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I skyrius. DIRVOTYRA IR AGROCHEMIJA

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 2, 82, 3-19

UDK 631.459(474.5)

STACIONARINIAI DIRVOÞEMIO EROZIJOS TYRIMAI ÞEMAIÈIØ AUKÐTUMOJE: 1. DIRVOÞEMIS IR JO SAVYBËS

Benediktas Jankauskas

, Genovaitë Jankauskienë

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Kaltinënø bandymø stotis

Kaltinënai, Ðilalës rajonas

El. paðtas: kaltbs@kaltbs.lzi.lt

Santrauka

Dirvoþemio profiliø apraðymo ir dirvoþemio horizontø fizikiniø bei cheminiø analiziø duomenimis, Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Kaltinënø bandymø stotyje daromø ilgalaikiø dirvoþemio erozijos stacionariniø tyrimø dirvoþemiai priskirtini pasotintøjø balkðvaþemiø (JIb) – Eutric Albeluvisols (ABe), pasotintøjø giliau glëjiðkø balkðvaþemiø (JIg4-b) arba tipingø pasotintøjø pradþiaþ

emiø (PRb2-e3) pogrupiams. Tiriamø ðlaitø dirvoþemiai, pagal N.Kaèinskio klasifikacijà, yra vidutinio sunkumo molis ant tokio pat molio – m1/m1 (bandymas Nr.3), lengvas molis ant tokio pat molio – m/m (bandymas Nr.1), lengvas priemolis ant riðlaus smëlio – p/s1 ir vidutinio sunkumo priemolis ant lengvo priemolio – p1/p (bandymas Nr.2). Pagal smëlio, dulkiø ir dumblo daleliø santyká, nustatytà mëginius tiriant N.Kaèinskio metodu, tiriamø ðlaitø dirvoþemiai yra dulkiðkas sunkus priemolis ant tokio pat priemolio – dp2/dp2 (bandymas Nr.3), dulkiðkas vidutinio sunkumo priemolis ant dulkiðko molio – dp1/dm (bandymas Nr.1) ir dulkiðkas lengvas priemolis ant riðlaus smëlio su giliau slûgsanèiu dulkiðku vidutinio sunkumo priemoliu – dp/s1/dp1 ir dulkiðkas lengvas priemolis ant lengvo priemolio su giliau slûgsanèiu dulkiðku sunkiu priemoliu – dp/p1/dp2 (bandymas Nr.2).

Reikðminiai þodþiai: Þemaièiø aukðtuma, dirvoþemis, grupë, pogrupis, profilis, erozija, granuliometrinë sudëtis, fizikinës ir cheminës savybës.

Chapter 1. SOIL SCIENCE AND AGROCHEMISTRY

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 2, 82, 3-19

UDK 631.459(474.5)

SOIL EROSION STATIONARY INVESTIGATIONS ON THE ÞEMAIÈIAI UPLAND: 1. SOIL AND PROPERTIES

B. Jankauskas, G. Jankauskienë

Summary

The s

oils under the long-term stationary soil erosion investigations of the Kaltinënai research station of LIA are classed as Eutric Albeluvisols (ABe), Eutri-Endohypogleyic Albeluvisols (ABg-n-w) or as Orthieuric Regosols (RGe-o) according to the presented description of soil profiles and according to the results of analysis of physical and chemical soil properties. Soils of the investigated slopes are: medium clay lying on the same medium clay – m1/m1 (trial No.3), light clay on the same light clay – m/m (trial No.1), and light loam on the loamy sand p/s1 and medium loam on the light loam p1/p (trial No.2) according to N. Kacinskij classification of soil texture. Soils of the slopes under different trials are: silty clay loam on the same silty clay loam – dp2/dp2 (trial No.3), silt loam on the silty clay – dp1/dm (trial No.1), and silt loam on the loamy sand with deeper lying silt loam – dp/s1/dp1 and silt loam on the loam with deeper lying silty clay loam – dp/p1/dp2 (trial No.2), according to distribution of sand, silt and clay particles analysed by the N. Kacinskij method.

Key words: Ţemaièiai Upland, soil erosion, stationary trials, type of soil, subtype of soil, soil profiles, soil texture, physical properties, chemical properties.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 2, 82, 20-34

UDK 631.459.2

STACIONARINI

AI DIRVOÞEMIO EROZIJOS TYRIMAI ÞEMAIÈIØ AUKÐTUMOJE: 2. VANDENINËS EROZIJOS INTENSYVUMAS

Benediktas Jankauskas

, Genovaitë Jankauskienë

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Kaltinënø bandymø stotis

Kaltinënai, Ðilalës rajonas

El.paðtas: kaltbs@kaltbs.lzi.lt

Santrauka

Dirvoþemio erozijos stacionariniø bandymø 36 tyrimø (trys bandymai, du tyrimø blokai, ðeðeri metai) duomenimis, nuo juodojo pûdymo ir to pûdymo sëjomainos augalais uþimtø ðlaitø per metus netekta vidutiniðkai 13,09 t ha

-1 sauso dirvoþemio, nuo lauko ir javø-þoliø sëjomainø augalais uþimtø ðlaitø dirvoþemio nuneðta atitinkamai 51,7, 72,8 ir 86 % maþiau, o daugiakomponenèiai þoliø miðiniai stabilizavo dirvoþemio ardymà. Maþiausi dirvoþemio nuostoliai buvo sunkiausios granuliometrinës sudëties, t.y. dulkiðko sunkaus priemolio dirvoþemio ðlaite (0,45-3,38 t ha-1 per metus), kiek daugiau jo netekta dulkiðko vidutinio sunkumo priemolio ant dulkiðko lengvo molio dirvoþemio ðlaite (0,65-6,29 t ha-1 per metus) ir daugiausiai ardomas buvo dulkiðko lengvo priemolio ant riðlaus smëlio dirvoþemis (netekta 4,38-29,38 t ha-1 per metus).

Reikðminiai þodþiai: Þemaièiø aukðtuma, dirvoþemio erozija, stacionariniai tyrimai, vandens nutekëjimas, dirvoþemio nuneðimas.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 2, 82, 20-34

UDK 631.459.2

LONG-TERM SOIL EROSION STUDIES ON THE ŢEMAIÈIAI UPLAND: 2. INTENSITY OF WATER EROSION

B. Jankauskas, G. Jankauskienë

Summary

Experimental evidence from 36 tests (3 field experiments × 2 blocks × 6 years) carried out at th

e Kaltinënai Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture suggests that soil losses were 13.09 t ha-1 y-1 from the plots covered by plants of the crop rotation containing black fallow. The soil losses declined by 51.7, 72.8 and 86 % from the plots covered by plants of field, grain-grass and grass-grain crop rotations, respectively. Plants of long-term perennial grasses completely inhibited soil erosion. The smallest soil losses (0.45-3.59 t ha-1 y-1) were from the slopes having the heaviest soil texture i.e. silty clay loam (trial No.3). Somewhat higher soil losses (0.65- 6.29 t ha-1 y-1) were from the slope with the soil texture silt loam on the silty clay (trial No.1). The highest water erosion rates (4.38-29.38 t ha-1 y-1) were determined on the slope with the lightest soil texture: silt loam on the loamy sand with deeper lying silt loam and silt loam on the loam with deeper lying silty clay loam (trial No.2).

