil. The content of plant available potassium (determined by the A-L method) identified in those soils was 58 mg kg-1 (V = 10.4 %) and 87 mg kg-1 (V = 9.6 %), respectively. Moreover, the amount of available potassium (by Scofild’s method) in sandy and silty loamy soils was identified to be 9.2 mg kg-1 (V = 17.4 %) and 13.4 mg kg-1, respectively.

The correlation ratio between the content of potassium determined by the A-L method and the content of non-exchangeable potassium in sandy and silty loamy soils was h = 0.56 and 0.44, respectively, while that between the content of potassium determined by the Scofild’s method and the content of this element in the non-exchangeable form in both soils was almost the same h = 0.54-0.58. The correlation between the content of available potassium, determined by the Scofild’s and A-L methods in sandy and silty loamy soils was h = 0.66 and h = 0.62, respectively.

It was ascertained that fertilization with potassium in combination with moderate rates of nitrogen and phosphorus in sandy loamy soil significantly increased the yield of winter wheat, sugar beet, spring barley and annual grasses. However, the application of potassium fertilizers on a silty loamy soil did not increase the yield of winter wheat and sugar beet.

Key words: soil, mineralogical composition, potassium forms, yield.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 3, 83, 66-76

UDK 631.147:631.41

EKOLOGINËS ÞEMDIRBYSTËS ÛKIØ DIRVOÞEMIØ AGROCHEMINËS SAVYBËS IR JØ KAITA

Jonas MAÞVILA

1, Juozas PEKARSKAS2, Jonas ARBAÈIAUSKAS1,

1

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Savanoriø pr.287, Kaunas

El. paðtas: lzi_atc@euteka.lt

2

Lietuvos þemës ûkio universitetas

Akademija, Kauno rajonas

El. paðtas:

DA@nora.lzua.lt

Santrauka

Ekologinës þemdirbystës ûkiø dirvoþemiø agrochemines savybes LÞI Agrocheminiø tyrimø centro darbuotojai tyrë 1999-2002 metais. Nustatyta, kad ðiø ûkiø dirvoþemiø sukultûrinimas daþnai yra nepakankamas geram þemës ûkio augalø derliui uþauginti. Sàlyginai rûgðèios reakcijos plotø (pH < 5,5) daugiausia (26,0 %) rasta Vakarø Lietuvoje. Nemaþai rûgðèios reakcijos dirvoþemiø yra ir Rytø Lietuvoje – 20,

8 %. Vidurio Lietuvoje tirtuose ekologinës þemdirbystës ûkiuose tokiø dirvoþemiø tik 5,5 %. Judriojo fosforo pakankamai (> 150 mg kg-1) yra tik 26,2 % tirtø Lietuvos ekologinës þemdirbystës ûkiø dirvoþemiø. Maþo fosforingumo (iki 100 mg kg-1) yra net 46,5 %. Daugiausia tokiø dirvø rasta Vakarø (52,2 %) ir Rytø (50,8 %) Lietuvoje. Judriojo kalio dirvoþemiuose yra daugiau negu fosforo. Maþo kalingumo nustatyta 16,0 %, o vyrauja pakankamo (> 150 mg kg-1) ir vidutinio (101-150 mg kg-1) kalingumo dirvoþemiai. Labai maþo ir maþo humusingumo dirvoþemiø ðalies ekologinës þemdirbystës ûkiuose yra 52,4 %, o Rytø Lietuvoje jø net 60,9 %.

Iðtyrus ekologinio ûkininkavimo átakà dirvoþemio agrocheminëms savybëms nustatyta, kad organinës anglies, humuso, judriojo fosforo ir kalio kiekis labiau sumaþëjo sëjomainoje auginant ankðtinius augalus nei sëjomainoje, kur buvo naudotos organinës tràðos.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: ekologinës þemdirbystës ûkiai, dirvoþemis, humusas, dirvoþemio reakcija, fosforas, kalis.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 3, 83, 66-76

UDK 631.147:631.41

AGROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND THEIR VARIATION IN THE FARMS INVOLVED IN ECOLOGICAL PRODUCTION

J. Maþvila, J. Pekarskas, J. Arbaèiauskas

Summary

Agrochemical soil properties of the farms involved in ecological production were investigated by the employees of LIA Agrochemical Research Centre during the period 1999-2002. Experimental evidence suggests that the fertility of such soils is insufficient to secure a high yield of agricultural crops. The largest number of plots (26.0 %) with conditionally acid reaction (pH < 5.5) was identified in Western Lithuania. Acid soils account for 20.8 % of East Lithuania’s soils. In Middle Lithuania such soils account for as little as 5.5 % of the farms involved in ecological production. A sufficient content of available phosphorus (> 150 mg kg-1) was identified only in 26.2 % of the investigated soils exposed to ecological farming practices. A low content of phosphorus (to 100 mg kg-1) was identified in 46.5 % of the investigated soils. Most of such soils were found in West (52.2 %) and East (50.8 %) Lithuania. The content of available potassium in the soil is higher compared with phosphorus. The soils with a low potassium content account for 16.0 %, whereas the soils with sufficient (> 150 mg kg-1) and moderate (101-150 mg kg-1) potassium contents predominate. The soils with very low and low humus contents account for 52.4 % in the farms involved in ecological production, and in East Lithuania they account for as much as 60.9 %.

