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I skyrius. DIRVOTYRA IR AGROCHEMIJA

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 1, 81, 3-13

UDK 633.63:631.8:631.559

PROGRAMUOTO TRÆÐIMO ÁTAKA CUKRINIØ RUNKELIØ DERLIUI IR MAISTO MEDÞIAGØ POREIKIUI

Daiva JANUÐAUSKAITË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institu

tas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. paðtas:

daiva@lzi.lt

Santrauka

2000 ir 2001 metais Dotnuvoje lengvo priemolio giliau karbonatingame sekliai glëjiðkame rudþemyje (pagal senà klasifikacijà – velëninis glëjiðkas dirvoþemis) darytas bandymas su cukriniø runkeliø veislëmis ‘Gala’, ‘Ariana’ ir ‘Kassandra’, siekiant nustatyti jø reakcijà á træðimà, augimo sàlygø átakà ðakniavaisiø ir lapø cheminei sudëèiai bei maisto medþiagø poreiká. Tràðø normos cukriniams runk

eliams apskaièiuotos patobulinta kompiuterine programa „Træðimas. Versija 2000”. Tràðø efektyvumui átakos turëjo metø orai. Tràðos buvo veiksmingos – nuo vieno kilogramo NPK veikliøjø medþiagø gauta vidutiniðkai 17,9-33,1 kg ðakniavaisiø.

Nustatyta cukrini

ø runkeliø derliaus ir cukringumo koreliacija su pasëlio struktûros elementais bei azoto, fosforo ir kalio poreikio kilogramais vienai tonai ðakniavaisiø ryðys su azoto koncentracija juose.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: cukriniai runkeliai, veislës, derlius, cheminë sudëtis, maisto medþiagø poreikis.

Chapter 1. SOIL SCIENCE AND AGROCHEMISTRY

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 1, 81, 3-13

UDK 633.63:631.8:631.559

EFFECTS OF PROGRAMMED FERTILIZATION ON SUGAR BEET YIELD AND NUTRIENT REQUIREMENT

D. Januðauskaitë

Summary

In 2000 and 2001 an experiment was carried out in Dotnuva on Endocalcari - Epihypogleyic Cambisols (according to the old classification - sod gleyic soil) to determine the response of the sugar beet varieties ‘Gala’, ‘Ariana’ and ‘Kassandra’ to fertilisation, as well as to study the effects of growing conditions on the chemical composition of roots and tops and nutrient requirement of the crop. Fertiliser rates for sugar beet were calculated using the upgraded computer programme “Fertilisation”. Version 2000. The efficacy of fertilisers was influenced by the weather conditions of the year. Fertilisers were efficient - one kg of NPK active ingredient gave on average 17.9-33.1 kg of roots. It was revealed that the tested varieties differed in their response to fertilisation and in utilisation of soil potential.

A correlation was determined between sugar beet root yield, sugar content and structural elements of the stand, as well as the relationship between the NPK requirement (kg) for one ton of roots and nitrogen concentration in roots.

Key words: sugar beet, varieties, yield, chemical composition, nutrient requirement.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 1, 81, 14-23

UDK 631.582:631.418

ÁVAIRAUS INTENSYVUMO SËJOMAINØ ÁTAKA AUGALØ MAISTO MEDÞIAGØ MIGRACIJAI VIDURIO LIETUVOJE

Saulius GUÞYS, Zita PETROKIENË

Lietuvos vandens ûkio institutas

Vilainiai, Këdainiø rajonas

El.paðtas: chal@water.omnitel.net

Santrauka

1996-1999 m. LVÛI Lipliûnø kaime giliau karbonatingo, giliau glëjiðko rudþemio (RDg-4-K2) dirvoþemyje atlikti kaupiamøjø (50 %), þoliø (75 %) ir javø (75 %) keturlaukiø sëjomainø agroekologinio ávertinimo tyrimai.

D

idþiausiu produktyvumu pasiþymëjo kaupiamøjø sëjomaina, per rotacijà sukaupusi 644 GJ ha-1 bendrosios energijos. Taip pat ji iðsiskyrë ir didþiausiu drenaþo nuotëkiu. Mineralinio azoto koncentracija drenaþo vandenyje ir iðplovimas priklauso nuo sëjomainos biologinio produktyvumo, træðimo ir ðiø rodikliø átakoje kinta y = a-bx+cx2 pobûdþio parabolës priklausomumu. Drenaþu iðplautø maisto medþiagø kieká lëmë drenaþo nuotëkis ir jø koncentracija vandenyje. Maisto medþiagø balansas, neatsiþvelgiant á taikomà sëjomainà, ið esmës priklauso nuo mineralinio NPK træðimo.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: sëjomainos, derlius, drenaþo vanduo, nuotëkis, azotas, fosforas, kalis, iðplovimas, balansas.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 1, 81, 14-23

UDK 631.582:631.418

THE INFLUENCE OF THE CROP ROTATIONS DIFFERING IN INTENSITY ON MATTER MIGRATION

S. Guþys, Z. Petrokienë

Summary

During 1996-1999 at the Lithuanian Institute of Water Management in the village of Lipliûnai in Endocalcari – Endohypogleyic Cambisols

(CMg-n-w-can) soils the investigations of row crops (50 %), grasses (75 %) and grains (75 %) agroecological evaluation were carried out.

The row crop rotation was distinguished by the highest productivity. Accumulated 644 GJ ha-1 of total energy per rotation. It was also distinguished by the highest drainage runoff. The concentration of mineral nitrogen in drainage water and its leaching depended on the crop rotation biological productivity and fertilization, and under the effect of these indicators changed in parabola (y = a-bx+cx2) regularities. The amount of leached nutrients (NPK) by drainage water was predetermined by drainage runoff and concentration of these elements in water. The balance of nutrients, irrespective of the crop rotation, was essentially predetermined by mineral NPK fertilization.

Key words: crop rotation, yield, drainage water, runoff, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, leaching and balance.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 1, 81, 24-33

UDK 631.174:633:631.582:631.452

ÞEMDIRBYSTËS SISTEMØ ÁTAKA AUGALØ IR DIRVOÞEMIO PRODUKTYVUMUI BEI MAISTO MEDÞIAGØ NUOSTOLIAMS

Ona BUNDINIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filialo Dûkðto bandymø punk

tas

Dûkðtas, Ignalinos rajonas

Santrauka

Smëlingo lengvo priemolio ir priesmëlio menkai ir vidutiniðkai eroduotame paprastajame iðplautþemyje (IDp el-e2) 1993-2001 m. tirta skirtingø þemdirbystës sistemø átaka lauko augalø ir þoliø sëjomainos bei dirvoþemio produktyvumui, taip pat ir poveikis maisto medþiagø neðimui. Dirvoþemis – maþai humusingas (1,8 %), didelio fosforingumo ir kalingas (atitinkamai 244 ir 188 mg kg

-1).

Duomenys rodo, kad lauko augalø sëjomainos produktyvumas organinëje-biologinëje þemdirbystës sistemoje sudarë 32,5 GJ ha

-1, o sànaudos produkcijos gigadþauliui gauti – 0,47 GJ arba 37,02 Lt. Integruotojoje þemdirbystës sistemoje produktyvumas padidëjo 1,5 karto, sànaudos produkcijos vienetui gauti sumaþëjo atitinkamai 19,5 GJ arba 21 %, intensyviojoje – 1,7 karto bei 23,4 arba 25,7 %, palyginus su organine-biologine þemdirbyste. 1 kg iðbertø tràðø davë atitinkamai 0,34 ir 0,38 GJ energetinës produkcijos.

Kalvose organinëje-biologinëje þemdirbystës sistemoje augintø daugiameèiø þoliø produktyvumas siekë 73,1 GJ ha

-1, o sànaudos produkcijos vienetui gauti sudarë 0,19 GJ, arba 11,03 Lt. Þoles træðiant, gauta 89,0 GJ ha-1, o sànaudos sudarë 0,28 GJ, arba 14,11 Lt. Sànaudos þoliø sëjomainos intensyviojoje þemdirbystës sistemoje iðaugo beveik treèdaliu, bet buvo beveik tiek pat maþesnës nei lauko sëjomainos augalø intensyviojoje sistemoje.

Augalus træðiant, dirvoþemyje gausëjo maisto medþiagø, o vandens nuotëkis bei dirvoþemio ir maisto medþiagø neðimas maþëjo.

Reikðminiai þodþiai

: lauko augalø sëjomaina, þoliø sëjomaina, þemdirbystës sistemos, maisto medþiagø nuostoliai.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 1, 81, 24-33

UDK 631.174:633:631.582:631.452

EFFECT OF CROPPING SYSTEMS ON CROP AND SOIL PRODUCTIVITY AND NUTRIENT LOSSES

O.

Bundinienë

Summary

The effect of different cropping systems on the productivity of field crops, grass crop rotation and soil, as well as on mutrient losses was investigated on a sandy, light loamy and sandy slightly and moderately eroded eluviated soil (IDp el-e2) during the period of 1993-2001. The soil of the experimental site is low in humus (1.8 %), high in phosphorus and potassium (244 and 188 mg kg-1 soil).

Experimental findings suggest that the productivity of the field crop rotation in the organic-biological cropping system was 32.5 GJ ha-1, and the input per gigajoule of production was 0.47 GJ, or 37.02 Lt. The productivity in the integrated cropping system increased 1.5 times, the input declined by 19.5 or 21 %, respectively, and in the intensive system the increase was 1.7 times, or 23.4 or 25.7 % compared with the organic-biological system. 1 kg of applied fertiliser generated 0.34 and 0.38 GJ of energy production.

The productivity of perennial grasses grown in the organic-biological system on hills was 73.1 GJ ha-1, and the input per production unit was 0.19 GJ or 11.03 Lt. When grasses were fertilised, 89.0 GJ ha-1 was obtained, and the input was 0.28 GJ or 14.11 Lt. The input in the grass crop rotation in the intensive cropping system increased almost by one third, but was almost as much lower as that of the field crop rotation crops in the intensive cropping system.

Fertilisation of crops resulted in the improved soil supply with nutrients and the decline in water run-off, and soil and nutrient losses.