Key words: Ţemaièiai Upland, soil erosion, long-term studies, run-off, soil loss

.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 2, 82, 35-47

UDK 633:631.582:631.8:631.559

SËJOMAINOS AUGALØ DERLIAUS RYÐYS SU DIRVOÞEMIO AGROCHEMINËMIS SAVYBËMIS IR TRÆÐIMU

Irena KRIÐTAPONYTË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Joniðkëlio bandymø sto

tis

Joniðkëlis, Pasvalio rajonas

El. paðtas:

joniskelio_lzi@post.omnitel.net

Santrauka

1997-2000 metais Joniðkëlio bandymø stotyje giliau karbonatingame giliau glëjiðkame rudþemyje (RDg4-k2) atliktas sëjomaininis bandymas, siekiant nustatyti augalø derliaus ryðá su dirvoþemio agrocheminëmis savybëmis ir træðimu. Bandymas atliktas tokioje sëjomainoje: mieþiai su daugiameèiø þoliø ásëliu, I naudojimo metø daugiametës þolës, þieminiai kvieèiai, paðariniai

runkeliai, vasariniai kvieèiai. Visø sëjomainoje augintø augalø træðimas atskiruose laukeliuose apskaièiuotas planuotam pagrindinës produkcijos derliui pagal dirvoþemio agrochemines savybes. Nustatyta, kad sunkaus priemolio rudþemiuose paðarinius runkelius træðiant pagal gausumà dirvoþemyje maisto medþiagø, ir atskiruose laukeliuose mineraliniø tràðø pavidalu iðbërus azoto – 99-126, fosforo 0-148 ir kalio 0-29 kg ha-1, ðakniavaisiø derlius gautas 19-56 % didesnis uþ planuotà (50 t ha-1); vasarinius mieþius træðiant N46-59P0-127K0-25 pagal planuojamà (3,5 t ha-1) derliø ir pagal dirvoþemyje esantá maisto medþiagø kieká, grûdø derlius gautas 11-43 % didesnis uþ planuotàjá. Planuotas þieminiø kvieèiø derlius (6 t ha-1) pagal dirvoþemyje esantá maisto medþiagø kieká gautas juos patræðus N96-112P0-117K0-27 (derlius gautas net 2-12 % didesnis uþ planuotàjá). Vasarinius kvieèius patræðus mineralinëmis tràðomis N102-116P0-84K12-57 pagal planuojamà (5 t ha-1) derliø ir atsiþvelgus á dirvoþemyje esantá maisto medþiagø kieká, grûdø derlius atskiruose laukeliuose gautas 2-4 % didesnis, arba 2-14 % maþesnis uþ planuotàjá.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: sunkaus priemolio rudþemis, mineralinës tràðos, planuojamas augalø derlius, dirvoþemio derlingumas.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 2, 82, 35-47

UDK 633:631.582:631.8:631.559

THE YIELD OF THE CROP ROTATION PLANTS IN RELATION TO SOIL AGROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND FERTILISATION

I. Kriðtaponytë

Summary

During 1997-2000 a crop rotation experiment was conducted

at the LIA Joniðkëlis experimental station on a Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol (RDg4-k2). The purpose of the experiment was to identify the relationship between crop yield, soil agrochemical properties and fertilisation. The experiment was done in the following crop rotation: barley with undersown perennial grasses, perennial grasses of the 1st year of use, winter wheat, fodder beet, spring wheat. Fertilisation of all crops grown in the crop rotation in individual plots was calculated for the expected yield of the primary produce according to soil agrochemical properties. Experimental evidence suggests that on a heavy loam brown soil fertilisation of fodder beet according to the status of soil nutrients and application of nitrogen 99-126, phosphorus 0-148 and potassium 0-29 kg ha-1 in the form of mineral fertiliser in individual plots resulted in a root yield which was by 19-56 % higher than the expected yield (50 t ha-1). Fertilisation of spring barley with mineral N46-59P0-127K0-25 kg ha-1 fertilisers according to the expected yield (3.5 t ha-1) and soil nutrient status resulted in a grain yield which was by 11-43 % higher than the expected yield. The best fertilisation for the expected winter wheat yield (6 t ha-1) according to the nutrient status in the soil was achieved having fertilised with N96-112P0-117K0-27 kg ha-1, the winter wheat grain yield was by 2-12 % higher than the expected yield. Having fertilised spring wheat with mineral N102-116P0-84K12-57 kg ha-1 fertilisers according to the expected yield (5 t ha-1) and according to soil nutrient status the grain yield in individual plots was by 2-4 % higher or by 2-14 % lower than the expected yield.

Key words: heavy loam brown soil, mineral fertilisers, expected crop yield, soil productivity.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 2, 82, 48-56

UDK 631.445.12:631.41

ORGANINËS MEDÞIAGOS KIEKIO IR SUDËTIES, FIZIKINIØ CHEMINIØ SAVYBIØ POKYÈIAI NUSAUSINTUOSE ÞEMAPELKËS DURPÞEMIUOSE

Valerija

Januðienë, Regimantas Ðleinys

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filialas

Trakø Vokë, Vilnius

El. paðtas: valerija.janusiene@voke.lzi.lt

Santrauka

Þemapelkiø sausinimo poveikis durpþemiø organinës medþiagos kiekio ir kokybinës sudëties, peleningumo, fizikiniø cheminiø savybiø pokyèiams tirtas Vilniaus raj. Lygainiø þemapelkës ir Varënos raj. Kajuèio þemapelkës natûraliuose ir nusausintuose (prieð 25-30 metø) durpþemiuose.

Nusausintuose, naudojamuose þemës ûkio reikmëms, þemapelkiø durpþemiuose, palyginus su natûraliais jø analogais, spartesnë organinës medþiagos mineralizacija, didesni organinës anglies ir azoto kiekiai, organinës medþiagos sudëtyje daugiau labiliøjø humuso medþiagø (dirbamame lauke – 5,5 % nuo C

org.; natûraliame durpþemyje – 4,0 % nuo Corg.). Nusausintø þemapelkës durpþemiø organinës medþiagos sudëtyje padaugëjo huminiø rûgðèiø ir sumaþëjo fulvorûgðèiø. Dël to huminiø rûgðèiø ir fulvorûgðèiø santykis nusausintame þemapelkës durpþemyje buvo 2,0-2,1, natûraliame durpþemyje – 1,7-1,8. Nusausintø þemapelkës durpþemiø peleningumas taip pat buvo didesnis. Natûralûs þemapelkës durpþemiai buvo maþo fosforingumo ir kalingumo. Ðiø rodikliø padidëjimas nusausintuose durpþemiuose susijæs su auginamø augalø træðimu. Kultûrinamø nusausintø þemapelkës durpþemiø rûgðtumas turëjo tendencijà didëti dël padidëjusio huminiø rûgðèiø kiekio ir baziniø elementø stokos.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: þemapelkës durpþemiai, organinë anglis, huminës rûgðtys, fulvorûgðtys, azotas, peleningumas, fizikinës cheminës savybës

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 2, 82, 48-56

UDK 631.445.12:631.41

CHANGES IN THE ORGANIC MATTER CONTENT AND COMPOSITION, PHYSICAL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN DRAINED TERRIC HISTOSOLS

V. Januðienë, R. Ðleinys

Summary

Effects of drainage on the content and qualitative composition of

organic matter, on the contents of nitrogen and ash, on physical chemical properties were studied in Vilnius district (lowland bog Lygainiai) and in Varëna district (lowland bog Kajuèio) in natural and drained (25-30 years ago) terric histosols.