Findings of investigation of the effects of ecological farming on soil agrochemical properties indicate that a more marked reduction in the contents of organic carbon, humus, available phosphorus and potassium occurred in the crop rotation involving legumes, compared with the crop rotation involving organic fertilisation.

Key words: farms involved in ecological production, soils, humus, soil reaction, phosphorus, potassium.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 3, 83, 7

7-95

UDK 631.442.4:631.417.2:63.582:631.86

SUNKAUS PRIEMOLIO DIRVOÞEMIO FIZIKINIØ SAVYBIØ GERINIMAS ÁVAIRIOS KILMËS ORGANINËMIS MEDÞIAGOMIS

Stanislava MAIKÐTËNIENË

1, Alvyra ÐLEPETIENË2

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

1

Joniðkëlis, Pasvalio rajonas

El. paðtas: joniskelio_lzi@post.omnitel.net

2

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. paðtas: alvyra@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Limnoglacialinës kilmës sunkiuose dirvoþemiuose molio daleliø > 0,002 mm gausumas – 27 % armenyje lemia dideles sorbcines galimybes ir didelá potencialø derlingumà, taip pat blogas fizikines savybes – lipnumà ir kietumà, sudaranèias sudëtingas technologines auginimo sàlygas. LÞI Joniðkëlio bandymø stoties giliau karbonatinguose giliau glëjiðkuose rudþemiuose 1986-2002 metais tirta, kokià átakà dirvoþemio fizikinëms savybëms, humuso kiekio susikaupimui bei sëjomainos augalø produktyvumui daro ávairios organinës medþiagos – ðalutinë augalø produkcija (ðiaudai, dobilø atolas, runkeliø lapai) ir tarpiniuose pasëliuose augintø augalø – baltøjø gars

tyèiø (Sinapis alba L.), gausiaþiedþiø svidriø (Lolium multiflorum Lamk.) ir vasariniø rapsø (Brassica napus L.) biomasë, áterpta þaliajai tràðai. Didþiausius teigiamus pokyèius humuso kiekiui ir kokybei turëjo skirtingos cheminës sudëties augalø ðalutinës produkcijos áterpimas – optimaliai iðlaikytas humifikacijos ir mineralizacijos procesø intensyvumas. Tarpiniuose pasëliuose auginti augalai turëjo dirvosauginæ reikðmæ: maþiausias dirvoþemio tankis – 1,32 g cm3 ir didþiausias poringumas – 48,6 % susiformavo áterpus þaliajai tràðai vasariniø rapsø. Vertingø > 0,25 mm ir agronominiu poþiûriu vertingiausiø – 1-3 mm agregatø daugiau buvo ten, kur þaliajai tràðai buvo áterptos gausiaþiedës svidrës – skirtumas, palyginus su kontroliniu variantu (40 t ha-1 mëðlo), sudarë atitinkamai 16,0 ir 24,3 %. Didþiausias sëjomainos vidutinio metinio derliaus priedas gautas áterpus vasariniø rapsø, mëðlo 80 t ha-1 ir gausiaþiedþiø svidriø, kas, palyginus su kontroliniu variantu, sudarë atitinkamai 11 %, 4,8 % ir 4,0 %.

Reikðm

iniai þodþiai: glëjiðkas rudþemis, organinës tràðos, humusas ir jo kokybë, fizikinës savybës, sëjomaina.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 3, 83, 77-95

UDK 631.442.4:631.417.2:63.582:631.86

AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES INTENDED FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF HEAVY LOAM SOILS

S. Maikðtënienë, A.Ðlepetienë

Summary

In heavy soils of limnoglacial origin the content of clay particles > 0.002 mm amounting to 27 % determines a great sorption capacity and a high potential producti

vity in the plough layer, and at the same time poor physical properties, such as adhesiveness and hardness, which result in complex technological conditions. At the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s Joniðkëlis Research Station experiments were carried out on clay loam Endocalcari – Endohypogleyic Cambisol during 1986-2002 with a view to identifying the effects of various organic matter – plant by-produce (straw, clover aftermath, beet leaves) and biomass of catch crops – white mustard (Sinapis alba L.), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lamk), and spring rape (Brassica napus L.) introducing for green manure, on soil physical properties, humus accumulation in the soil and crop productivity. Experimental evidence suggests that incorporation of plant by-produce differing in chemical composition had the greatest positive effect on humus accumulation and its quality. The lowest soil bulk density 1.32 g cm-3 formed after spring rape incorporation for green manure. Valuable > 0.25 mm and agronomically most valuable 1-3 mm aggregates were identified in the treatments where Italian ryegrass was grown and was incorporated for green manure. Compared with the check treatment, the difference amounted to 16.0 and 24.3 %, respectively. The largest increase in average annual yield of the crop rotation was obtained having incorporated spring rape, 80 t ha-1 farmyard manure and Italian ryegrass, which totalled 11 %, 4.8 % and 4.0 %, respectively, compared with the check treatment (40 t ha-1 FYM).