Key words: field crop rotation, grass crop rotation, cropping systems, nutrient losses.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 1, 81, 34-43

UDK 633.63:631.582

SËJOMAINOS SU CUKRINIAIS RUNKELIAIS AUGALØ DERLINGUMO KITIMO VEIKSNIAI

Birutë PETKEVIÈIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Rumokø bandymø stotis

Klausuèiai, Vilkaviðkio rajonas

El. paðtas: rumokai@post.omnitel.net

Santrauka

Atlikta 1965-2000 metø sëjomainos, kuri árengta Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Rumokø bandymø stotyje, analizë. Nustatyti devyniø laukø sëjomainoje su dviem cukriniø runkeliø (22,2 % ), þieminiø kvieèiø arba rugiø (

22,2 % ), vasariniø mieþiø (22,2 % ), daugiameèiø þoliø: raudonøjø dobilø ir paðariniø motiejukø laukais ir vienu uþimtojo pûdymo lauku (vikiø ir aviþø miðinys þaliam paðarui (11,1 %) augalø derlingumo kitimà lemiantys veiksniai. Sëjomainoje nuo taikytø skirtingø agropriemoniø þieminiø kvieèiø derlingumas priklausë 10,2 %, cukriniø runkeliø – 9,9 %, þieminiø rugiø – 6,3 %, vasariniø mieþiø – 4,5 %, daugiameèiø þoliø – 2,6-5,2 %, vikiø ir aviþø miðinio (þaliam paðarui) – 10,1 %. Meteorologinës sàlygos vasariniø mieþiø derlingumo kitimui turëjo daugiausiai átakos – 9,0 %, þieminiø rugiø – 8,2 %, pirmøjø naudojimo metø daugiameèiø þoliø – 7,2 %, þieminiø kvieèiø – 6,5 % ir maþiausiai – cukriniø runkeliø (2,7 %). Nustatyta, kad nuo azoto kiekio kitimo sëjomainoje priklausë rugiø (r = 0,99) ir vasariniø mieþiø (r = 0,95) derlius, nuo fosforo kiekio kitimo priklausë þieminiø kvieèiø (r = 0,7), vasariniø mieþiø (r = 0,6) ir daugiameèiø þoliø (r = 0,72-0,91) derlius, nuo kalio kiekio kitimo priklausë þieminiø rugiø (r = 0,8), cukriniø runkeliø (r = 0,8) ir daugiameèiø þoliø (r = 0,7-0,8) derlius.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: sëjomaina, cukriniai runkeliai, derlius, azotas, fosforas, kalis, træðimas, meteorologinës sàlygos.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 1, 81, 34-43

UDK 633.63:631.582

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE YIELD VARIATIONS OF CROPS GROWN IN THE ROTATION WITH SUGAR BEETS

B. Petkevièienë

Summary

Factors influencing variations in the crop yield were identified at the Rumokai Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during 1965-2000 where a nine-field crop rotation included two fields of sugar beets (22.2 % ), winter wheat or rye (22.2 % ), spring barley (22.2 % ), perennial grasses – red clover and common timothy, one fallow field planted with vetch and oat mixture (11.1 % ) for green fodder. Application of different agricultural practices resulted in the following yield variations: winter wheat – 10.2 %, sugar beets – 9.9 %, winter rye – 6.3 %, spring barley – 4.5 %, perennial grasses – between 2.6 and 5.2 %, vetch and oats mixture (for green fodder) – 10.1 %. Meteorological conditions had the most critical impact on the yield variations of spring barley (9.0 %), winter rye (8.2 %), perennial grasses of the first year of use (7.2 %), winter wheat (6.5 %) while a more moderate influence was witnessed by sugar beets (2.7). It was determined that the variation of nitrogen content in the crop rotation correlated with rye yield (r = 0.99) and spring barley yield (r = 0.95), the variation of phosphorus content correlated with winter wheat yield (r = 0.7), spring barley yield (r = 0.6) and perennial grass yield (r = 0.72-0.91), and the variation of potassium content correlated with winter rye yield (r = 0.8), sugar beet yield (r = 0.8) and perennial grass yield (r = 0.7-0.8).

Key words: crop rotation, sugar beet yield, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, fertilisation, weather conditions.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 1, 81, 44-63

UDK 631.416.2:[631.862+631.82+631.821.1]

DIRVOÞEMIO FOSFORO FORMØ BEI MINERALINIØ FOSFATØ FRAKCIJØ POKYÈIAI DËL KALKINIMO IR TRÆÐIMO

Liudmila TRIPOLSKAJA

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filialas

Trakø Vokë, Vilnius

El. paðtas: liudmila.tripolskaja@voke.lzi.lt

Santrauka

LÞI Vokës filiale 1998-2000 m. buvo atlikti fosforo reþimo pokyèiø tyrimai dël kalkinimo ir træðimo organinëmis bei mineralinëmis tràðomis paprastajame iðplautþemyje ilgalaikiuose stacionariniuose bandymuose. Organinio ir mineralinio fosforo kiekiai bei mineraliniø fosfatø frakcijos buvo nustatytos Èango ir Dþeksono metodu, modifikuotu Askinazio, Ginzburgo ir Lebedevos. Judriosios fosforo formos taip pat buvo nustatytos A-L metodu ir

verdanèio vandens iðtraukoje.

Nustatyta, kad sistemingas træðimas mëðlu turi didesnæ átakà fosforo reþimui nei kalkinimas. Po 12 tyrimø metø, træðiant mëðlu ir NPK, dirvoþemio fosforingumas padidëjo nuo 161-182 mg kg

-1 iki 322-495 mg kg-1 P2O5.Træðiant mëðlu, padidëjo ir fosforo migracija á poarmená. Dirvos 20-40 cm sluoksnyje judriojo fosforo padidëjo nuo160 iki 244-395 mg kg-1. Dirvoþemyje ið esmës padidëjo mineraliniø fosfatø atsargos (iki 54,1-72,0 % nuo bendro fosforo kiekio), ið jø judriøjø fosforo formø, nustatomø A-L metodu ir verdanèio vandens iðtraukoje, bei vandenyje tirpiø mineraliniø fosfatø. Fosforo reþimo pokyèiai kalkintame dirvoþemyje priklausë nuo kalkiniø tràðø normø bei laikotarpio, praëjusio po paskutinio kalkinimo. Daugiau augalams prieinamø fosfatø rasta kà tik kalkintame dirvoþemyje. Kalkinimas maþai turëjo átakos vandenyje tirpiø fosfatø kiekiui. Saikingai ir intensyviai kalkintame dirvoþemyje jø buvo atitinkamai 0,3 ir 0,6 nuo bendro fosforo kiekio. Dirvoþemio reakcijai rûgðtëjant iki pHKCl 4,4 arba neutralëjant iki 6,4-6,7, didëjo netirpaus fosforo kiekis.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: dirvoþemis, organinës ir mineralinës tràðos, fosforo formos, fosfatø frakcijos.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 1, 81, 44-63

UDK 631.416.2:[631.862+631.82+631.821.1]

THE CHANGES IN PHOSPHORIC formS and fractions of mineral phosphorus on HAPLIC LUVISOL IN RESPONSE TO THE APPLICATION OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS AND LIMING

L. Tripolskaja

Summary

The effect of regular application of manure, m

anure with mineral fertilizers and liming on phosphoric regime of soil was studied at the Vokë Branch of LIA during 1998-2000. The soil of the experimental site is soddy-podzolic sandy loam. The determination of the forms of phosphates and mineral phosphates fraction was done by the method Chang and Jackson (1957), modified by Askinazi, Ginzburg and Lebedeva (1963). The content of mobile phosphorus was determined by the A-L method. It was established that at regular application of the tested manure types in the arable layer of soil, the content of mobile phosphorus increased considerably from 161-182 mg kg-1 to 322-495 mg kg-1. Under the influence of manure the migration of phosphorus in the subsoil horizon considerably increased. In 12 years of regular fertiliser application the content of mobile phosphorus increased in the 20-40 cm layer from 160 to 244-395 mg kg-1 P2O5. The fraction analysis of phosphate structure shows that at regular application of manure in the soil the amount of mobile phosphorus determined in the solution of hot water increased essentially. In the not fertilised soil the content of phosphorus was 22.8 mg kg-1, in fertilised with various types of manure and NPK – 204-590 mg kg-1. The amount of available phosphorus determined in 1 n solution NH4Cl increased less considerably – from 7.5 mg kg-1 on the not fertilised soil, up to 42.2-68.8 mg kg-1 on the soil fertilised with manure. Under the influence of brought in fertilisers the content of Ca-phosphates increased. The regular application of manure and NPK fertilisers increased the content of organic phosphorus from 595 (unfertilised soil) up to 568-822 mg kg-1.

The influence of soil liming on phosphoric regime was lesser than that of manuring. The contents of mineral and organic phosphate and mineral fraction of phosphates depended on the amount of limstone and the duration after application. The amount of mineral phosphate and Ca-phosfate was higher on the intensively limed soil. The content of organic phosphate was higher on the soil limed in 1988. Phosphorus fixation in the fraction, least available to plants (solution H2SO4 and HClO4) depended on the soil reaction (pHKCl).