A higher rate of organic matter mineralization, a larger contents of organic carbon and nitrogen were identified in drained terric histosols under agricultural use, compared with their natural analogues. A larger content of labile humic substances was found in the drained histosols, also (5.5 % from Corg. in arable land; 4.0 % from Corg. in natural meadow). In drained terric histosols the amount of humic acids increased and that of fulvic acids decreased. Thus, the ratio of humic acids to fulvic acids in drained histosols was 2.0-2.1, and in their natural analogues 1.7-1.8. The contents of ash and mineral elements (Ca, Mg, P, K) increased in drained histosols, as well. The low levels of mobile phosphorus and potassium were identified in natural terric histosols. These indices increased in drained histosols due to fertilization of grown crops.

Key words: terric histosols, organic carbon, humic acids, fulvic acids, nitrogen, ash, physical chemical properties.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 2, 82, 57-69

UDK 631.826:631.442.1:631.417.2

ÁVAIRIØ SAPROPELIØ POVEIKIS HUMUSO KIEKIUI IR JO KOKYBINEI SUDËÈIAI PRIESMËLIO DIRVOÞEMYJE

Valerija

Januðienë

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filialas

Trakø Vokë, Vilni

us

El. paðtas: valerija.janusiene@voke.lzi.lt

Santrauka

Straipsnyje pateikiami 1994-1999 m. tyrimo duomenys apie ávairiø sapropeliø (karbonatinio, organinio, silicinio), jø deriniø su mëðlu ir srutomis, taip pat mëðlo bei klintmilèiø poveiká humuso kiekiui ir jo kokybinei sudëèiai. Daugiausiai organinës anglies turëjo organinis sapropelis (32 %), maþiau jos buvo siliciniame sapropelyje (18,4 %) ir maþiausiai – karbonatiniame (14,8 %). Huminiø rûgðèiø ir fulvorûgðèiø santykis buvo didþiausias siliciniame s

apropelyje (1,12), maþesnis jis buvo organiniame (0,90) ir maþiausias – karbonatiniame sapropelyje (0,65).

Visi sapropeliai didesná poveiká humuso kiekiui ir kokybinei sudëèiai darë minimaliø mineraliniø tràðø normø fone nei fone be mineraliniø tràðø. Træðiant karbonatiniu sapropeliu, jo deriniais su mëðlu ir srutomis, humuso kiekis dirvoþemyje ið esmës nekito. Organinis ir silicinis sapropeliai, jø deriniai su mëðlu ir srutomis bei vien mëðlas didino humuso kieká dirvoþemyje. Visi sapropeliai ir jø derinia

i su kitomis organinëmis tràðomis humuso sudëtyje maþino labiliøjø medþiagø (0,1 M Na4P2O7 iðtrauka) kieká. Visi tirti sapropeliai keitë humuso kokybinæ sudëtá. Karbonatinis sapropelis, jo deriniai su mëðlu ir srutomis humuso sudëtyje ið esmës didino Ca humatø ir maþino laisvøjø huminiø rûgðèiø (HR-1) kieká. Fulvorûgðèiø kiekis taip pat sumaþëjo. Huminiø rûgðèiø ir fulvorûgðèiø santykis siekë 0,85-0,89 (kontroliniame variante 0,70). Didesná poveiká humuso kokybinei sudëèiai darë organinis sapropelis, jo deriniai su mëðlu ir srutomis. Taip træðiant, ðis santykis siekë 0,91-0,93. Sprendþiant pagal huminiø rûgðèiø ir fulvorûgðèiø santyká (0,85-0,89), silicinio sapropelio, jo deriniø su mëðlu ir srutomis poveikis humuso kokybinei sudëèiai nesiskyrë nuo karbonatinio sapropelio, taèiau huminiø rûgðèiø sudëtyje buvo maþiau Ca humatø. Maþiausià poveiká humuso kokybinei sudëèiai darë silicinio sapropelio maþa norma (25 t ha-1) ir klintmilèiai (HR : FR – 0,79 ir 0,77). Mëðlas ið esmës gerino humuso kokybinæ sudëtá (HR : FR – 0,89-0,91). Træðiant visø rûðiø sapropeliais, jø deriniais su mëðlu ir srutomis bei vien mëðlu, huminiø rûgðèiø ir fulvorûgðèiø santykis fone be mineraliniø tràðø ávairavo tarp 0,70 ir 0,75 (kontroliniame variante – 0,65 ir 0,66).

Reikðminiai þodþiai: karbonatinis sapropelis, organinis sapropelis, silicinis sapropelis, humusas, huminës rûgðtys, fulvorûgðtys.

ISSN 1392-3194

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 2, 82, 57-69

UDK 631.826:631.442.1:631.417.2

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF SAPROPEL ON THE CONTENT AND QUALITATIVE COMPOSITION OF HUMUS IN A SANDY LOAM SOIL

V. Januðienë

Summary

At the Vokë Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture experiments were conducted to study the efficacy of calcareous, organic and siliceous sapropels in sandy loam lying on calcaric gravel haplic luvisol (field trials were carried out by dr. E.Bakðienë). The effect of different types of sapropel, their mixtures with manure and sewage, straight manure and limestone on the content and qualitative composition

of humus was studied over the period of 1994-1999. All types of sapropel were applied on the background of minimum rates of mineral fertilization and without them in the field crop rotation including maize, maize, undersown barley, perennial grasses of the 1st and 2nd years of use and winter rye.

Calcareous, organic and siliceous sapropels differed in organic carbon content (14.8 %; 32.0 %; 18.4 % respectively) and organic matter composition (ratio of humic acids to fulvic acids 0.65; 0.90; 1.12 respectively).

All sapropels, their mixtures and straight manure had a more significant effect on the content and qualitative composition of humus on the background of minimum rates of mineral fertilization. Calcareous sapropel, its mixtures with manure and sewage had no significant effect on the content of humus. Organic and siliceous sapropels, their mixtures with manure and sewage increased humus content in the soil. All studied sapropels, their mixtures and straight manure decreased the content of labile humic substances.

Calcareous sapropel, its mixtures with manure and sewage increased the content of humic acids bound with calcium (HA-2) and decreased the content of free humic acids (HA-1). The content of fulvic acids decreased, as well. The ratio of humic acids to fulvic acids increased (HA : FA – 0.85-0.89; in the check – 0.70). Organic and siliceous sapropels, their mixtures with manure and sewage had significant effect on humus composition (HA : FA 0.91-0.93 and 0.85-0.89 respectively; in the check 0.70). Manure application improved humus composition, as well (HA : FA – 0.89-0.91). Small rates (25 t ha-1) of siliceous sapropel and limestone had an insignificant effect on humus composition.

On the background without mineral fertilization the effect of different types of sapropels, their mixtures and straight manure on the humus composition was reduced (HA : FA – 0.70-0.75; in check – 0.65-0.66).

Key words: calcareous sapropel, organic sapropel, siliceous sapropel, humus, humic acids, fulvic acids.

 

II skyrius.