Key words: gleyic cambisol, organic fertilisers, humus and its quality, physical properties, crop rotation plants.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 3, 83, 96-110

UDK 631.8:631.442.4

SKIRTINGO INTENSYVUMO TRÆÐIMO SISTEMØ EFEKTYVUMAS SUNKIAME DIRVOÞEMYJE

Irena KRIÐTAPONYTË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Joniðkëlis, Pasvalio rajonas

El. paðtas:

joniskelio_lzi@post.omnitel.net

Santrauka

1996-2000 m. Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Joniðkëlio bandymø stotyje sunkaus priemolio ant dulkiðko molio giliau karbonatingame giliau glëjiðkame rudþemyje (RD

g 4-k2) tirta skirtingø træðimo sistemø – mineralinës, organinës ir organinës-mineralinës – átaka dirvoþemio agrocheminiø savybiø pokyèiams, augalø derliui, jo kokybei, sëjomainos produktyvumui bei maisto medþiagø ûkiniam balansui. Taikant organinæ-mineralinæ træðimo sistemà organinëmis tràðomis (mëðlu) 40, 60 ir 80 t ha-1, o taikant organinæ – 80 t ha-1 træðti cukriniai runkeliai vienà kartà per rotacijà. Sëjomainoje auginant cukrinius runkelius, vasarinius mieþius, I naudojimo metø ir II naudojimo metø daugiametes þoles ir þieminius kvieèius mineralinëje træðimo sistemoje vidutinë metinë mineraliniø tràðø norma buvo N56P48K60, dirvoþemio armens humusingumas liko artimas pradiniam, fosforingumas padidëjo 5,0 mg kg-1, kalingumas sumaþëjo 3,0 mg kg-1, palyginus su pradiniu jø kiekiu, sëjomainos augalø produktyvumas padidëjo 52,3 %, palyginus su netræðtu variantu. Organinëje træðimo sistemoje áterpiant vien 80 t ha-1 mëðlo, palyginus su mineraline træðimo sistema dirvoþemio armens humusingumas padidëjo 0,12 proc. vnt., fosforingumas – 26,0 mg kg-1 ir kalingumas – 31,0 mg kg-1. Ðioje sistemoje augalø produktyvumas, palyginus su netræðtais augalais, padidëjo 32,2 %, taèiau, palyginus su mineraline træðimo sistema, sumaþëjo 13,2 %. Organinëje – mineralinëje træðimo sistemoje, áterpiant 40, 60 ir 80 t ha-1 mëðlo ir NPK tràðø tiek, kiek mineralinëje træðimo sistemoje, dirvoþemio humusingumas padidëjo atitinkamai 0,18; 0,24 ir 0,21 proc. vnt., fosforingumas – 41,0; 61,0 ir 61,0 mg kg-1, kalingumas – 36,0; 46,0 ir 54,0 mg kg-1, o sëjomainos augalø produktyvumas – 5,8; 7,1 ir 7,3 %, palyginus su mineraline træðimo sistema.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: sunkaus priemolio rudþemis, træðimo sistemos, dirvoþemio humusingumas, maisto medþiagø balansas.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 3, 83, 96-110

UDK 631.8:631.442.4

EFFICACY OF FERTILIZATION SYSTEMS DIFFERRING IN INTENSITY ON A HEAVY SOIL

I. Kriðtaponytë

Summary

Experiments were carried out over the period 1996-2000 at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s Joniðkëlis Ex

perimental Station on a heavy loam soil (Endocalcari Endohypogleyic Cambisol (CMg-n-w-can) with a view to investigating the effects of different fertilization systems – mineral, organic and organic-mineral on the variation of soil agrochemical properties, crop yield, its quality, crop rotation productivity, and on the farm nutrient balance. In the organic-mineral fertilization system organic fertilizers (farmyard manure) 40, 60 and 80 t ha-1, and in the organic system 80 t ha-1 were applied once per rotation to sugar beet. In the crop rotation with sugar beet, spring barley, perennial legumes grasses of the 1st and 2nd years of use and winter wheat in the mineral fertilization system, an average annual mineral fertilizer rate was N56P48K60, the soil humus content remained close to the initial, phosphorus (P2O5) content increased by 5.0 mg kg-1, potassium (K2O) content declined by 3.0 mg kg-1, compared with the initial level, crop rotation productivity increased by 52.3 %, compared with unfertilized treatment. In the organic fertilization system application of only 80 t ha-1 of farmyard manure, compared with mineral fertilization system, resulted in a humus content increase in the plough layer by 0.12 percentage units, phosphorus content by 26.0 mg kg-1 and potassium content by 31.0 mg kg-1. In this system the crop productivity, compared with unfertilized crops, increased by 32.2 %, however, compared with mineral fertilization system, declined by 13.2 %. In the organic-mineral fertilization system application of 40, 60 and 80 t ha-1 of farmyard manure and NPK fertilizers as much as in the mineral fertilization system resulted in the following increases – soil humus content by 0.18; 0.24 and 0.21 percentage units respectively, phosphorus content by 41.0; 61.0 and 61.0 mg kg-1, potassium content by 36.0; 46.0 and 54.0 mg kg-1, and crop rotation productivity by 5.8; 7.1 and 7.3 %, compared with the mineral fertilization system.