Key words: soil, manure, mineral fertilisers, phosphorus, the fractional composition of phosphates.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 1, 81, 64-72

UDK 631.8:633.63:631.559:581.19

ORGANINIØ IR MINERALINIØ TRÀÐØ ÁTAKA CUKRINIØ RUNKELIØ DERLIUI

Irena KRIÐTAPONYTË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Joniðkëlio bandymø stotis

Joniðkëlis, Pasvalio rajonas

El. paðtas:

joniskelio_lzi@post.omnitel.net

Santrauka

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Joniðkëlio bandymø stotyje giliau karbonatiniame giliau glëjiðkame rudþemyje, penkialaukëje iðskleistoje sëjomainoje 1996-2000 metais tirta organinë, organinë – mineralinë ir mineralinë træðimo sistemø átaka cukriniø runkeliø derliui, cukringumui, cheminei sudëèiai ir maisto medþiagø pasisavinimui. Didþiausias ðakniavaisiø derlius – 60,2-61,8 t ha

-1 ir daugiausia biologinio cukraus 11,2-11,4 t ha-1 gauta taikant organinæ - mineralinæ træðimo sistemà, kur naudota 40, 60 ir 80 t ha-1 mëðlo ir mineralinës tràðos. Træðiant cukrinius runkelius vien mineralinëmis (N120P90K120) tràðomis, jø derlius ir biologinio cukraus kiekis padidëjo atitinkamai 65,7 % ir 58,0 %, o træðiant vien organinëmis tràðomis – 50,1 % ir 44,9 %, palyginus su netræðtu laukeliu. Naudojant 40, 60 ir 80 t ha-1 mëðlo ir NPK tràðas, ðakniavaisiø derlius maþai skyrësi, taèiau gauta atitinkamai 4,7, 6,4 ir 7,5 % daugiau, negu træðiant tik mineralinëmis tràðomis. Nenaudojant tràðø, gautas maþiausias cukriniø runkeliø derlius, o cukringumas buvo didþiausias – 19,8 %.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: træðimo sistemos, cukriniai runkeliai, biologinis cukrus, cukringumas, dirvoþemis.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 1, 81, 64-72

UDK 631.8:633.63:631.559:581.19

THE INFLUENCE OF ORGANIC AND MINERAL FERTILISERS ON SUGAR BEET PRODUCTIVITY

I. Kriðtaponytë

Summary

The effects of different fertilisation syst

ems on the sugar beet root yield, its chemical composition and sugar content were studied on a sod-gleyic clay loam soil at the Joniðkëlis Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in a five – course crop rotation over the period 1996-2000.

Experimental results suggest that the highest sugar beet root yield (60.2-61.8 t ha-1) and the highest biological sugar yield (11.2-11.4 t ha-1) were achieved using the organic-mineral fertilization system. In the treatment involving mineral fertiliser alone (N120P90K120), the root and biological sugar yields increased by 65.7 % and 58.0 %, respectively, while in the treatment applied with only organic fertilisers – in the yield increase was 50.1 % and 44.9 %, compared with the untreated plot. In the treatments applied with 40, 60 and 80 t ha-1 farmyard manure and NPK fertilisers, the root yield differed inconsiderably between the treatments, however yield increases of 4.7, 6.4 and 7.5 %, respectively were obtained compared with only mineral fertilisation.

In the treatments without fertilizers the lowest sugar beet root yield but the highest sugar content (19.8 %) were obtained.

Key words: sugar beet, biological sugar, sugar content, fertilisers, manure.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 1, 81, 73-84

UDK 631.874:633.491:631.559

POSËLINIØ AUGALØ ÞALIOSIOS TRÀÐOS ÁTAKA BULViø DERLIAUS produktyvumui

Alë BANIÛNIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Perlojos bandymø stotis

Perloja, Varënos rajonas

El. paðtas: perlojabst@varena.omnitel.net

Santrauka

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Perlojos bandymø stotyje lengvos granuliometrinës sudëties dirvoþemyje 1997-2001 m. tirta posëlyje augintø lubinø ir rapsø bei jø miðiniø þaliosios tràðos átaka bulviø produktyvumui, palyginus su mëðlu, ir lubinø, sëtø pavasará, þaliàja tràða. Daugiausiai, t.y. 28,4 t ha

-1, þalios masës iðaugino lubinai, sëti pavasará. Posëliniø augalø þalia masë buvo 2,2-2,6 karto maþesnë. Bulvës geriausiai derëjo patræðtos mëðlu. Derliaus priedas buvo 3,09 t ha-1, arba 21 % daugiau negu be mëðlo. Po lubinø, sëtø pavasará, ir posëlyje uþaugintø miðiniø bei rapsø þalios masës, bulviø derlius padidëjo 13-16 %. Nuo lubinø, sëtø vasarà kaip posëliniø, bulviø derlius padidëjo 10 %.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: posëliniai augalai, lubinø ir rapsø þalioji tràða, bulviø produktyvumas.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 1, 81, 73-84

UDK 631.874:633491:631.559

EFFECTS OF POST-CROPS’ GREEN MANURE ON POTATO PRODUCTIVITY

A. Baniûnienë

Summary

Effect of lupine and oilseed rape grown as post-crops and their mixtures used as green manure on potato productivity was compared with that of farmyard manure and green material of lupine sown in spring for green manure. The trials were conducted at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s Perloja Experimental Station during 1997-2001 on Hapli-Albic Luvisols (LVA-He).

The highest green material yield 28.4 t ha-1 was produced by lupine sown in spring. The yield of post-crops’ green material was 2.2-2.6 times lower. Potato crops treated with farmyard manure were most produ ctive. The yield increase was 3.09 t ha-1 or 21 % higher compared with the treatment without manure. A 13-16 % potato yield increase occurred after lupine, sown in spring and green manure of mixtures and rape grown as post-crops.

Key words: post-crops, green material of lupine and rape, potato productivity.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 1, 81, 85-97

UDK 633.854.54:631.84:631.542.4:631.559

AZOTO TRÀÐØ IR DESIKANTØ ÁTAKA SËMENINIØ LINØ DERLIUI

Zofija JANKAUSKIENË, Stasys MIKELIONIS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Upytës bandymø stotis

Upytë, Panevëþio ra

jonas

El. paðtas:

soja@upyte.lzi.lt

Santrauka

1997-1999 m. Upytës bandymø stotyje tirta skirtingø azoto (30, 60, 90 ir 120 kg ha

-1) normø ir dviejø desikantø – raundapo (2,5 l ha-1) ir reglono super (2,5 l ha-1) – átaka sëmeniniø linø derliui bei jo kokybei.

Linø prieðsëlis – þieminiai kvieèiai. Dirvoþemis – giliau karbonatingas giliau glëjiðkas rudþemis, kurio pH

KCl – 7,2-7,5, humuso – 1,9-2,6 %, bendrojo azoto – 0,13-0,14 %, judriojo P2O5 – 187-307 mg kg-1, judriojo K2O – 141-186 mg kg-1.

Sëmeninius linus patræðus prieð sëjà azotu nuo 30 iki 120 kg ha

-1, stiebeliø derlius ið esmës didëjo – iki 16,5 %, o sëmenø derlius nekito. Lietingais metais patræðus azotu didëjo linø iðgulimas. Linø desikavimo reglonu super arba raundapu átakos sëmenø derliui nenustatyta.

Sëmeninius linus desikavus reglonu super (2,5 l ha

-1), sumaþëjo galvenø drëgnumas vidutiniðkai 12 %, sëmenø – 6 %, stiebeliø – 26 %. Raundapas (2,5 l ha-1) stiebeliø drëgnumà maþino vidutiniðkai 14 %.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: sëmeniniai linai, derlius, træðimas azotu, desikantai, drëgnumas.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 1, 81, 85-97

UDK 633.854.54:631.84:631.542.4:631.559

THE INFLUENCE OF NITROGEN FERTILISERS AND DESICCANTS ON LINSEED YIELD

Z. Jankauskienë, S. Mikelionis

Summary

The aim of the trial was to investigate the effect of different nitrogen rates and desiccation on linseed yield and quality.

The trial was carried out during 1997-1999 at the Upytë Research Sta

tion where the impact of different rates of nitrogen (30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1) and application of two desiccants (Roundup 2.5 l ha-1 and Reglone super 2.5 l ha-1) were investigated.

Linseed was grown in a 7-field crop rotation after cereals. The soil of the experimental site was endocalcari-endohypogleyc cambisol. Agrochemical soil characteristics were the following: pHKCl 7.2-7.5, content of total nitrogen 0.13-0.14 %, humus content 1.9-2.6 %, content of available phosphorus 187-307 mg kg-1, content of available potassium 141-186 mg kg-1 soil.

The linseed stem yield increased 16,5 % when nitrogen rates from 30 to 120 kg ha-1 had been applied. The influence of nitrogen rates on seed yield was not established as well as the influence of desiccation. In rainy years the application of nitrogen led to linseed lodging.

Applying of Reglone super at a rate of 2.5 l ha-1 decreased humidity of capsules 12 %, of seeds 6 %, of stems 26 %. Roundup 2.5 l ha-1 decreased humidity of stems 14 %.

Key words: linseed, yield, N fertilising, desiccation, humidity.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 1, 81, 98-108

UDK 631.43:631.87]:631.582

DIRVOS FIZIKINIØ SAVYBIØ POKYÈIAI UÞARIANT AUGALØ ÐALUTINÆ PRODUKCIJÀ CUKRINIØ RUNKELIØ SËJOMAINOJE

Algimantas MAGYLA

Li

etuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. paðtas: albinas@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Siekiant palyginti augalø ðalutinës produkcijos uþarimà su træðimu mëðlu, Dotnuvoje padaryti trys po 5 metus trukæ bandymai. Jie árengti po þieminiø kvieèiø, paskui auginant cukrinius runkelius, mieþius, vasarinius kvieèius bei vikiø ir aviþø miðiná. Mëðlu træðti runkeliai, o augalø ðalutinë produkcija naudota tràðai NPK fone kasmet. NPK normos runkeliams buvo atitinkamai 120, 90 ir 150, javams – 60,

60 ir 60, miðinys netræðtas.

Ðiaudai dirvos tanká pradþioje maþino menkai, vëliau sëjomainoje jø átaka stiprëjo ir paskutiniaisiais metais buvo tokia pat, kaip ir susilpnëjæs mëðlo poveikis. Uþariant ðiaudus, dirvoþemio struktûros patvarumas gerëjo kaip ir

nuo 50 t ha-1 mëðlo, runkeliø lapai veikë silpniau, o kartu su ðiaudais – net geriau nei mëðlas. Dirvos fizikiniø savybiø pokyèius lëmë su augalø ðalutine produkcija á dirvà patekæs sausøjø medþiagø kiekis.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: dirvos fizikinës savybës, ðiaudai ir runkeliø lapai tràðai, sëjomaina.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 1, 81, 98-108

UDK 631. 43:631.87]:631.582

CHANGES IN THE SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES IN RESPONSE TO THE PLOUGHING-DOWN OF PLANT BY-PRODUCE IN THE SUGAR BEET CROP ROTATION

A. Magyla

Summary

Three 5-year field experiments were conducted in Dotnuva with the aim to compare ploughing-down of plant by-produce with farmyard manure fertilisation. The experiments were set up after winter wheat and involved sugar beet, barley, spring wheat, and vetch and oats mixture. Farmyard manure was applied to sugar beet, and plant by-produce was used as a fertiliser on NPK background annually. NPK rates for sugar beet were as follows – 120, 90 and 150, for cereals 60, 60 and 60. The mixture did not receive NPK fertilisation.