ÞEMDIRBYSTË

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 2, 82, 70-88

UDK 631.582.9:631.51;632.51:632.954

DIRVONO ATNAUJINIMAS MAÞAI DERLINGAME PRIESMËLIO DIRVOÞEMYJE

Algimantas Magyla

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø r

ajonas

El. paðtas: albinas@lzi.lt

Santrauka

1996-1999 m. dviejuose bandymuose tirtas dirvono atnaujinimas auginant skirtingus augalus, ádirbant þemæ ir naudojant raundapà. Nustatyta, kad dirvone labai iðplito daugiameèiø piktþoliø, ypaè paprastøjø varpuèiø (

Elytrigia repens L. Nevski.). Po dirvono auginant rugius, maþiausiai daugiameèiø piktþoliø prieð pjûtá buvo dirvonà nupurðkus raundapu 5 l ha-1, o daugiausiai – prieð arimà já sulëkðèiavus (73,8 ir 650,2 vnt. m-2). Juodasis pûdymas rugiø piktþolëtumà maþino panaðiai kaip ir dirvono purðkimas raundapu, o pastarasis auginant bulves sumaþino paprastøjø varpuèiø skaièiø 14 kartø, palyginus su dirvono lëkðèiavimu (7,0 ir 98,4 vnt. m-2). Dirvono atnaujinimo bûdas turëjo átakos ir antrus metus augintø augalø pasëliø piktþolëtumui: daugiameèiø piktþoliø aviþose po bulviø buvo daug maþiau negu po rugiø (palyginamieji vidurkiai 66,5 ir 181,1 vnt. m-2) ir dar skyrësi jø skaièius raundapu purkðtuose ir lëkðèiuotuose laukeliuose (37,4 ir 95,6 vnt. m-2). Po dirvono auginti dvejus metus javai arba bulvës ir aviþos nelëmë trumpaamþiø piktþoliø sëklø kiekio armenyje, bet daugiameèiø piktþoliø sëklø sumaþino. Dirvono ruoðimo bûdas ne visada darë átakà javø derliui, bet bulviø raundapu purkðtuose laukeliuose prikasta 22,0 % daugiau negu lëkðèiuotuose. Dirvonà atnaujinti buvo verta auginant bulves, ypaè nupurðkus raundapu (3740 Lt ha-1pelno), ir nedaug gauta pelno (117 Lt ha-1) po juodojo pûdymo auginant rugius, o kitais atvejais maþai derlingame priesmëlyje pelno nebuvo.

R

eikðminiai þodþiai: dirvonai, þemës dirbimas, herbicidai, piktþolës.

Chapter 2. AGRICULTUTE

ISSN 1392-3194

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 2, 82, 70-88

UDK 631.582.9:631.51;632.51:632.954

RENOVATION OF TEMPORARILY ABANDONED LAND ON A LOW-PRODUCTIVITY SANDY LOAM SOIL

A. Magyla

Summary

Renovation of temporarily abandoned land was investigated in two experiments carried out during the periodo f 1996-1999. Three approaches were used: cultivation of certain crops, soil tillage and application of Roundup. It was determined that temporarily abandone land was heavily infested with perennial weeds especially with couch-grass (Elytrigia repens L. Nevski). When rye was grown after temporary abandonment of land the smallest number of perennial weeds (738 units m-2) before harvesting was found in the treatment where temporarily abandoned land had been sprayed with Roundup 5 l ha-1, while the greatest number of perennial weeds (650 units m-2) was identified in the treatment where temporarily abandoned land had been disked before ploughing. Black fallow had a similar effect on the reduction of weeds in rye to that of Roundup spray aplication, and the latter reduced the number of couch-grass in potatoes 14 times, compared with disking of temporarily abandoned land (7.0 and 98.4 weeds m-2). The method of temporarily abandoned land renovation had some effect on the weed incidente in the crops grown the fallowing year: the number of perennial weeds in oats after potatoes was significantly smaller than after rye (comparative averages 66.5 and 181.1 weeds m-2) and the number of weeds also differed in the plots sprayed with Roundup and disked ones (37.4 and 95.6 weeds m-2). Cereals or potatoes-oats grown for two years in succession after temporary abandonment of land did not determine the amount of short-lived weed seed in the plough layer but declined the number – of perennial weed seed. The method of temporarily abandone land preparation did not always affect the yield, however, the yield of potatoes in the plots sprayed with Roundup was by 22 % higher than that in the disked plots. Renovation of temporarily abandoned land was expedient when growing potatoes, especially Roundup application (3740 Lt ha-1 profit), while a much lower profit (117 Lt ha-1) was obtained when rye was grown after black fallow. In the other cases no profit was obtained on a low productivity sandy loam.

Key words: temporarily abandoned land, soil tillage, herbicides, weeds.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 2, 82, 89-99

UDK 633.491:632.51

ÁVAIRIAIS BULVIØ VYSTYMOSI TARPSNIAIS AUGANÈIØ PIKTÞOLIØ ÞALINGUMAS BULVËMS

Irena PETROVIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filialas

Trakø Vokë, Vilnius

El. paðtas: irena.petroviene@voke.lzi.lt

Santrauka

Vokës filiale lengvoje priesmëlio dirvoje 1996-2000 metais mikrolaukeliø metodu tirtas piktþoliø, augusiø ávairø laiko tarpà su bulvëmis, þalingumas vidutinio ankstyvumo bulvëms ‘Mirta’. Tyrimai rodo, kad nuo bulviø pasodinimo iki visiðko jø sudygimo esant ðvariam pasëliui (vëliau pik

tþolëms leidþiama augti), derlingumas padidëjo ið esmës, t. y. 20,2 %, ir prilygo visà vegetacijà ðvaraus pasëlio derlingumui. Laikotarpá be piktþoliø ilginant, derlius ið esmës nepadidëjo. Piktþolës, kurios augo kartu su bulvëmis nuo jø pasodinimo iki sudygimo bei iki bulvienojø 15-20 cm aukðèio, derlingumo nemaþino, jei vëliau jos buvo paðalinamos. Sudygusiame pasëlyje dygstanèios piktþolës buvo bulviø stelbiamos, uþaugino 63 % maþesnæ orasausæ masæ, negu augdamos kartu su bulvëmis visà vegetacijà, ir þalos derliui nepadarë. ‘Mirta’ veislës bulvëms piktþolës þalingiausios laikotarpiu nuo bulviø sudygimo iki bulvienojø 10-15 cm aukðèio.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: bulvës, piktþolës, þalingumas, augimo laikotarpis, derlius.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 2, 82, 89-99

UDK 633.491:632.51

HARMFULNESS OF WEEDS GROWING AT VARIOUS POTATO GROWTH STAGES

I. Petrovienë

Summary

A series of small-plot experiments was carried out at the LIA Vokë Branch on a light sandy loam soil during 1996-2000 to investigate the harmfulness of weeds that grew for a different period of time with potatoes in the stands of the medium-early potato variety ‘Mirta’. Experimental findings showed that when the potato stand was free of weeds from planting to complete emergence (later the weeds were allowed to grow) the yield increased significantly, i.e. by 20.2 %, and was identical with that in the stand free of weeds during the whole growing season. Lengthening of the weed-free period did not give any significant yield increase. Weeds that grew together with potatoes from planting to complete emergence and till the tops had reached 15-20 cm height, were well-tolerated and did not decline the yield if they were removed later. Weeds were most harmful to the potato variety ‘Mirta’ when they grew together from potato emergence until the tops had reached 10-15 cm height. In the emerged potato stand emerging weeds were suppressed by potato plants and produced 63 % lower air-dry mass compared with the treatment where weeds grew with potatoes during the whole growing season, and did not do any harm in terms of yield.