Key words: heavy loam brown soil, fertilization systems, soil humus content, nutrient balance.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 3, 83, 111-125

UDK 631.445.24:631.41.631.415.1

AGROCHEMINIØ RODIKLIØ, PASËLIØ PIKTÞOLËTUMO IR SËJOMAINOS PRODUKTYVUMO KITIMAS ÁVAIRIAI KALKINTAME IR TRÆÐTAME DIRVOÞEMYJE

Dalija Èiuberkienë, Steponas Èiuberkis, Donatas Konèius

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

El. paðtas: stepas@vezaiciai.lzi.lt

Santrauka

Straipsnyje apibendrinti LÞI Vëþaièiø filiale vykdomo ilgalaikio stacionarinio daugiafaktorinio lauko bandymo penktos sëjomainos rotacijos (1996-2000 m.) tyrimø duomenys apie dirvoþemio agrocheminiø rodikliø, sëjomainos produktyvumo, pasëliø piktþolëtumo kitimà derinant skirtingas mineraliniø tràðø normas ávairaus rûgðtumo dirvoþemyje.

Po ketvirtos rotacijos

(1995 m.) papildomai pakalkinus skirtingo rûgðtumo ávairiai træðtà dirvoþemá, jo rûgðtumas kitø metø rudená buvo maþesnis 0,2-0,4 pH vieneto. Per penkerius penktos rotacijos metus tø paèiø laukeliø dirvoþemis vël parûgðtëjo 0,2-0,3 pH vieneto. Rûgðtëjant dirvoþemiui, didëjo hidrolizinis ir mainø rûgðtumas, maþëjo bazëmis pasotinimo laipsnis. Skirtingas dirvoþemio rûgðtumas neturëjo esminës átakos judriøjø fosforo ir kalio kiekiø kitimui. Intensyvinant træðimà mineralinëmis tràðomis, didëjo judriøjø fosforo ir kalio kiekiai ávairaus rûgðtumo dirvoþemyje.

Periodiðkai kalkinant ir træðiant, agrocheminës savybës pagerëjo ne tik virðutiniuose, bet ir gilesniuose dirvoþemio sluoksniuose – iki 40-60 cm gylio.

Kintant dirvoþemio rûgðtumui nuo pH 4,0 iki 6,4, pasëliuose piktþoliø skaièius sumaþëjo 47,7-57,9 %, o jø masë – 63 %. Intensyvinant pasëliø træðimà mineralinëmis tràðomis, didëjo ne tik piktþoliø skaièius, bet ir jø masë. Didþiausias augalø derlius per rotacijà gautas patræðus triguba mineraliniø tràðø norma

esant faktiniam pHKCl 6,0-6,4.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: dirvoþemio rûgðtumas, kalkinimas, træðimas, dirvoþemio profilis, sëjomaina, derlius, piktþolës.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 3, 83, 111-125

UDK 631.445.24:631.41.631.415.1

CHANGES in SOIL AGROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES, WEED FLORA AND PRODUCTIVITY OF THE CROP ROTATION IN DIFFERENTLY LIMED AND FERTILIZED SOILS

D. Èiuberkienë, S. Èiuberkis, D. Konèius

Summary

This paper presents summarized results of the fifth crop rotation (1996-2000) of the long-term multiple-factor field trial. The aim of the trial was to investigate the changes in soil agrochemical properties, productivity of the crop rotation, and weed flora in a differently limed and fertilized soil.

Extra liming after the fourth crop rotation (1995) resulted in the decline in the soil pH in the following autumn (1996) by 0.2-0.4 pH units. During a five-year period the soil acidifed by 0.2-0.3 pH units. Increasing soil acidity increased the hydrolytic and exchange acidity, decreased the base saturation percentage. Different soil pH levels had no fundamental effect on the contents of available phosphorus and potassium in the soil during the fifth crop rotation. Their content increased with increasing fertilization intensity in different soil reaction levels.

Intensive periodical liming and fertilization improved soil agrochemical properties up to 40-60 cm depth.

Changes in the soil reaction from pH 4.0 to pH 6.4 reduced the total number of weeds by 48-58 % and their mass by 63 %. With increasing mineral fertilization increased the total number of weeds and their mass. The highest crop yield 53.8 GJ in the fifth rotation was obtained at the level of pHKCl 6.0-6.4 at the highest mineral fertilization rate – 3 NPK.