Initially, straw had a weak effect on the reduction of soil porosity, later its effect in the crop ratation increased, and in the last year was the same as the weakend effect of farmyard manure. In the treatment involving ploughing down of straw the soil structural stability improved as much as from the application of 50 t ha-1 farmyard manure. Sugar beet leaves had a weaker effect, and together with straw its effect was even better than that of farmyard manure. The changes in soil physical properties were determined by the amount of dry matter incorporated into the soil with plant by-produce.

Key words: soil physical properties, straw and beet leaves as fertiliser, crop rotation.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë.

Mokslo darbai, 2003, 1, 81, 109-127

UDK 631.582:631.87:[631.41+631.461

DIRVOS AGROCHEMINIØ IR MIKROBIOLOGINIØ SAVYBIØ POKYÈIAI UÞARIANT AUGALØ ÐALUTINÆ PRODUKCIJÀ CUKRINIØ RUNKELIØ SËJOMAINOJE

Algimantas MAGYLA, Aldona SVIRSKIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës

institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. paðtas: albinas@lzi.lt

Santrauka

1994-2000 m. Dotnuvoje, siekiant palyginti augalø ðalutinës produkcijos uþarimà su træðimu mëðlu, padaryti trys po 5 metus trukæ bandymai. Jie árengti po þieminiø kvieèiø, paskui auginant cukrinius runkelius, mieþius, vasarinius kvieèius bei vikiø ir aviþø miðiná. Mëðlu træðti runkeliai, o augalø ðalutinë produkcija naudota tràðai NPK fone kasmet. NPK normos cukriniams runkeliams buvo atitinkamai 120, 90 ir 150, javams –

60, 60 ir 60, miðinys netræðtas.

Visos augalø ðalutinës produkcijos uþarimas sëjomainoje, palyginus su træðimu mëðlu 50 t ha

-1, virðijo já sausøjø medþiagø ir ypaè kalio atþvilgiu, bet atsiliko azoto ir ypaè fosforo kiekiu. Ûkinis azoto balansas prilygo træðimui mëðlu, fosforo – buvo teigiamas, bet perpus maþesnis, o kalio – þymiai geresnis negu pamëþus. Nuo runkeliø lapø, o ilgainiui ir nuo ðiaudø uþarimo dirvoje pagausëjo kalio, nuo ðiaudø maþëjo mineralinio azoto. Dirvos biologinis aktyvumas, uþariant ðiaudus su azoto priedu ir kartu runkeliø lapus, buvo panaðus kaip patræðus mëðlu.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: dirvos agrocheminës ir mikrobiologinës savybës, ðiaudai ir runkeliø lapai tràðai, sëjomaina.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 1, 81, 109-127

UDK 631.582:631.87:[631.41+631.461

CHANGES IN SOIL AGROCHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AS AFFECTED BY PLOUGHING-DOWN PLANT BY-PRODUCE IN THE SUGAR BEET CROP ROTATION

A. Magyla, A. Svirskienë

Summary

Three experiments lasting for 5 years were conducted during 1994-2000 in Dotnuva with the aim to compare ploughing-down of plant by-produce with farmyard manure application. The experiments were established after winter wheat suceeded by sugar beet, barley, spring wheat and vetch and oats mixture. Farmyard manure was applied to beet, and plant by-produce was used as fertiliser in the NPK background annually. NPK rates for sugar beet were 120-90-150, respectively, for cereals – 60-60-60 the mixture was not fertilised.

Ploughing down of all plant by-produce in the crop rotation, compared with 50 t ha-1 farmyard manure application, exceeded it in respect to dry matter and potassium, but lagged behind in respect to nitrogen and especially, phosphorus content. Farm balance of nitrogen was identical with farmyard manure application, that of phosphorus – positive but 50 % less, and that of potassium – much better than after manure application. Ploughing-down of beet tops and in the longer run-straw resulted in an increase of potassium. Ploughing-down of straw resulted in a reduction in mineral nitrogen. Biological activity of soil when ploughing down straw with nitrogen addition and together beet tops was similar to that when farmyard manure was applied.

Key words: agrochemical and microbiological properties of soil, straw and beet tops as fertiliser, crop rotation.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 1, 81, 128-141

UDK 633.491:631.874

SIDERACINIØ AUGALØ AGROBIOLOGINIS ÁVERTINIMAS BULVIØ SËJOMAINOJE

Vidmantas RUDOKAS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Elmininkø bandymø stotis

N. Elmininkai, Anykðèiai

El.paðtas:elmininkai@anyksciai.omnitel.net

Santrauka

Elmininkø bandymø stoties smëlingame lengvo priemolio karbonatingame giliau glëjiðkame iðplautþemyje (IDg4-k) 1996-2002 metais tirta sideracinë agrobiologinë augalø átaka bulviø sëjomainoje. Sëjomaina: sideraciniai augalai-bulvës-bulvës-mieþiai. Tirti ðie sideraciniai augalai: dobilai, jø paskutinis atolas, vikiø ir aviþø miðinys, vienametës svidrës, aliejiniai ridikai ir baltosios garstyèios. Kontrolinis variantas – juodasis pûdymas.

Nustatyta, kad sideraciniø augalø biomasë armenyje paliko nevienodà, iki 3,8 karto besiskiriantá organinës medþiagos kieká: dobilai – 15,8, dobilø atolas – 6,9, vienameèiai sideraciniai augalai – 4,1-8,3 t ha

-1 sausøjø medþiagø.

Humuso teigiamiems pokyèiams átakos turëjo visi tirti sideraciniai augalai, padidindami dirvoþemio humusingumà 2,9-6,0 %.

Dël sideraciniø augalø, iðskyrus dobilus, gauti esminiai – 2,1-5,1 t ha

-1 bulviø gumbø derliaus priedai, o didþiausias – po vikiø ir aviþø miðinio ir po jo augintø ir uþartø þaliajai tràðai baltøjø garstyèiø – 5,1 t ha-1.

Vidutinis sëjomainos augalø derlius, iðreikðtas apykaitos energija, nuo vienameèiø sideraciniø augalø padidëjo ið esmës – 8,0-9,9 GJ ha

-1, arba 11,6-14,4 %, nuo mëðlo – 10,2 GJ ha-1, arba 14,8 %.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: sideraciniai augalai, mëðlas, biomasë, humusas, sausosios medþiagos.

ISSN 1392-3194

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 1, 81, 128-141

UDK 633.491:631.874

AGROBIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT – OF GREEN MANURE PLANTS IN A POTATO CROP ROTATION

V. Rudokas

Summary

Experiments were carried out during 1996-2001 on an Endohypogleyic – calcaric Luvisol with a pH ranging between 5.9-6.1, humus content 1.68-1.71 %, nitrogen content 0.180-0.128 %, phosphorus content 156-185, potassium content 116-104 mg kg-1 soil.

The following green manure crops were investigated: clover, its aftermath, vetch and oats mixture, annual ryegrass, oil radish and white mustard. Black fallow was the control.

It was determined that with fertilisation of potatoes with green manure crops and their residues the soil received the following N, P2O5 and K2O contents: 788 kg with clover, 283 kg with clover aftermath and 222-504 kg ha with annual green manure crops.

Through green manuring average metabolizable energy yield in the crop rotation increased by 4.3-9.9GJ ha-1 or 6.2-14.4 % when fertilising potatoes.

The abundance of earthworms and their biomass in the soil was mostly increased by growing of clover for green manure: after clover the number of earthworms was 76.4-85.1 units m-2, their biomass 45.8-48.5 g m-2, after annual green manure crops 28.6-32.5 units m-2 and 18.9-20.2 gm-2. The number of earthworms in the control treatment was 27.9 units m-2 and 18.1 g m-2, respectively.

Humus content in the soil tended to increase by 0.05-0.10 percentage unit under the effects of green manure crops, and tended to decline by 0.08 percentage unit in the check treatment when fertilising potatoes.

Economic assessment of the investigated measures suggests that a higher net income was obtained through annual green manure crops compared with clover.

Key words: green manure, farmyard manure, humus, dry matter yield.

 

II skyrius. ÞEMDIRBYSTË IR AUGALININKYSTË

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 1, 81, 142-155

UDK 633.442.4:631.51:631.41

AGROPRIEMONËS SUNKIØ DIRVOÞEMIØ ARMENS IR POARMENIO SAVYBËMS GERINTI

Aleksandras VELYKIS, Antanas SATKUS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Joniðkëlio bandymø stotis

Joniðkëlis, Pasvalio rajonas

El. paðtas: joniskelio_lzi@post.omnitel.net

Alvyra ÐLEPETIENË, Aldona SVIRSKIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. paðtas: alvyra@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Limnoglacialinio sunkaus priemolio ant dulkiðkojo molio, pakloto moreniniu smëlingu priemoliu, glëjiðkojo rudþemio savybëms pagerinti 1997-2000 m. Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Joniðkëlio bandymø stotyje tirtos kompleksinës agropriemonës. Meliorantai: mëðlas, þaliosios tràðos ir kalkiø defekatas áterpti verstuviniu ir segmentiniu plûgais atitinkamai 25 cm ir iki 40 cm gyliais. Áterpus taikyta

s skirtingas pagrindinis þemës dirbimas – verstuvinis arimas 25 cm gyliu ir neverstuvinis purenimas 25 ir 15 cm gyliais. Po meliorantø áterpimo trejus metus auginti þieminiai kvieèiai, vasariniai mieþiai bei aviþø ir vikiø miðinys.

Nustatyta, kad teigiamas

poveikis armens ir poarmenio savybëms ilgiau iðliko áterpus mëðlà ir kalkiø defekatà, trumpiau – þaliàsias tràðas. Poarmeniui gerinti efektyvesnis buvo kalkiø defekatas. Dël neverstuvinio þemës dirbimo prastëjo armens fizikinës savybës, maþëjo humusingumas ir augalø derlius, bet gerëjo humuso kokybë virðutiniame armens sluoksnyje.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: sunkus priemolis, meliorantø áterpimas, þemës dirbimas, dirvoþemio savybës, augalø derlius.