Key words: potatoes, weeds, harmfulness, growing period, yield.

 

III skyrius. AUGALØ APSAUGA

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 2, 82, 100-113

UDK 633.14:632.952

FUNGICIDO TANGO NAUDOJIMO LAIKO ÁTAKA ÞIEMINIØ RUGIØ LAPØ LIGØ PLITIMUI IR DERLIUI

Raisa LISOVA

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filialas

Trakø Vokë, Vilnius

El. paðtas:

raisa.lisova@voke.lzi.lt

Santrauka

1998-2000 m. LÞI Vokës filiale velëniniame jauriniame silpnai pajaurëjusiame priesmëlio dirvoþemyje þieminiø rugiø ‘Rûkai’ pasëliuose tirta fungicido tango (veikl. medþ. epoksikonazolas 125 g l

-1) + tridemorfas 375 g l-1 naudojimo laiko átaka lapø grybinëms ligoms ir derliui. Pagrindinë þieminiø rugiø lapø grybinë liga buvo rinchosporiozë (Rhynchosporium secalis (Oud) Davis). Labiausiai ji paþeidë lapus 1998 m., o 2000 m. buvo palankûs ne tik rinchosporiozei, bet ir miltligei (Blumeria graminis (DK.) Speer) bei rudøjø rûdþiø sukëlëjams (Puccinia recondita Rob.ex Desm.).

Vienkartinis ir dukartinis fungicido tango 0,8 l ha-1

(veikl. medþ. epoksikonazolas + tridemorfas) naudojimas statistiðkai patikimai saugojo þieminius rugius nuo rudøjø rûdþiø ir miltligës. Þieminiai rugiai maþiausiai buvo paþeisti rinchosporiozës tuose variantuose, kurie buvo nupurkðti fungicidu vienà kartà pasirodþius pirmiesiems lapø ligø poþymiams DK 37 ar du kartus – tuo paèiu laiku ir plaukëjimo tarpsniu (DK 51-59). Vëlyvas purðkimas nuo rinchosporiozës (DK 69), miltligës ir rudøjø rûdþiø þieminiuose rugiuose buvo maþiau efektyvus. Didþiausias grûdø derliaus priedas 0,63 t ha-1, gautas tuose laukeliuose, kur þieminiai rugiai fungicidu purkðti du kartus: kai ligos intensyvumas ant treèiø nuo virðaus lapø siekë 0,1-1,1 % (DK 51) ir plaukëjimo tarpsniu (DK 51-59). Labiausiai ekonomiðkai apsimokëjo pasëlius purkðti vienà kartà, kai ligos intensyvumas ant treèiø nuo virðaus lapø buvo 0,1-1,1 % (plaukëjimo pradþioje DK 51).

Reikðminiai þodþiai: þieminiai rugiai, rinchosporiozë, miltligë, rûdys, fungicidas tango, grûdø derlius.

Chapter 3. PLANT PROTECTION

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 2, 82, 100-113

UDK 633.14:632.952

EFFECTS OF FUNGICIDE TANGO APPLICATION TIME ON THE OCCURRENCE OF WINTER RYE FOLIAR FUNGAL DISEASES AND ON GRAIN YIELD

R. Lisova

Summary

Effects of the fungicide application time on foliar fungal diseases and grain yield were investigated in the stands of winter rye cv. ‘Rûkai’ during 1998-2000. The experiments were carried out at the LIA’s Vokë Branch on a sod podzolic weakly podzolized sandy loam soil. The main winter rye foliar fungal disease was scald (Rhynchosporium secalis (Oud) Davis) whose highest severity on leaves was recor

ded in 1998. In 2000 the conditions were conducive not only to scald but also to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis (DK.) Speer) and brown rust (Puccinia recondita Rob.ex Desm.) causal agents. That year winter rye grain yield was the highest (4.00 t ha-1), compared with that in 1998 and 1999.

The fungicide Tango (a.i. epocsiconazole 125 g l-1 + tridemorf 375 g l-1) applied at a rate of 0.8 l ha-1 once and twice at different times gave a statistically reliable protection of winter rye against brown rust and powdery mildew, compared with the untreated control (except for the last late spray application at DC 69). The lowest severity of scald was identified in the treatments sprayed with the fungicide once (when the first disease symptoms had appeared on leaves DC 37) and twice at the same time and at the heading stage (DC 51-59). The late spray application against scald, powdery mildew and brown rust was less effective. The highest grain yield increase, compared with the untreated control, was obtained in the plots sprayed with the fungicide twice: at a disease severity of 0.1-1.1 % on the third leaves from the top (DC 51) and at the heading stage (DC 51-59). This resulted in a yield increase of 0.63 t ha-1. It was most economical to spray the rye crops once at a disease severity of 0.1-1.1 % on the third leaves from the top (beginning of heading DK 51).

Key words: winter rye, skald, powdery mildew, brown rust, fungicide tango, spray application, grain yield.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 2, 82, 114-125

UDK 633.12:632.51:632.954

GRIKIØ APSAUGA NUO PIKTÞOLIØ NAUDOJANT ÁVAIRIAS PIRAMINO TURBO NORMAS

Irena KAVOLIÛNAITË, Antanas ÐALNA

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filialas

Trakø Vokë, Vilnius

El. paðtas: sekretoriatas@voke.lzi.lt

Santrauka

1998-2000 m. LÞI Vokës filiale tirta grikiø ‘Smuglianka’ ir atskirø rûðiø piktþoliø reakcija á piramino turbo 520 g l

-1 (veikl. medþ. chloridazonas) normas (1,5, 2,0, 2,5 ir 3,0 l ha-1), iðpurðkus prieð grikiø sudygimà ir pirmojo tikrojo lapelio tarpsniu.

Nustatyta, kad grikiai toleravo piraminà turbo, panaudotà prieð sudygimà, o á herbicido veikimà reagavo tik vienametës dviskiltës piktþolës, kurios pasëlyje sudarë 75,2 %. Trejø metø duomenimis, vienameèiø dviskilèiø sumaþëjo 22-28 %, herbicido veikimui palankesniais 1998-1999 m. – 43-56 %. Jautriausios buvo trikertës þvaginës (Capsella bursa pastoris (L.) Medik.), pavasarinës ankstyvës (Erophila verna (L.) DC.), dirvinës veronikos (Ve

ronica arvensis L.) ir bekvapiai ðunramuniai (Tripleurospermum perforatum (Mérat) M. Laínz).

Naudojant 1,5-2,5 l ha-1

piramino turbo prieð grikiø sudygimà, grikiø grûdø derlingumas, palyginus su nepurkðtais, padidëjo ið esmës – 10,5-12,5 %. Tarpusavyje palyginus ávairiø tirtøjø normø átakà derlingumui, esminiø skirtumø negauta. Ekonomiðkai ávertinus nustatyta, kad prieð grikiø sudygimà racionaliausia naudoti 1,5 l ha-1 piramino turbo.