Key words: soil reaction, liming, fertilization, soil profile, crop rotation, yield, weeds.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 3, 83, 126-143

UDK 631.41+631.471

DIRVOÞEMIO AGROCHEMINIØ TYRIMØ DUOMENØ SKAITMENINIO KARTOGRAFAVIMO GIS PRIEMONËMIS GALIMYBËS

Laur

a MIKAJELIAN, Dalia FEIZIENË, Ðarûnas ANTANAITIS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. paðtas:

laura@lzi.lt; daliaf@lzi.lt; asarunas@centras.lt

Santrauka

Teminiø þemëlapiø parengimas vartotojams – viena ið pagrindiniø GIS funkcijø. Bendros automatizuotos georeferencinës Lietuvos dirvoþemiø duomenø bazës sudarymas (LTdDB) ir/ar jos ájungimas á Lietuvos dirvoþemio ir þemës iðtekliø integruotà geoinformacinæ sistemà leistø garantuoti bendrà ir efektyvø gautø dirvoþemio tyrimø duomenø naudojimà. Darbo tikslas – ávertinti realias geografinës informacinës sistemos (GIS) taikymo galimybes, sukuriant agro

cheminiø dirvoþemio savybiø (pH, judriøjø P2O5 ir K2O) duomenø tinklà konkreèiame LÞI sëjomainø plote ir parengti teminius þemëlapius vartotojams. Metodinës informacijos apibendrinimas ir minëto duomenø tinklo sudarymas leidþia padaryti tokias iðvadas. Beveik visa dirvoþemio tyrimø medþiaga iki ðiol nëra susieta su Lietuvos koordinaèiø sistema LKS-94 ir tai ámanoma atlikti tik skenavus ir vektorizuojant 1:10 000 mastelio dirvoþemiø þemëlapius bei svarbiausias kartogramas ar bandymø vykdymo vietas. GIS pagalba galima sudaryti þemëlapius dirvoþemio tyrimø duomenims atvaizduoti bei juos analizuoti, t.y. spræsti svarbius mûsø ðaliai klausimus – dirvoþemiø kokybës, jo tausojimo bei ilgalaikio subalansuoto ûkininkavimo. GIS priemoniø taikymas LÞI sëjomainose iliustruoja vis didëjantá poreiká perþiûrëti træðimo planus ir koreguoti træðimo normas, siekiant iðauginti optimalø derliø ir sustabdyti dirvoþemio derlumo degradacijà.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: GIS, dirvoþemis, skaitmeninis kartografavimas, agrocheminiø duomenø bazë.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 3, 83, 126-143

UDK 631.41+631.471

FACILITIES FOR DIGITAL CARTOGRAPHYING OF THE AGROCHEMICAL SOIL DATABASE BY USING GIS

L. Mikajelian, D. Feizienë, Ð. Antanaitis

Summary

The preparation of specific thematic maps is the main function of GIS. The creation of a common automated georeferenced database and/or its envolving into integrated automated soil resources geoinformation database of Lithuania would let to ensure common and effective use of the data obtained. The goal of the investigations is to evaluate real possibilities of the geographical information systems (GIS) application for the creation the network of agrochemical soil properties (pH, mobile P2O5 and K2O) in the farmland area belonging to the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture (LIA) and also to prepare the specific thematic maps for a user. The evaluation of methodological information and creation of the above-mentioned network may lead to the following conclusions: almost all currently available soil data are not connected with the systems of co-ordinates LKS-94. It is possible to do that only in the case when soil maps at the scale 1:10 000, cartograms and experimental fields are scanned and vectorised. By means of GIS it is possible to create soil maps and to analyse data. The implementation of GIS in the evaluation of LIA crop rotations reveals the need to change the fertilization level for optimal crop yielding ability and to avoid soil fertility degradation.

Key words: GIS, soil, digital cartographying, agrochemical soil data base.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 3, 83, 144-158

UDK 633.2/.3:631.445.12

AUGALIJOS IR DIRVOÞEMIO POKYÈIAI ÁVAIRIAI NAUDOJANT ÞEMAPELKÆ

Elena PETRAITYTË, Aldona SVIRSKIENË, Alvyra ÐLEPETIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija,

Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. paðtas:

jonasgut@lzi.lt, alvyra@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Tyrimai daryti 1995-2001 m. Radviliðkio bandymø stotyje nenukastoje ir nukastoje þemapelkëse. Tirta: nenaudojama þemapelkë, netræðiamos daugiametës varpinës þolës, P