Chapter 2. AGRICULTURE AND CROP PRODUCTION

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 1, 81, 142-155

UDK 633.442.4:631.51:631.41

AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF HEAVY-TEXTURED TOPSOIL AND SUBSOIL PROPERTIES

A. Velykis, A. Satkus, A. Ðlepetienë, A. Svirskienë

Summary

Ameliorants – farmyard and green manures, lime-mud incorporated with a mouldboard and segment plough at 25 and 40 cm depths, respectively, also different primary soil tillage methods (mouldboard ploughing at 25 cm depth and mouldboardless loosening at 25 and 15 cm depths) were investigated over the period 1997-2000 at the Joni

ðkëlis Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture for the improvement of glacial lacustrine clay loam on silty clay, lying under morainic sandy loam, Gleyic Cambisol properties.

It was determined, that the positive effect lasts longer, when incorporating farmyard manure and lime – mud, shorter – in the case of green manure. Lime – mud was more effective for subsoil improvement. Topsoil physical properties worsened, humus content and crop yield decreased, however, humus quality improved in the upper topsoil layer through mouldboardless soil tillage.

Key words: clay loam, incorporation of ameliorants, soil tillage, soil properties, crop yield.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 1, 81, 156-167

UDK 631.582.9

DIRVONO PARUOÐIMO BÛDAI ÞIEMKENÈIAMS

Algirdas NEDZINSKAS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filialas

Trakø Vokë, Vilnius

El.paðtas: sekretoriatas@voke.lzi.lt

Santrauka

1997-1999 metais

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filiale atliktø lauko bandymø tikslas buvo nustatyti, kaip paruoðti dirvonà þieminiø rugiø sëjai, koks þemës dirbimo bûdas tinkamiausias ir kada panaudotas herbicidas raundapas geriausiai naikina piktþoles.

Nustatyta,

kad geriausias mechaniniø ir cheminiø priemoniø derinys keletà metø nenaudojamoms priesmëlio dirvoms paruoðti þieminiø rugiø sëjai buvo, kai pavasará piktþolës nupjautos, dirva sulëkðèiuota, o atþëlusios ir naujai sudygusios piktþolës nupurkðtos raundapu 4 l ha-1. Daugiameèiø piktþoliø þieminiuose rugiuose buvo 78,1 %, o visø piktþoliø orasausës masës 82,5 % maþiau, palyginus su piktþolëtumu prieð ádirbant dirvà ir panaudojant herbicidà.

Be herbicidø tinkamiausias nenaudojamø, piktþolëtø dirvø paruoðimo bûdas – nupjovus piktþoles, dirva du kartus sulëkðèiuojama ir suariama. Didþiausias þieminiø rugiø grûdø derlius gautas, kai nedirbta, apleista dirva, pavasará nupjovus piktþoles, suarta ir auginti aliejiniai ridikai þaliajai tràðai. Þieminiai rugiai, pasëti

po þaliosios tràðos, uþaugino 14,8 % didesná grûdø derliø, palyginus su kitais dirvos paruoðimo bûdais, kur dirva buvo arta, lëkðèiuota ar naudoti herbicidai.

Ávertinus atliktø darbø iðlaidas hektarui pagal vidutinius ákainius, nustatyta, kad apleistos, labai piktþolëtos dirvos vieno hektaro paruoðimas þieminiø rugiø sëjai buvo pats brangiausias – 563 Lt, kai dirva arta sluoksniniu bûdu. Kai dirva buvo neádirbta, o laukas nupurkðtas raundapu ir vëliau suartas, hektaro iðlaidos siekë 423 litus. Dirvà sulëkðèiavus du kartus ir vëliau suarus hektaro paruoðimo sëjai iðlaidos sudarë 449 Lt.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: dirvonas, sluoksninis arimas, lëkðèiavimas, raundapas, þieminiai rugiai.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 1, 81, 156-167

UDK 631.582.9

TILLAGE METHODS OF VIRGIN LAND FOR WINTER RYE

A. Nedzinskas

Summary

Field trials were carried out at the Vokë Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture on a sod podzolic sandy loam soil during 1997-1999.

It was established that weeds were killed more efficiently by disking and applying the herbicide Roundup (4 l ha-1) after weed emergence.

The amount of weeds in winter rye stands decreased by 77.5 %, and their dry mass by 82.5 % compared with a weed infected virgin soil. The highest yield of winter rye (3.03 t ha-1) was obtained in the treatment where virgin soil had been ploughed early in spring and oil radish for green manure was sown.

In the treatment where virgin soil for winter rye was ploughed 3 times, the costs reached 563 litas per ha. In the treatment where stubble breaking was applied, the costs decreased by 12 %.

Key words: winter rye, disking, cultivation, Roundup application, virgin soil.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 1, 81, 168-183

UDK 633.63:631.531.04

ÁVAIRIU INTENSYVUMU IR SKIRTINGAIS SËJOS BÛDAIS SUFORMUOTOS CUKRINIØ RUNKELIØ SËKLØ GUOLIAVIETËS TYRIMAI KRITZ METODU (ÐVEDIJA)

Kæstutis ROMANECKAS, Egidijus ÐARAUSKIS

Lietuvos þemës ûkio universitetas

El. paðtas: rkestas@nora.lzua.lt

Santrauka

LÞÛU Bandymø stotyje giliai glëjiðko karbonatingo iðplautþemio lengvo priemolio dirvoþemyje 2000-2002 m. tirta þemës dirbimo intensyvumo ir sëjos bûdø átaka cukriniø runkeliø sëklø guoliavietës formavimui. Tyrimai atlikti remiantis Kritz metodu (Ðvedija). Tirti 4 sëklø guoliavietës paruoðimo bûdai: sëjant á nedirbtà raþienà, vertikaliø rotoriø kultivatoriumi VRK-182 bei freziniu kultivatoriumi UFK-300 supurentà raþienà, intensyviai dirbtà dirvà (rudená arta, prieð sëjà purenta kultivatoriumi KPS-400 ir voluota).

Taip pat tirti du sëjos bûdai: sëta áprastine pneumatine sëjamàja su pleiðtiniais noragëliais ir raþienine sëjamàja su sudëtiniais diskiniais - pavaþiniais noragëliais.

Tyrimø duomenimis, sekliausiai cukriniø runkeliø sëklos buvo áterptos á nedirbtà raþienà – 18,7 mm gyliu sëjant áprastine sëjamàja ir 21,8 mm gyliu sëjant raþienine sëjamàja. Paruoðtø sëklø guoliavieèiø pavirðiaus gûbriuotumas buvo nuo 37,2 iki 46,4 mm, o guoliavieèiø dugno gûbriuotumas – nuo 7,0 iki 12,3 mm ir atitiko keliamus reikalavimu

s. Daugiausiai drëgmës dirvos pavirðiuje ir sëklø áterpimo zonoje buvo iðsaugota sëjant cukrinius runkelius á neádirbtà raþienà, nes dirvos pavirðius buvo padengtas ðiaudais. Sëklø guoliavietës agregatinës sanklodos reikalavimus (Heinoneno modelis) geriausiai atitiko intensyviai suformuota guoliavietë, nes prie kultivatoriaus buvo primontuoti lysteliniai voleliai. Tolygiausiai cukriniø runkeliø sëklos buvo áterptos ir geriausiai sudygo vertikaliø rotoriø kultivatoriumi supurentoje raþienoje.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: fizikinës savybës, cukriniai runkeliai, sëklø guoliavietë, Kritz metodas, sudygimas.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 1, 81, 168-183

UDK 633.63:631.531.04

THE INVESTIGATIONS OF SUGAR BEET SEEDBED BY KRITZ METHOD (SWEDEN) UNDER DIFFERENT SOIL TILLAGE AND SOWING PATTERN

K. Romaneckas, E. Ðarauskis

Summary

The influence of soil tillage and sowing methods on the formation of sugar beet seedbed was investigated over the period of 2000-2002 at the Experimental Station of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture. The experiment involved 4 soil tillage methods: zero soil tillage, minimal – rotovated and milled stubble and intensive – ploughed and cultivated by S-tine cultivator and rolled soil. The seeds were sown by 2 types of drills: conventional (with cuneiform shares) and direct (with combined disc-shoe shares).

Our experimental evidence suggests that the least depth of sowing 18.7 mm was observed in the stubble (sown by a conventional drill) and 21.8 mm (sown by a direct drill). The roughness of the seedbed surface varied from 37.2 to 46.4 mm and the seedbed roughness from 7.0 to 12.3 mm. The stubble contained a high amount of soil moisture due to the straw layer on the soil surface. The intensive by prepared seedbed better met the requirements of soil structure through the roller work. The incorporation of seeds in to the rotovated stubble was more even. The best sugar beet seed emergence was observed in the rotovated stubble.

Key words: physical properties, sugar beet, seedbed, Kritz method, emergence.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 1, 81, 184-196

UDK 631.331:633.63:631.531.04

CUKRINIØ RUNKELIØ SËKLØ ÁTERPIMO Á RAÞIENÀ TECHNINËS PRIEMONËS

Egidijus

ÐARAUSKIS, Kæstutis ROMANECKAS

Lietuvos þemës ûkio universitetas

Akademija, Kauno rajonas

El. paðtas: Sarausk@tech.lzua.lt; Rkestas@nora.lzua.lt

Santrauka

Straipsnyje teoriðkai ir praktiðkai laboratorijos bei lauko sàlygomis nagrinëtas cukriniø runkeliø sëklø áterpimas á raþienà sudëtiniu noragëliu, sudarytu ið diskiniø peiliø ir pavaþinio noragëlio. Pagrástas perþiemojusiø ðiaudø perpjovimas diskiniø peiliø lygiais ir iðpjaustytais aðmenimis. Nustatyti diskiniø peiliø technologiniai parametrai, tenkinantys cukriniø runkeliø sëjos reikalavimus. Lauko laboratoriniais tyrimais pagrástas diskiniø peiliø ir

jø iðpjovø aðmenyse skaièius bei matmenys.