Purðkiant sudygusius grikius, herbicidas silpnai naikino piktþoles, paþeidë ir iðretino grikius, ið esmës sumaþino grûdø derlingumà.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: grikiai, piktþolës, herbicidai, derlius.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 2, 82, 114-125

UDK 633.12:632.51:632.954

OPTIMIZATION OF WEED CONTROL IN BUCKWHEAT WITH DIFFERENT DOSE RATES OF PYRAMIN TURBO

I. Kavoliûnaitë, A. Ðalna

Summary

Experiments were carried out during 1998-2000 at the Vokë Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture on a haplic luvisol, sandy loam soil. Various dose rates (1.5,

2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 l ha-1) of Pyramin Turbo 520 g L-1 (chloridazon, 5-amino-4-chloro-2-fenil-(2H)-piridazon) were applied over buckwheat (cultivar ‘Smuglianka’) pre-emergence and at the first true leaf stage.

The buckwheat stand was infested with 48 weed species, 30 or 75.2 % of them were annual dicotyledonous. The experimental data suggest that pre-emergence application of Pyramin Turbo at 1.5-3.0 l ha-1 in the middle of the growing season in 1998-2000 gave a weed control of 24-29 %, annual dicotyledonous – 22-28 %, but in more favourable meteorological conditions in 1998-1999 – 38-50 % and 43-58 %, respectively. The same efficiency remained till harvest.

Capsella bursa pastoris (L.) Medik., Erophila verna (L.) DC., Veronica arvensis L., Tripleurospermum perforatum (Mérat) M Laínz. and Stellaria media (L.) Vill. were the most sensitive weeds to Pyramin Turbo.

Pyramin Turbo applied at the first true leaf stage of buckwheat was not effective and gave a high phytotoxicity to buckwheat and therefore is not recommended for post-emergence application.

Pre-emergence application of Pyramin Turbo (1.5-2.5 l ha-1) increased grain yield by 10.5-12.5 %. Such an increase was essential compared with untreated, however, not essential compared between dose rates, and the rate of 1.5 l ha-1 was more cost-effective.

Key words: buckwheat, weeds, herbicide, yield.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 2, 82, 126-136

UDK 633.12:632

GRIKIØ IR PIKTÞOLIØ REAKCIJA Á ÁVAIRIAS BETANALO AM NORMAS

Irena KAVOLIÛNAITË, Anta

nas ÐALNA

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filialas

Trakø Vokë, Vilnius

El. paðtas: sekretoriatas@voke.lzi.lt

Santrauka

1998-2000 m. LÞI Vokës filiale paprastajame iðplautþemio priesmëlyje tirta grikiø ‘Smuglianka’ ir atskirø piktþoliø rûðiø reakcija á sumaþintas betanalo AM 157 g l

-1 (veikl. medþ. desmedifamas) normas (1,5, 2,0, 2,5 ir 3,0 l ha-1), iðpurðkus pirmojo tikrojo lapelio tarpsniu.

Bandymai daryti grikiuose, kuriuose augo 47 rûðiø piktþolës, o daugiausia buvo vienameèiø dviskilèiø – 31. Jos vyravo ne tik pagal rûðis, bet ir pagal skaièiø.

Nustatyta, kad á ávairias betanalo AM normas reagavo tik vienametës dviskiltës. Po mënesio nuo purðkimo jø buvo 32-33%, prieð grikiø kûlimà – 43-47 % maþiau, palyginus su kontroliniu variantu. Jautriausios buvo baltosios balandos (Chenopodium album L.), trikertës þvaginës (Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.), èiobralapës smiltës (Arenaria serpyllifolia L.), pavasarinës ankstyvës (Erophila verna (L.) DC.), dirvinës veronikos (Veronica arvensis L.), darþinë

s þliûgës (Stellaria media (L.) Vill.). Jos sudarë 60 % vienameèiø dviskilèiø. Po mënesio nuo purðkimo ðiø piktþoliø buvo 43-56 %, prieð kûlimà – 49-59 % maþiau, o betanalo AM veikimui palankiausiais metais – net 60-75 % maþiau.

Visø piktþoliø po mënesio nuo purðkimo sumaþëjo 25-30 %, jø orasausë masë – 46- 47 %, prieð grikiø derliaus nuëmimà – atitinkamai 26-38 ir 16-44 %, taèiau skirtingø herbicido normø átaka buvo beveik vienoda. Jautriausioms jaunoms vienametëms dviskiltëms piktþolëms iðnaikinti pakako

ir 1,5-2,0 l ha-1.

Grikiai toleravo betanalo AM maþàsias normas. Naudojant 1,5-3,0 l ha

-1, grikiø grûdø derlius padidëjo 12,3-14,5 %, taèiau ekonomiðkai apsimokëjo purkðti minimaliomis 1,5-2,0 l ha-1 normomis.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: grikiai, piktþolës, herbi

cidai.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 2, 82, 126-136

UDK 633.12:632

THE RESPONSE OF BUCKWHEAT AND WEEDS TO DOSE RATES OF BETANAL AM

I. Kavoliûnaitë, A.Ðalna

Summary

Experiments were caried out during 1998-2000 at the Vokë Branc

h of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture on a haplic luvisol sandy loam soil. Various dose rates (1.5; 2.0; 2.5 and 3.0 L ha-1 Betanal AM (a.i. Desmedipham) were sprayed over buckwheat (cultivar ‘Smuglianka’) at the stage of the first true leaf.

The buckwheat stand was infested with 47 weed species, 31 of them were annual dicotyledonous.

It was determined that different dose rates of Betanal AM affected annual dicotyledonous weeds only. The number of them one month after application was by 32-33 % and before harvest by 43-47 % lower, compared with the untreated. Chenopodium album L., Capsella bursa pastoris (L.) Medik., Arenaria serpyllifolia L., Erophila verna (L.) DC., Veronica arvensis L., Stellaria media (L.) Vill. were most sensitive to Betanal AM.

Betanal AM caused a significant reduction in the total number and air-dry mass of all weeds. One month after application it was 25-30 % and 46-48 % and before buckwheat harvesting 26-38 % and 16-44 %, respectively. A rate of 1.5-2.0 l ha-1 was sufficient to control annual dicotyledonous weeds at an early stage.

The control of weeds given by 1.5-3.0 l ha-1 of Betanal AM resulted in a significant (12.3-14.5 %) grain yield increase, however, it was economically cost effective to spray only 1.5-2.0 l ha-1.

Key words: buckwheat, weeds, herbicides.