60K120 ir N120P60K120 træðiamos varpinës þolës, raudonøjø dobilø (Trifolium pratense L.) ir paðariniø motiejukø (Phleum pratense L.) miðinys bei sëjomainos laukas (bulvës, þieminiai rugiai, raudonieji dobilai). Didþiausià derliø – 5,9-7,1 t ha-1 sausøjø medþiagø – uþaugino varpinës þolës, træðiamos NPK nukastoje ir PK nenukastoje þemapelkëse. Bulviø derlius buvo maþas – 0,7-0,9 t ha-1, þieminiø rugiø – 1,9-3,3 t ha-1. Raudonieji dobilai þolyne iðsilaikë I ir II naudojimo metus. Nenukastoje þemapelkëje nenaudojamame variante per septynerius tyrimø metus (1995-2001 m.) priaugo daug pelkiniø karklø (Salix sp.), didþiøjø dilgëliø (Urtica dioica L.), karèiøjø kieèiø (Artemisia absinthium L.), nendriniø dryþuèiø (Typhoides arundinaceae L.), pelkiniø usniø (Circium palustre Scop.). Pakanka 3-4 metus nenaudoti nusausintos nenukastos þemapelkës pievos ir joje ásiveisia laukinë þolija bei ávairiø rûðiø karklai – pieva iðsigimsta. Ji nebetinka ûkiniam naudojimui – karklai 3-5 m aukðèio, diametras – 3-6 cm.

Per tyrimø laikotarpá durpþemio mikrobiologiniø, fizikiniø ir cheminiø savybiø pokyèiai, iðskyrus sëjomainos laukà, buvo nedideli. Sëjomainos lauke, palyginus su þolëmis, buvo aktyvesni dirvoþemio mikroorganizmai ir didesnis dirvoþemio tankis, maþiau organinës anglies ir judriøjø huminiø rûgðèiø.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: þemapelkë, varpinës þolës, sëjomaina, træðimas NPK, durpþemio cheminë sudëtis, organinës medþiagos, durpþemio biologinis aktyvumas.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 3, 83, 144-158

UDK 633.2/.3:631.445.12

CHANGES IN VEGETATION AND SOIL AS AFFECTED BY DIFFERENT USE OF A PEATY-BOG SOIL

E. Petraitytë, A. Svirskienë, A. Ðlepetienë

Summary

Experiments were carried out during the period 1995-2001 at the Radviliðkis Experimental Station on a peaty-bog soil with a non-removed and removed peat layer. The following was investigated: unused peaty-bog, unfertilised perennial grasses, P60K120 and N120P60K120 applied grasses, red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and timothy (Phleum pratense L.) mixture and crop rotation field (potatoes, winter rye, red clover). Grasses treated with NPK on a peaty-bog soil with a removed peat layer and those treated with PK on a peaty-bog soil with a non-removed peat layer gave the highest yield 5.9-7.1 t ha-1 dry matter. The yield of potatoes was low 0.7-0.9 t ha-1 and that of winter rye 1.9-3.3 t ha-1. Red clover persisted in the sward in the first and second years of use. A lot of willows (Salix sp.), nettles (Urtica dioica L.), Absinth wormwoods (Artemisia absinthium L.), reed canary grass plants (Typhoides arundinaceae L.), and thistles (Circium palustre Scop.) appeared in the unused treatment on the peaty-bog soil with a non-removed peat layer during the 7 experimental years (1995-2001). When a dried peaty-bog meadow with a non-removed peat layer was not used for 3-4 years, wild vegetation set in, which resulted in the degradation of the meadow. Such meadow with 3-5 m tall and 3-6 cm diameter willows would not fit for agricultural use. During the experimental period changes in microbiological, physical and chemical properties were small, except for the crop rotation field. A higher biological activity and bulk density and lower contents of organic carbon and mobile humic acids were identified in the crop rotation field compared with the soil under grasses.

Key words: peaty-bog soil, grass meadow, crop rotation, NPK fertilisation, chemical composition of peat soil, organic matter, biological activity of peat soil.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 3, 83, 159-172

UDK 576.851.155: 633.3

RHIZOBIUM LEGUMINOSARUM BV. TRIFOLII IR SINORHIZOBIUM MELILOTI

ÐTAMØ SIMBIOTINIO EFEKTYVUMO ÁVERTINIMAS

Edmundas LAPINSKAS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos raj

onas

El. paðtas:

filialas@vezaiciai.lzi.lt

Santrauka

Apibendrinti dobilø (

R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii F.) ir liucernø (S. meliloti D.) ðtamø simbiotinio efektyvumo daugiameèiø (1972-1999 m.) lauko, taip pat vegetaciniø ir laboratoriniø bandymø rezultatai.

Dirvoþemis – nepasotintasis giliau glëjiðkas balkðvaþemis (velëninis jaurinis glëjiðkas lengvas priemolis). Jo pH

KCl 4,7-6,4, bazëmis pasotinimo laipsnis – 58,0-95,4 %, humusingumas – 1,17-3,14 %, P (P2O5) – 60-220 ir K (K2O) – 60-322 mg kg-1 dirvoþemio.

Dobilø gumbeliniø bakterijø ðtamø efektyvumà nulëmë jø prisitaikymas aplinkos sàlygoms. Dël ekologiniu poþiûriu adaptuotø ðtamø R91, R74 ir R40 dobilø sausøjø medþiagø derlius padidëjo atitinkamai 0,91, 1,1

0 ir 1,61 t ha-1. Liucernø gumbeliniø bakterijø (S. meliloti) ðtamø veiksmingumas maþai priklausë nuo jø ekologinës adaptacijos.