Teoriniais tyrimais nustatyta, kad áterpiant cukriniø runkeliø sëklas á raþienà 25 mm gyliu, diskiniø peiliø skersmuo turi bûti didesnis negu 350 mm. Diskinis peilis nesikemða ðiaudais, kai sugnybimo kampas maþesn

is uþ trinties kampø (tarp diskinio peilio aðmenø ir ðiaudo bei tarp ðiaudo ir dirvos pavirðiaus) sumà. Lauko laboratoriniais tyrimais nustatyta, kad daugiausiai perþiemojusiø sausø (5 proc. drëgnumo) ðiaudø perpjauna dvidiskis peilis, sudarytas ið 15 ir 18 iðpjovø turinèiø peiliø.

Lauko sàlygomis raþieninë sëjamoji su dvidiskiu peiliu áterpë cukriniø runkeliø sëklas á 21,8 mm gylá 47,2 proc. tolygumu ir suformavo lygø sëklø guoliavietës dugno pavirðiø. Sëjant á 21 proc. drëgnumo raþienà panaðûs rezultatai gauti naudojant sëjai áprastinæ pneumatinæ sëjamàjà su pleiðtiniais noragëliais.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: cukriniai runkeliai, raþiena, ðiaudai, diskiniai peiliai, sëklø áterpimas.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 1, 81, 184-196

UDK 631.331:633.63:631.531.04

RESEARCH OF TECHNICAL MEANS OF SUGAR BEET SEED INSERTION INTO STUBBLE

E. Ðarauskis, K. Romaneckas

Summary

The insertion of sugar beet seeds to the stubble with complex coulter (cutting discs + shoe ploughshare) theoretically and practically analysed in laboratory and field conditions. There were defined the parameters of last year’s straw cutting by flat and intended cutting discs, and technological parameters of cutting discs, which met the agro technical requirements of sugar beet sowing. The number and measurements of cutting discs and their edge indents have been substantiated in field and laboratory investigations.

According to the theoretical research, the diameter of cutting disc could be bigger than 350 mm for sugar beet seeds insertion to the stubble in 25 mm depth. There was determined that the straw could not be pushed by a cutting disc, when pinch angle was less than the sum of friction angles (between a straw and the edge of cutting disc and between a straw and soil). According to the laboratory research, the highest amount of dry (5 % of moisture) straw was cut by a double-cutting disc with 15 and 18 indents.

In field conditions the direct sowing machine with complex coulter inserted seeds to 21.8 mm depth with 47.2 % eveness and formed even seedbed down. The sowing by conventional pneumatic sowing machine showed the similar results under wet stubble conditions (21 % of moisture).

Key words: sugar beet, seeds insertion, stubble, straw, cutting discs.

 

III skyrius. AUG

ALØ APSAUGA

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 1, 81, 197-208

UDK 633.16:632.951

INSEKTICIDØ EFEKTYVUMAS NUO MIEÞIØ KENKËJØ

Jonas ÐURKUS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. paðtas: jsurkus@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Pastaràjá deðimtmetá ðalyje pakitus þemdirbystës sistemoms, pasikeitë ir sàlygos kai kuriems kenkëjams daugintis. Gausesni tapo javiniø pjûkleliø, spragiø, lemø, javiniø amarø ir ypaè tripsø antplûdþiai. Tyrimø tikslas – nustatyti efektyviausius insekticidus mieþiø apsaugai nuo pagrindiniø kenkëjø. Tyrimø metais (1999-2001) mieþiø pasëliuose nevienodai gausiai plito ávairiø rûðiø kenkëjai. Pirmaisiais metais (1999) gausiai plito javiniai lapiniai pjûkleliai (

Pachynematus clitellatus Lep.), ieviniai amarai (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) ir lemai (Lema spp.), 2000-aisiais metais gausesni buvo ieviniai amarai ir tripsai (Limothrips denticornis Halid., Haplothrips aculeatus Fabr.), 2001-aisiais metais gausiau iðplito tik tripsai. Taèiau visais metais kenkëjai darë didelæ þalà, sunaikinta vidutiniðkai 11,8-17,1 % derliaus.

Esant vidutiniam (2000 m.) arba negausiam amarø antplûdþiui (2001 m.), pakankamai efektyvûs buvo visi tirtieji preparatai – purkðtuose laukeliuose þuvo 93,3-100 % amarø. Gausaus amarø antplûdþ

io metais (1999 m.) geriausiai amarus naikino sisteminio veikimo insekticidai – danakapas 45 % k.e. 1,0 l ha-1 (metil parationas 450 g l-1), ekatinas 25 % k.e. 0,3 l ha-1 (tiometonas 250 g l-1) bei aktara 25 % t.g. 0,05 kg ha-1 (tiametoksamas 250 g kg-1). Nuo lapiniø pjûkleliø visi tirtieji insekticidai buvo pakankamai efektyvûs, jø biologinis efektyvumas siekë 95-100 %. Nuo lemø efektyviausi buvo sisteminio veikimo preparatai – danakapas, ekatinas ir aktara. Nuo tripsø, kaip ir nuo amarø, esant maþesniam kenkëjø gausumui, pakankamai efektyvûs buvo visi tirtieji preparatai, taèiau, esant didesniam ðiø kenkëjø antplûdþiui, veiksmingiausi buvo aktara, fastakas 100 g l-1 k.e. (alfa-cipermetrinas 100 g l-1), fury 100 g l-1 v.e. (zeta cipermetrinas 100 g l-1) ir decis 25 g l-1 k.e. (deltametrinas 25 g l-1).

Nupurðkus insekticidais mieþiø derlius labiausiai didëjo tais metais, kai mieþiuose vienu metu gausiai iðplito lapiniai pjûkleliai ir amarai (1999 m.) arba amarai ir tripsai (2000 m). Didþiausia ekonominë nauda gauta mieþius purðkiant nuo kenkëjø

insekticidais fury 10 % v.e. (0,07 l ha-1), aktara 25 % t.g.(0,05 kg ha-1), deciu 2,5 % k.e. (0,25 l ha-1), fastaku 10 % k.e. (0,2 l ha-1). Nuo purðkimo gautas papildomas pelnas ið vieno ha sudarë atitinkamai 165,8 Lt, 114,0 Lt, 106,5 Lt ir 88,0 Lt, o purðkimui iðleistas litas atsipirko atitinkamai 3,48, 1,68, 1,95 ir 1,33 karto.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: mieþiai, mieþiø kenkëjai, insekticidai, grûdø derlius.

Chapter 3. PLANT PROTECTION

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 1, 81, 197-208

UDK 633.16:632.951

INSECTICIDE EFFICACY AGAINST SPRING BARLEY PESTS

J. Ðurkus

Summary

During the last decade changes in the cropping systems have created conducive conditions for the occurrence and propagation of some insect pests. The incidence of sawflies, flea beetles, lema cereal beetles, aphids and thrips has increased on cereal crops. The main task of these investigations was to assess insecticides differing in mode of action against main pests on spring barley. The experiments were conducted over the period 1999-2001. During this 3 year period the appearance of main pests on spring barley was highly variable. In 1999 there was a high occurrence of sawflies (Pachynematus clitellatus Lep.), bird-cherry aphids (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) and lema cereal beetle (Lema spp.), in 2000 there was a high occurrence of aphids and thrips (Limothrips denticornis Halid., Haplothrips aculeatus Fabr.), and in 2001 only of thrips.

In the years with a high occurrence of aphids the highest biological efficacy was obtained by using systemic insecticides – Danacap 45 EC 1.0 l ha-1 (Methyl Parathion 450 g l-1, Ecatin 25 EC 0.3 l ha-1 (Thiometon 250 g l-1) and Actara 25 WG 50 g ha-1 (Tiametoxam 250 g kg-1). Against sawflies all the tested insecticides showed biological efficacy over 95 %. Best results against lema cereal beetles were obtained by using Actara 25 WG, Danacap 45 EC, Ecatin 25 EC and against thrips – Actara 25 WG, Fastac 10 EC (Alfa-cipermetrin 100 g l-1), Fury 100 EW (Zeta Cipermetrin 100 g l-1) and Decis 2.5 EC (Deltametrin 25 g l-1).

The highest economic efficacy was achieved when spring barley was sprayed with Fury 100 EW (0.07 l ha-1), Actara 25 WG (50 g ha-1), Decis 2.5 EC (0.25 l ha-1), Fastac 10 EC (0.2 l ha-1). The average extra income per ha was 165.8 Lt, 114.0 Lt, 106.5 Lt and 88.0 Lt respectively.

Key words: spring barley, pests, insecticides, grain yield.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 1, 81, 209-220

UDK 632.951:633.491:632.768.12

INSEKTICIDØ EFEKTYVUMAS NUO KOLORADO VABALØ

Jonas ÐURKUS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. paðtas: jsurkus@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Kolorado vabalai (Leptinotarsa decimlineata

Say.) iðplitæ visoje Lietuvoje ir ðio kenkëjo gausumà ir þalà reguliuoti tenka kiekvienais metais. Norint iðvengti kenkëjo atsparumo pastoviai naudojamiems insekticidams atsiradimo, bûtina atnaujinti naudojamø insekticidø asortimentà. Tuo tikslu 1998 metais pradëtas tirti 5 naujesniøjø insekticidø efektyvumas nuo kolorado vabalo. Standartinis preparatas buvo decis 2,5 % k.e.(deltametrinas 25 g l-1). Preparatø bankolo 50 % ð.m. (bensultapas 500 g kg-1), regento 20 % k.s. (fipronilas 200 g l-1) ir fury 10 % v.e. (zeta cipermetrinas 100 g l-1) tirtos dvi, ciperkilo 25 % k.e. (cipermetrinas 250 g l-1) – viena, o aktaros 25 % t.g. (tiametoksamas 250 g kg-1) – trys normos. Lauko bandymai daryti 1998-2001 metais Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute Dotnuvoje. Augintos bulvës ‘Nida’, taikant áprastà agrotechnikà. Bulvës tiriamais insekticidais purkðtos, kai buvo masiðkai pasirodþiusios II-III ûgio kolorado vabalø lervos.