 

IV skyrius. AUGALØ SELEKCIJA IR GENETIKA

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 2, 82, 137-146

UDK 633.264+633.265]:581.1

SVIDRIØ, ERAIÈINØ IR JØ HIBRIDO ‘PUNIA’ ÐAKNØ SISTEMOS POKYÈIAI VEIKIANT GRÛDINIMO TEMPERATÛROMS

Alvydas ÐIMKÛNAS, Izolda PAÐAKINSKIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Këdainiø rajonas

El. paðtas: genetik@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Gausiaþiedës svidrës (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), tikrieji eraièinai (Festuca pratensis Huds.), jø hibridai ‘Punia’ ir daugiametës svidrës (Lolium perenne L.) auginti vegetaciniame (+20°C) ir grûdinimo (+8°C; 0°C) reþimuose hidroponiniu bûdu. Nustatyti tokie parametrai: santykinë ðaknø masë, ûgliø ir ðaknø santykiniø augimo greièiø santykis (k), sausøjø m

edþiagø procentas ðaknyse, pridëtiniø ðaknø ilgio prieaugis per parà. Ypaè dideli skirtumai tarp rûðiø iðryðkëjo grûdinimo reþimuose. Paþeminus temperatûrà nuo +20°C iki +8°C, tikriesiems eraièinams santykis k sumaþëja, o santykinë ðaknø masë padidëja þymiai labiau nei svidriø. Tai rodo, kad yra blokuojamas tikrøjø eraièinø ûgliø augimas ir asimiliatai labiau nukreipiami á ðaknis. Kitame etape paþeminus temperatûrà nuo +8°C iki 0°C, tikrøjø eraièinø ðaknø tásimas yra pristabdomas þymiai labiau nei kitø tirtø rûðiø, o santykis k padidëja – uþsiblokuoja ne tik ûgliø, bet ir ðaknø augimas. Palyginus su kitomis tirtomis rûðimis, ypaè daug sausøjø medþiagø susikaupë tikrøjø eraièinø ðaknyse. Hibridas ‘Punia’ pagal santykinæ ðaknø masæ uþima tarpinæ padëtá tarp tëviniø rûðiø. Pagal ðaknø tásimo pristabdymà ir sausøjø medþiagø kaupimàsi ðaknyse, hibridas ‘Punia’ uþëmë tarpinæ, taèiau artimesnæ gausiaþiedëms svidrëms padëtá. Hibrido reakcija á þemà temperatûrà yra labiau subalansuota nei tëviniø rûðiø. Hibridø ðaknø sistema rodo geriau iðreikðtà adaptacinæ reakcijà nei svidriø, o antþeminë dalis auga þymiai intensyviau, palyginus su eraièinu.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: daugiametës þolës, augalø augimas, ðaknø tásimas, augalø grûdinimas, atsparumas ðalèiui.

Chapter 4. PLANT BREEDING AND GENETICS

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 2, 82, 137-146

UDK 633.264+633.265]:581.1

THE CHANGES IN ROOT SYSTEM OF ITALIAN RYEGRASS, MEADOW FESCUE, THEIR HYBRID ‘PUNIA’ AND PERENNIAL RYEGRASS AS AFFECTED BY CHILLING TEMPERATURES

A. Ðimkûnas, I. Paðakinskienë

Summary

Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.), their hybrid ‘Punia’ and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) were investigated under vegetative (+20°C) and hardening (+8°C and 0°C) regimes by growing plants hydroponically. The following parameters were estimated: relative root weight, the ratio of shoot growth rate to relative root growth rate k, root dry matter and increment of the length of adventitious roots per day. Especially high differences between the species were revealed under the hardening regime. By lowering temperature from 20°C down to 8°C, the ratio k declines and relative root weight increases for meadow fescue. This suggests that the growth of shoots of meadow fescue is inhibited, and the assimilates are directed to roots. In the next stage, by dropping the temperature from 8°C down to 0°C, the elongation of roots of meadow fescue is suppressed to a significantly greater extent than that in the other species, and the increase of ratio k indicates the blockage of shoot and root growth. The high percentage of dry matter shows an especially increased accumulation of compounds in the roots of meadow fescue compared with the other species. According to the relative root weight the hybrid ‘Punia’ was in the intermediate position among parental species; and according to the inhibition of root elongation and dry matter accumulation in the roots hybrid ‘Punia’ was also in the intermediate position, but closer to Italian ryegrass. Overall, the hybrid response to chilling temperatures is more balanced than that of parental species. It can be concluded that the root system of the hybrid ‘Punia’ expresses its acclimative response more strongly than that of ryegrass, and shoot growth is better than that of meadow fescue.

Key words: perennial grasses, plant growth, root elongation, cold hardiness, ecological strategies, cold resistance.

 

ISSN 1396-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 2, 82, 147-156

UDK 519.23:63

TA

KØ KOEFICIENTØ ANALIZËS NAUDOJIMAS TAIKANT KOMPIUTERINÆ PROGRAMÀ STAT-ENG

Pavelas TARAKANOVAS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. paðtas: pavelas@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Straipsnyje aptariamos takø analizës naudojimo galimybës, analizuojant augalø poþymiø tarpusavio ryðius.

Palyginus su koreliacine analize, ðis metodas tyrinëtojui suteikia svarø pranaðumà, tiriant kiekybiniø poþymiø tarpusavio ryðius. Takø analizë leidþia identifikuoti netiesiogines ryðiø prieþastis ir nustatyti santykinæ poþymio reikðmæ tuo metu, kai koreliacijos koeficientai rodo tik vidutiná sudëtingà tarpusavio ryðá, neatsiþvelgiant á jo prieþastingumà. Pateikti konkretûs takø analizës metodo naudojimo pavyzdþiai ir apraðyti takø koeficientø apskaièiavim

o ypatumai naudojant naujà STAT-ENG programos versijà (vers.1,55).

Darbo tikslas – populiarinti takø analizës metodà.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: takø analizë, koreliacinë analizë, kompiuterinë programa.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 2, 82, 147-156

UDK 519.23:63

PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS USING A COMPUTER PROGRAMME STAT-ENG

P. Tarakanovas

Summary

This article discusses the method of path analysis and its use for analysing interrelationships between plant characters.

Compared with the correlation analysis, this method provides a tangible advantage while analysing interrelations between quantitative plant characters. Path analysis enables to identify indirect causes of correlations and to determine relative value of a character, while correlation coefficients only show average complex relationship without considering its causality. Specific examples of the use of path analysis method are given in the present paper, as well as the peculiarities of path coefficient calculation using the STAT-ENG programme, version 1.55.

The objective of this study is to promote the method of path analysis.

Key words: path analysis, correlation analysis, computer programme.

 

V skyrius. ÞOLININKYSTË

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 2, 82, 157-

168

UDK 633.2/.3:581.19:621.384:681.3

DUOMENØ BAZËS SUDARYMAS IR LYGÈIØ SUKÛRIMAS VARPINIØ ÞOLIØ KOKYBËS ANALIZEI SPEKTROMETRU NIRS-6500

Bronislava BUTKUTË, Audronë MAÐAUSKIENË, Vanda PAPLAUSKIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, K

ëdainiø rajonas

El. paðtas:

brone@lzi.lt; masaudrone@lzi.lt

Santrauka

1998-2001 m. kalibraciniø lygèiø kûrimui sukaupta 1021 daugiameèiø þoliø bandiniø optiniø ir cheminiø duomenø bazë. Bandiniai surinkti ið ávairiø ðalies rajonø ûkiniø þolynø bei ið tiksliøjø bandymø, kuriuose þolës pjautos ávairiais augimo tarpsniais. Bandiniai iðdþiovinti ir sumalti laboratoriniu malûnu Cyclotec. Nuskenuoti spektrometru NIRS-6500. Atspindþio nuo cheminiø jungèiø spektrai suregistruo

ti 400-2500 nm intervale. Optinius duomenis atitinkantys þoliø cheminës sudëties duomenys: þaliø baltymø (CP), þalios (CF), rûgðèiø (MADF), neutraliame tirpale iðplautos (NDF) làstelienos, vandenyje tirpiø angliavandeniø (WSC) kiekiai bei virðkinamumas (PCDigest) nustatyti referentiniais cheminiais metodais.