Ekologiðkai adaptuoti dobilø bakterijø ðtamai iðaugino mitybinëse terpëse 13 % stambesnes kolonijas, iðsiskyrë 18 % didesniu fermento katalazës aktyvumu bakterijø biomasëje, augaluose suformavo 13 % daugiau gumbeliø, palyginus su neadaptuotais ðtamais.

Tarp liucernø gumbeliniø bakterijø ðtamø efektyvumo ir jø kolonijø dydþio mitybinëse terpëse bei augalo gumbeliø skaièiaus dësningumø nenustatyta.

Koreliacinës-regresinës analizës metodais nustatyti dësningumai tarp gumbeliniø bakterijø ðtamø efektyvumo ir aplinkos sàlygø: augalø vegetacijos laikotarpio drëgmës reþimo (HTK), dirvoþemio pH

KCl, bazëmis pasotinimo laipsnio, humusingumo, fosforingumo ir kalingumo.

Be to, nustatyta, kad dobilø ir liucernø gumbeliniø bakterijø ðtamai genetiðkai yra stabilûs ir jø simbiotinis efektyvumas nuo 1963 ir 1980 m. ið esmës nepakito – atitinkamai h

= 0,100-0,206 ir h = 0,009-0,202.

Reikðminiai

þodþiai: Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, ðtamai, simbiotinis efektyvumas, adaptacija, ekologinës sàlygos, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 3, 83, 159-172

UDK 576.851.155: 633.3

ASSESSMENT OF SYMBIOTIC EFFICIENCY OF RHIZOBIUM LEGUMINOSARUM BV. TRIFOLII AND SINORHIZOBIUM MELILOTI STRAINS

E. Lapinskas

Summary

This paper provides generalised results of symbiotic efficiency of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii and Sinorhizobium meliloti strains obtained under field, pot and laboratory conditions in the long-term (20 years) experiments.

The soil of the experimental site is Dystri-Endohypogleyic Albeluvisol – JIg4-n with the following characteristics pHKCl 4.7-6.4, base saturation 58.0-95.4 %, humus 1.17-3.14 %, labile phosphorus 60-220, potassium 60-322 mg kg-1.

The efficiency of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii strains was determined by their adaptation to the environmental conditions. The ecologically adapted strains R91, R74 and R40 increased the dry matter yield of clover by 0.91; 1.10 and 1.61 t ha-1, accordingly.

The efficiency of S. meliloti strains was little dependent on their ecological adaptation.

On the nutrient medium the adapted R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii strains produced 13 % larger colonies than the non-adapted strains and distinguished themselves by 18 % higher catalase activity in bacterial biomass.

No relationship was identified between the efficiency of S. meliloti strains and their colony size.

The inoculated plants in most cases formed more nodules on plant roots compared with the non-inoculated plants. A weak (h = 0.362*-0.372*) but sufficiently significant correlation was found between the efficiency of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii strains and the number of nodules.

Correlation – regression analysis revealed the regularities between the efficiency of Rhizobium strains and environmental conditions: the moisture regime of plant vegetative growth period (HTK), soil pHKCl , degree of base saturation, humus content, labile phosphorus and potassium.

The strains of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii demonstrated a more marked response to the increase in moisture content compared with S. meliloti strains. A medium strong correlation was established between the efficiency of clover Rhizobium and soil acidity. The soil base saturation and labile nutrients had a greater effect on the efficiency of S. meliloti strains, compared with the strains of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii. Furthermore, phosphorus in all cases was more effective than potassium.

Key words: Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, strains, symbiotic efficiency, adapted, ecological conditions, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 3, 83, 173-186

UDK 631.415.1:631.82:633.32:631.461.5

SIMBIOTINIO AZ

OTO FIKSAVIMO AKTYVUMAS SKIRTINGO RÛGÐTUMO ÁVAIRIAI TRÆÐTAME NEPASOTINTAME BALKÐVAÞEMYJE

Dalia AMBRAZAITIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

El.

paðtas: daliambr@hotmail.com; ekokat@gmf.ku.lt

Santrauka

1997-1999 m. buvo atlikti laboratoriniai gumbeliniø bakterijø virulentiðkumo, nitrogenazës aktyvumo ir dobilø vystymosi tyrimai skirtingo rûgðtumo ir nevienodo træðimo dirvoþemyje. Gumbeliniø bakterijø fermento aktyvumui antraisiais dobilø augimo metais statistiðkai reikðmingà poveiká turëjo organinis træðimas ir dirvoþemio rûgðtumas. Didesnis bendrojo azoto kiekis dirvoþemyje slopino gumbeliniø bakterijø virulentiðkumà (r = -0,42), o kore

liacijos koeficientø tarp dobiluose susikaupusio azoto ir fiksuojamo azoto kiekio kitimas nuo r = 0,41 mineralinëmis tràðomis netræðtuose dirvoþemiuose iki r = -0,42 mineralinëmis tràðomis træðtuose dirvoþemiuose, rodo, kad biologinis azotas augalø intensyviau naudojamas tuose dirvoþemiuose, kuriuose yra maþiau maisto medþiagø.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: gumbelinës bakterijos, dobilai, nitrogenazës aktyvumas, virulentiðkumas, dirvoþemio rûgðtumas, træðimas.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 3, 83, 173-186