Visais tyrimø metais kolorado vabalai bulvëse labai plito ir jø skaièius virðijo ekonominæ þalingumo ribà (10 % kenkëjo apniktø kerø). Tiriamø insekticidø biologinis efektyvumas nuo kolorado vabalø ir lervø buvo ávertinamas praëjus 5 dienoms po purðkimo. Praëjus 10 ir 15 dienø po purðkimo, buvo ávertinta preparatø veikimo trukmë. Visi bandymuose naudoti insekticidai efektyviai naikino kolorado vabalus ir lervas

. Praëjus 5 dienoms po purðkimo, kenkëjø sunaikinta vidutiniðkai 93,1-99,4 %. Didelis biologinis efektyvumas (88,4-97,7 %) iðliko ir praëjus 10 dienø po purðkimo. Vidutiniais 4 metø duomenimis, naudojant insekticidus nuo kolorado vabalø, bulviø gumbø derlius padidëjo 18,0-26,3 %. Skirtingais insekticidais nupurkðtø bulviø vidutinis gumbø derlius ið esmës nesiskyrë. Bulves nupurðkus insekticidais, sausøjø medþiagø kiekis gumbuose bei gumbø krakmolingumas ið esmës nepakito.

Didþiausias ekonominis efektas (2 73

7-2 442 Lt ha-1), purðkiant bulves insekticidais nuo kolorado vabalø, buvo gautas naudojant maþesniàsias insekticidø normas.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: bulvës, kolorado vabalai, insekticidai, gumbø derlius.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 1, 81, 209-220

UDK 632.951:633.491:632.768.12

INSECTICIDE EFFICACY AGAINST COLORADO POTATO BEETLE

J. Ðurkus

Summary

Colorado potato beetle is spread in the whole territory of Lithuania, whose abundance and damage done must be controlled annually. In order to avoid resistance of Colorado potato beetles to regularly used insecticides, it is necessary to renew the range of already used insecticides. With this end in view efficacy testing of 5 new insecticides against Colorado potato beetles was started in 1998. Decis 2.5 EC (Deltametrin 25 g l-1) was chosen as a standard. Two rates of Bancol 50WP (Bensultap 500 g kg-1), Regent 200 SC (Fipronil 200 g l-1) and Fury 100 EW (Zeta Cipermetrin 100 g l-1), one rate of Cyperkill 25 EC (Cypermetrin 250 g l-1) and three rates of Actara 25 WG (Tiametoxam 250 g kg-1) were tested. The field trials were carried out at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during 1998-2001. Potato variety ‘Nida’ was grown using conventional crop and soil management practices. The potato crops were sprayed with insecticides when the insidence of Colorado larvae at instar II-III was very high.

In all experimental years the abundance of Colorado potato beetles was very high and exceeded the economic injury level. Biological efficacy of the tested insecticides against Colorado potato beetle and larvae was assessed 5 days after the spray application. Duration of insecticide action was estimated 10 and 15 days after spraying. All insecticides used in the experiments gave an effective control of Colorado beetles and larvae. 5 days after the spray application 93.1-99.4 % of pests were killed. A high biological efficacy 88.4-97.7 % still persisted 10 days after spraying. 4 years’ averaged data suggest that the use of insecticides against Colorado beetles resulted in 18.0-26.3 % potato tuber yield increase. Insecticide spray applications did not have any significant effect on dry matter and starch content in tubers.

The highest economic effect (2 737-2 442 Lt ha-1) was achieved using insecticides at reduced rates.

Key words: potatoes, Colorado potato beetles, insecticides, tuber yield.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 1, 81, 221-233

UDK 633.112.9<321>:632.4:632.952

VASARINIØ KVIETRUGIØ APSAUGA NUO GRYBINIØ LAPØ LIGØ

Irena GAURI

LÈIKIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuvos sen., Këdainiø rajonas

El. paðtas:

irenag@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Apsaugos nuo lapø ligø bandymai vasariniø kvietrugiø ‘Gabo’ pasëliuose daryti 1997-2000 m. Dotnuvoje. Vasariniø kvietrugiø pasëliuose kasmet plito lapø septoriozë

(Septoria spp.), 1998-2000 m. – kvieèiø dryþligë (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Died.) Drechs.). Rudosios rûdys (Puccinia recondita Rob. ex Desm.) plito 1998-2000 m., bet anksti ir labai tik 1998 metais. Fungicidai alto 40 proc. k.s. (ciprokonazolas 400 g l-1) 0,2 l ha-1 ir arèeris 42,5 proc. k.e. (propikonazolas 125 g l-1 + fenpropimorfas 300 g l-1) 0,8 l ha-1 purkðti plaukëjimo (BBCH 51) arba þydëjimo metu (BBCH 65) ir po pusæ jø normos purkðta per du kartus – plaukëjimo ir þydëjimo metu. Fungicidø biologinis efektyvumas bei apsauginio periodo trukmë priklausë nuo biotiniø ir abiotiniø veiksniø.

Vasariniø kvietrugiø grûdø derliaus priedas gautas nupurðkus fungicidais visa norma plaukëjim

o metu buvo 0,35-0,48 t ha-1, þydëjimo metu – 0,39-0,52, plaukëjimo ir þydëjimo metu nupurðkus po pusæ normos – 0,48-0,54 t ha-1. Nuo fungicidø naudojimo derliaus priedas gautas dël uþaugusiø stambesniø grûdø. Vidutiniais duomenimis, panaudojus fungicidus, 1000-èio grûdø masë padidëjo 0,78-1,47 g.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: vasariniai kvietrugiai, fungicidai, septoriozë, kvieèiø dryþligë, rudosios rûdys, biologinis efektyvumas, grûdø derlius.

ISSN 1392-3194

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 1, 81, 221-233

UDK 633.112.9<321>:632.4:632.952

CONTROL OF FUNGAL LEAF DISEASES IN SPRING TRITICALE CROPS

I. Gaurilèikienë

Summary

Trials involving control of fungal leaf diseases in spring triticale stands were carried out in Dotnuva during 1997-2000. Over the experimental period Septoria leaf blotch (Septoria spp.) occurred in the stands of spring triticale ‘Gabo’ annually. Tan spot (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Died.) Drechs.) and brown rust (Puccinia recondita Rob. ex Desm.) attacked spring triticale stands in 1998-2000. Infection of brown rust was early and severe in 1998. Full doses of fungicides Alto (cyproconazole 400 g l-1) 0.2 l ha-1 and Archer (propiconazole 125 g l-1 + fenpropimorf 300 g l-1) 0.8 l ha-1 were applied at heading (BBCH 51) or at anthesis (BBCH 65) and half doses were applied twice at heading and at anthesis. The biological efficacy of fungicides and the length of preventive period varied in relation to biotic and abiotic factors.

Spring triticale grain yield increase due to the spraying with full doses of fungicides at heading stage was 0.35-0.48 t ha-1, at anthesis – 0.39-0.52 t ha-1 and due to the spraying twice with half doses at heading and anthesis – 0.48-0.54 t ha-1. A yield increase was obtained due to an increase in 1000-grain weight.

Key words: spring triticale, fungicide, Septoria leaf blotch, tan spot, brown rust, biological efficacy, yield.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë: Mokslo darbai, 2003, 1, 81, 234-245

UDK 633.63:632.954:632.51

HERBICIDØ MIÐINIAI IR JØ NORMOS CUKRINIAMS RUN

KELIAMS

Irena DEVEIKYTË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. paðtas:

irenad@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute Dotnuvoje karbonatingame glëjiðkame lengvo priemolio rudþemyje 1997-1999 m. tirtas herbicido goltikso normø maþinimas miðinyje su betanalu progresu AM. Taip pat siekta nustatyti, ar verta kiekvienà kartà didinti piramino turbo normà. Goltiksas (metamitronas 700 g l

-1) ir piraminas turbo (chloridazonas 520 g l-1) veikë panaðiai. Nuo goltikso miðiniø su betanalu progresu AM piktþoliø sumaþëjo 88-90 %, o nuo piramino turbo – 78-91 %. Piraminas turbo ðiek tiek silpniau naikino baltàsias balandas, kibiuosius lipikus, dirvines naðlaites, dirvines èiuþutes ir bekvapius ðunramunius. Goltikso veiksmingumas nepriklausë nuo jo normos (5,0; 3,5; 2,0 kg ha-1). Didesnioji goltikso norma ðiek tiek daugiau iðnaikino raudonþiedþiø notreliø, kibiøjø lipikø, dirviniø veronikø. Herbicidams atsparios buvo visos daugiametës piktþolës ir rûgèiai takaþolës, vidutiniðkai atsparûs – kibieji lipikai.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: cukriniai runkeliai, herbicidai, sumaþintos normos, derlius, piktþolës.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scirentific articles, 2003, 1, 81, 234-245

UDK 633.63:632.954:632.51

THE EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT HERBICIDE RATES IN THE SUGAR BEET CROP

I. Deveikytë

Summary

Field experiments were carried out on a sod-gleyic light loamy soil at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during 1997-1999. The goal of the experiment was to ascertain the possibilities to control different species of weeds with reduced doses of the herbicide Goltix (Metamitron 700 g l-1) and by using its mixture with the other herbicides.

The efficacy of the herbicide Goltix and Pyramin Turbo(Chloridazon 520 g l-1) was similar 88-90 % and 78-91 %, respectively. Pyramin Turbo gave a somewhat weaker effect on Chenopodium album, Gallium aparine, Viola arvensis, Thlaspi arvense and Tripleurospermum inodorum. The higher of the herbicide Goltix did not depend on the doses (3500, 2400, 1400 g.a.i. ha-1) applied. The higher rate gave a better control of Lamium purpureum, Galium aparine, Veronica arvensis. Most tolerant to the herbicides used were Polygonum aviculare and perennial weeds, while Galium aparine was moderately tolerant.

The tested herbicides did not have any negative effect on the growth and development of sugar beet. The herbicide mixture increased the yield of sugar beet statistically significantly compared with the standard.

Key words: sugar beet, herbicide, reduced doses, yield, weeds.