Kalibracinëms lygtims kurti naudotos skirtingos kalibruojamø optiniø duomenø matematinio transformavimo, iðbarstymo koregavimo programos ir skirtingi bangø intervalai bei jø deriniai. Kiekvienam rodikliui parinkta tinkamiausia, pagal gaunamus lygèiø statistinius vertinimus, kalibracijos atlikimo technika. Geriausiai kontrolinës grupës þoliø bandinius analizuojanèios lygtys sujungtos á vienà, kuri ávardinta VZ2002_6.EQA. Analizavimo ðia lygtimi statistini

ai parametrai: CP R2p = 0,975, SEP = 0,510; CF R2p = 0,929, SEP = 1,220; MADF R2p = 0,969, SEP = 0,787; NDF R2p = 0,974, SEP = 1,400; WSC R2p= 0,965, SEP = 2,377 ir PCDigest R2p = 0,976, SEP = 1,893.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: daugiametës varpinës þolës, kokybë, lygtys NIRS.

Chapter 5. GRASSLAND HUSBANDRY

ISSN 1392-3194

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 2, 82, 157-168

UDK 633.2/.3:581.19:621.384:681.3

DATABASE COLLECTING AND DEVELOPMENT OF CALIBRATION EQUATIONS FOR THE EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GRASSES BY A NIR SPECTROPHOTOMETER

B. Butkutë, A. Maðauskienë, V. Paplauskienë

Summary

For the development of calibration equations we collected optical and chemical database including 1022 perennial grass samples over the period 1998-2001. Grass samples were dried, ground and air-dry scanned by the NIRS-6500 instrument. Sample reflectance spectra were recorded in the range of 400-2500 nm. Chemical composition parameters were determined by reference methods. The values of grass quality components were as follows: crude protein (CP) by Kjeldhal method 4.4-29.3 %, crude fibre (CF) by Henneberg-Stochmann method 14.6-44.5 %, modified acid detergent fibre method (MADF) 13.6-36.6 %, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) 19,2-66,0 %, water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) by antron method 2.6-35.0 %, dry matter digestibility (PCDigest) by pepsin – celloviridine method 42.0-87.4 %.

We studied the effects of calibrated data spectral pre-treatment, scatter correction and wavelength range on the precision of the developed equations. In relation to calibration conditions we developed from 6 to 27 equations for the investigation of the parameters. Accuracy of the equations was as follows: for CP estimation RSQ = 0.91÷0.97, SEC = 0.79÷0.93; CF RSQ = 0.95÷0.98, SEC = 0.95÷1.33; MADF RSQ = 0.97÷0.98, SEC = 0.78÷0.97; NDF RSQ = 0.97÷0.98, SEC = 1.34÷1.62; WSC RSQ = 0.96÷0.97, SEC = 1.21÷1.31; PCDigest RSQ = 0.90÷0.93, SEC = 2.73 ÷3.24. The equations showing the highest accuracy in the control group of grass samples were unified in one, referred to us VZ2002_6.EQA. Statistical parameters of analysing by this equation were as follows: CP R2p = 0.975, SEP = 0.510; CF R2p = 0.929, SEP = 1.220; MADF R2p = 0.969, SEP = 0.787; NDF R2p = 0.974, SEP = 1.400; WSC R2p = 0.965, SEP = 2.377 and PCDigest R2p = 0.976, SEP = 1.893.

Key words: perennial grasses, quality, equations, NIRS.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 2, 82, 169-188

UDK 633.2.032(255):633.2/.3

ÁVAIRIØ VEIKSNIØ ÁTAKA ÞOLIØ RÛÐIØ PASISKIRSTYMUI NEMUNO S

ALPOJE

Kazimieras KATUTIS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Þolininkystës skyrius

El. paðtas:

pievos@siltec.lt

Santrauka

1987-2001 m. Nemuno uþliejamose pievose atlikti tyrimai, kuriø tikslas – nustatyti ávairiø veiksniø átakà þoliø pasiskirstymui slënyje.

Tyrimo metu stebëta Nemuno þemaslënyje nusëdusio dumblo kiekis ir kokybë, dirvoþemiai bei þolynø botaninë sudëtis pievose.

Atlikus daugiafaktorinius tyrimus Nemuno þemaslënyje, nustatyta, kad þolynai skyrësi priklausomai nuo potvynio trukmës ir gruntinio vandens lygio vegetacijos metu. Pavaginëje upës dalyje augo smiltyniniai lendrûnai (Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth) ir ðaukðèiai (Petasites Mill), toliau nuo upës augo paprastosios ðunaþolës (Dactylis glomerata

L.) bei beginklës dirsës (Bromopsis inermis (Leyss.)), dar toliau – pieviniai paðiauðëliai (Alopecurus pratensis L.), pereinantys á nendriniø dryþuèiø (Phalaroides arundinacea (L.) Kanschert.) bendrijas. Prieþemyninëje slënio dalyje, ðlapiose vietose augo viksvø (Carex L.), vandeniniø monaþoliø (Glyceria maxima Holmbg.) ir vilkdalgiø (Iris pseudacarus L.).

Nustatyta, kad koreliacinius ryðius tarp þoliø iðplitimo ir tirtø veiksniø galima suskirstyti á pagrindinius, kurie nulemia botaninæ þolyno sudëtá, ir didesnæ reikðmæ turi GVL (½

0,01½ ≤ r ≤½ 0,71½ ) bei uþliejimo trukmë (½ 0,29½ ≤ r ≤½ 0,71½ ), o kiti tirti veiksniai daþniausiai lëmë atskirø þoliø iðplitimà, – tai molio daleliø, fosforo ir organinës medþiagos kiekis dirvoþemyje bei fosforo kiekis potvynio sànaðose.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: uþliejimas, botaninë þolyno sudëtis, Nemuno þemupio salpa.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 2, 82, 169-188

UDK 633.2.032(255):633.2/.3

EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT FACTORS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF GRASS SPECIES IN THE DELTA OF THE NEMUNAS RIVER

K. Katutis

Summary

During 1987-2001 experiments were carried out on the flooded meadows of the Nemunas river with a purpose to determine the effects of different factors on the distribution of grasses in the delta.

Results of the multiple-factor experiments suggest that the formation of grasslands in the lowland of the river Nemunas was dependent on the hydrodynamic regimes of the flood in these areas and on the depth of ground water during the vegetative growth season. Wood Small-reed (Calamagrostis epigeios L. Roth) and butter-bur (Petasites Mill) grew in the area near the riverbed grow further from the riverbed – cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.) and smooth brome-grass (Bromopsis inermis (Leyss.)), and still further – foxtail (Alopecurus pratensis L.) and reed canary grass (Phalaroides arundinacea (L.) Kanschert.). Sedge, reed sweet-grass (Glyceria maxima Holmbg.) and iris (Iris pseudacarus L.) grew in the wet part of the lowland.

It was established that correlations between the distribution of grasses and the investigated factors, can be divided into the most relevant ones, i.e. those that determine botanical composition of herbage – depth of ground water during cutting (½ 0,01½ ≤ r ≤½ 0,71½ ) and duration of flooding (½ 0,29½ ≤ r ≤½ 0,71½ ). The other investigated factor content of clay, phosphorus and organic matter contents in soil, and phosphorus content in flood sediments influenced the distribution of individual kinds of grasses.

Key words: flooding, botanical composition of herbage, delta of river Nemunas.


·Raðykite mums: lzi@lzi.lt