UDK 631.415.1:631.82:633.32:631.461.5

ACTIVITY OF SYMBIOTIC NITROGEN FIXATION IN THE DYSTRIC ALBELUVISOLS DIFFERING IN ACIDITY AND FERTILIZATION

D. Ambrazaitienë

Summary

The aim of this study was to test the impact of soil chemical properties on the efficiency of the atmospheric nitrogen fixation in the system Rhizobium- clover. Native Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii

virulence and nitrogenase activity by acetylen reduction method was determined at the Vëþaièiai Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during 1997-1999. Different levels of soil acidity (pH < 4.75; 4.75-5.25; 5.75-6.25; < 6.75), mineral fertilizing (N0P0K0; N90P60K90) and organic fertilizing (without manure; 40 t ha-1 manure once for the crop rotation) were investigated in the Bathihypogleyi Dystric Albeluvisols and Dystric-Endohypostagnic Albeluvisols. It was determined that mineral fertilizing induced higher nitrogen fixation in the first year of clover growing, as well as the organic fertilizing and soil acidity had a statistically significant effect on the nitrogenase activity in the second year of clover growing. The large amounts of nitrogen in the soil suppressed the virulence of rhizobia (r = -0.42). Coefficients of correlation between total and fixed nitrogen in the clover biomass varied from r = 0.41 in the soils without mineral fertilizing to r = -0.42 in the soils with mineral fertilizing. It is obvious, that biological fixation was higher in the soils with a lower level of nutrients.

Key words: Rhizobium bacteria, clover, nitrogenase activity, virulence, soil acidity, fertilizing.

 

ISNN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 3, 83, 187-194

UDK 631.847.21

SIMBIOTINIO AZOTO FIKSAVIMO PRIKLAUSOMUMAS NUO TRÆÐIMO FOSFORU IR KALIU

Graþina PALAITYTË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Trakø Vokë, Vilnius

El. paðtas: gramlina@centras.lt

Santrauka

Straipsnyje pateikti Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filiale 1999-2002 m. vykdytø raudonøjø dobilø ir paðariniø þirniø træðimo ir azoto fiksavimo lauko bandymø duomenys.

Palankiausios sàlygos simbiotinio azoto fiksavimui buvo sudarytos træðiant augalus P

90K90 ir P120K120. Paðariniai þirniai, træðti 90 ir 120 kg ha-1 fosforo ir kalio tràðø normomis, simbiotinio azoto sukaupë 51-54 kg ha-1, raudonieji dobilai – 115-119 kg ha-1.

Net nuo maþø P

30K30 tràðø normø paðariniø þirniø ir raudonøjø dobilø þaliø baltymø kiekis padidëjo 15-23 %. Didþiausias þaliø baltymø 58-69 % priedas nustatytas paðarinius þirnius ir raudonuosius dobilus patræðus P120K120.

Efektyviausios raudonøjø dobilø fermento nitrogenazës aktyvumui buvo 120 kg ha-1 fosforo ir kalio tràðø normos – aktyvumas padidëjo nuo 10,49 (be tràðø) iki 40,36 m M N2 h-1 g-1, ðaknø gumbeliø skaièius – 2,4 karto, palyginus su netræðtais augalais.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: simbiotinis azoto fiksavimas, gumbelinës bakterijos, nitrogenazës aktyvumas.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 3, 83, 187-194

UDK 631.847.21

SYMBIOTIC NITROGEN FIXATION AS AFFECTED BY PHOSPHORUS AND POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION

G. Palaitytë

Summary

This paper provides the findings obtained from red clover and pea fertilization and nitrogen fixation field trials carried out at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s Vokë Branch during the period 1999-2002.

The most favourable conditions for symbiotic nitrogen fixation were created in the treatments applied with P90K90 and P120K120 fertilizer combinations. Pea fertilized with 90 and 120 kg ha-1 phosphorus and potassium fertilizer rates accumulated 51-54 kg ha-1, red clover 115-119 kg ha-1 symbiotic nitrogen.

Even low P30K30 fertilizer rates increased pea and red clover crude protein content by 15-23 %. The greatest crude protein increases (58-69 %) were identified in the treatments where pea and red clover had been applied with P120K120.

120 kg ha-1 phosphorus and potassium fertilizer rates were the most efficient for the activity of red clover enzyme nitrogenase. Through P120K120 application the activity of nitrogenase increased from 10.49 (without fertilizers) to 40.36 m M N2 h-1 g-1 and the number of root nodules increased 2.4 times, compared with the non-fertilized treatment.

Key words: symbiotic nitrogen fixation, legume bacteria, activity of nitrogenase.

 


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