 

IV skyrius. ÞOLININKYSTË

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 1, 81, 246-255

UDK 631.582.9:[633.321+633.24

ÞOLIØ MIÐINIØ SËJOS Á MIEÞIUS IR Á MIEÞIENÀ PALYGINIMAS KONSERVUOJANT ÞEMES

Dþenë ZABLECKIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Kaltinënø bandymø stotis

Kaltinënai, Ðilalës rajonas

El. paðtas: kaltbs@kaltbs.lzi.lt

Santrauka

Lauko bandymai daryti 1996-2000 m. LÞI Kaltinënø bandymø stotyje. Dirvoþemis – glëjiðkas balkðvaþemis, lengvo ir vidutinio su

nkumo priemolis (Albeluvisols). Darbo tikslas – palyginti á mieþius ir á mieþienà skirtingu þoliø sëklø santykiu ásëtø ir neásëtø variantø botaninës sudëties, fitomasës ir piktþolëtumo pokyèius.

Tyrimø duomenys rodo, kad ásëtieji þolynai buvo derlingesni

(2,54-4,00 t ha-1), palyginus su neásëtais (2,08-3,34 t ha-1). Botaninë þolynø sudëtis geresnë buvo ásëtuose laukeliuose – raudonieji dobilai èia sudarë 18,4-44,3 %, paðariniai motiejukai – 26,6-55,6 % þolyno. Daugiametëmis þolëmis apsëtø þolynø piktþolëtumas ávairavo tarp 12,0 ir 50,4 %, neapsëtø – tarp 60,8 ir 73,2 %, tarp jø paprastøjø varpuèiø (Elytrigia repens L.) atitinkamai 8-30 % ir 41-53 %.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: raþienos, konservacija, raudonieji dobilai, paðariniai motiejukai, piktþolës, sausøjø medþiagø derlius, botaninë sudëtis.

Chapter 5. GRASSLAND HUSBANDRY

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 1, 81, 246-255

UDK 631.582.9:[633.321+633.24

COMPARISON GRASS MIXTURE SOWING IN BARLEY AND IN BARLEY FIELD FOR SOIL CONSERVATION

D. Zableckienë

Summary

Over the period 1996-2000 field experiments were carried out at the LIA Kaltinënai Experimental Station on a gleyic, light and medium-heavy loamy soil (

Albeluvisols). The objective of the present study was to investigate cheap conservation methods of temporarily not used agricultural land by sowing grasses after cereals and to compare this method with passive abandonment of land by estimating changes in the phytomass and soil agrochemical properties.

Our experimental evidence suggests that undersown swards were higher-yielding (2.54-4.00 t ha-1) compared with non-undersown swards (2.08-3.34 t ha-1). Botanical sward composition was better in the undersown plots, where red clover accounted for 18.4-44.3 %, common timothy for 26.6-55.6 % of the sward. Weed incidence in the swards sown with perennial grasses ranged between 12.0 and 50.4 %, and that of non-sown swards between 60.8 and 73.2 %, with couch grass (Elytrigia repens L.) accounting for 8-30 % and 41-53 %, respectively.

Key words: stubble, conservation, red clover, common timothy, weeds, dry matter yield, botanical composition.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 1, 81, 256-266

UDK 633.264:633.265]:632.51:633.11

PIKTÞOLIØ PAPLITIMAS SVIDRINØ ÞOLYNØ IR PO JØ AUGINAMØ ÞIEMINIØ KVIEÈIØ AGROFITOCENOZËSE

Regina SKUODIENË, Nijolë DAUGËLIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filialas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

El. paðtas: filialas@gargzdai. omnitel.net

Santrauka

Pateikiami 1996-2000 metais Vëþaièiø filiale darytø tyrimø duomenys apie piktþoliø paplitimà ðienaujamuose, ganomuose ir kombinuotai naudojamuose svidrinø (

Festulolium) bei þieminiø kvieèiø (Triticum aestivum L.) agrofitocenozëse.

Ávairiai naudojamø svidrinø þolynø piktþolëtumas buvo maþas. Labiau plito daugiametës dviskiltës piktþolës. Ávairiai naudojamø svidrinø ir jø miðiniø su raudonaisiais ir baltaisiais dobilais þolynuose piktþoliø kiekis nustatytas panaðus (43,7-42,7 vnt. m

-2). Piktþolëtesni (57,8 vnt. m-2) buvo grynøjø svidrinø þolynai. Þolynus ðienaujant, maþëjo bendras piktþoliø kiekis svidrinø þolynuose. Tarp svidrinø kiekio sausøjø medþiagø derliuje ir piktþoliø orasausës masës gautas stiprus (h = 0,86**) koreliacinis ryðys. Po tankiø svidrinø þolynø þieminiai kvieèiai buvo maþai piktþolëti. Kvieèiø agrofitocenozëse iðplito vienametës dviskiltës piktþolës. Taikant þolynuose ganymà ir kombinuotà naudojimà, maþëjo sëjomainos grandies kito nario, t.y. þieminiø kvieèiø, bendras piktþolëtumas. Daugiameèiø vienaskilèiø piktþoliø paprastøjø varpuèiø (Agropyron repens L.) plitimas kvieèiø agrofitocenozëse labiausiai maþëjo dël ávairiai naudojamø svidrinø miðiniø su baltaisiais dobilais.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: svidrinai, þolynø naudojimas, þieminiai kvieèiai, piktþolës.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 1, 81, 256-266

UDK 633.264:633.265]:632.51:633.11

THE SPREAD OF WEEDS IN THE AGROPHYTOCENOSES OF FESTULOLIUM AND WINTER WHEAT

R. Skuodienë, N. Daugëlienë

Summary

Experiments were carried out during 1996-1999 at the Lithuanian In

stitute of Agriculture’s Vëþaièiai Branch on a sod podzolic medium podzolized (J2v) light loam on medium heavy loam soil, with the following agrochemical characteristics: pHKCl - 5.8-6.2, available P2O5 and K2O - 206-310 and 261-546 mg kg-1 respectively. The data of weed occurence in the agrophytocenoses of Festulolium and winter wheat are provided in the present paper.

It was determined that the spread of weeds in the thick crop area of Festulolium sward was less intensive Taraxacum officinale L. and Plantago major L. prevailed among perennial dycotyledonous weeds. A strong correlation (h = 0,86**) was established between the amount a dry matter of Festulolium air-dry weight of weeds. Cutting reduced the total amount of weeds in swards.

Winter wheat grown after Festulolium sward, where perennial grasses sown in the third year of use accounted for 91.9-97.4 % in the dry matter yield, contained few weeds. 22.0-38.6 weeds per m-2 were found in winter wheat agrophytocenoses, their dry mass was 16.2-33.5 g m-2.

Annual dycotyledonous weeds spread in the wheat agrophytocenoses, sown after differently – used Festulolium sward. Viola arvensis Murray and Matricaria inodora L. prevailed among the weeds. A weak and medium strong linear inverse relationship between the cut and grazed Festulolium swards and the agrobiological weed group of wheat agrophytocenoses was found.

Different ways of sward use did not have any effect on the air-dry weight of weeds.

The amount of Agropyron repens L. was found to be very low, and its root biomass varied between 0.15-4.75 g m-2. Festulolium mixtures with differently-used white clover reduced the spread of Agropyron repens L. to the greatest extent.

Key words: Festulolium, management systems, winter wheat, weeds.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 1, 81, 267-282

UDK 633.2/.03:631.559

ANKÐTINIØ IR VARPINIØ ÞOLIØ DERLINGUMO PALYGINIMAS ÐIENAUJANT IR GANANT

Regina SKUODIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filialas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

El. paðtas: rskuod@vezaiciai.lzi.lt

Santrauka

1995-2000 m. Vëþaièiø filiale atlikti tyrimai ávertinant lauko sëjomainoje ávairiai naudojamø ankðtiniø ir varpiniø þoliø derlingumà ir paðarinæ vertæ.

Nustatyta, kad ðienaujant geriausiai (6,84-7,21 t ha-1, arba 64,0-69,8 GJ ha-1

apykaitos energijos) derëjo raudonøjø dobilø ‘Vyliai’ ir varpiniø þoliø miðiniai. Daugiausiai (10,5-11,1 g) virðkinamøjø proteinø viename MJ buvo raudonøjø ir baltøjø dobilø su paðariniais motiejukais miðiniuose.

Ganant derlingiausi (4,56-5,07 t ha-1, arba 48,2-54,6 GJ ha-1

apykaitos energijos) buvo baltøjø dobilø ‘Atoliai’ miðiniai. Daugiausiai (12,9-13,0 g) virðkinamøjø proteinø viename MJ buvo raudonøjø ir baltøjø dobilø miðiniuose su paðariniais motiejukais, nendriniais dryþuèiais bei nendriniais eraièinais.

Kombinuotai naudojant raudonøjø bei baltøjø dobilø ir varpiniø þoliø miðinius, gauta maþdaug vienodai (5,84-6,21 ir 5,76-6,13 t ha

-1, arba 52,6-57,7 GJ ha-1 apykaitos energijos) sausøjø medþiagø. Daugiausiai (11,4-11,2 g MJ-1) virðkinamøjø proteinø turëjo baltøjø dobilø miðiniai su paðariniais motiejukais ir nendriniais eraièinais bei nendriniais dryþuèiais.

Reikðminiai þodþiai:

þolynai, naudojimo bûdai, derlius, paðarinë vertë.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 1, 81, 267-282

UDK 633.2/.03:631.559

COMPARISON OF THE PRODUCTIVITY OF LEGUMES AND GRASSES UNDER CUTTING AND GRAZIN MANAGEMENT

R. Skuodienë

Summary

Experiments were carried out during 1995-2000 at the Vëþaièiai Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agricultu

re on an Orthieutric Albeluvisols (JIb2) with the following agrochemical characteristics: pHKCl – 5.4-6.2, available P2O5 and K2O – 179-266 and 190- 360 mg kg-1 soil, respectively.

When cut, the most productive were the swards of early red clover ‘Vyliai’ and grasses (timothy, perennial ryegrass or reed canary grass and tall fescue). One hectare yielded 6.84-7.21 t of dry matter or 64.0-69.8 GJ of metabolizable energy, one MJ contained 9.87-10.5 g of digestible protein.

The swards of white clover ‘Atoliai’ and grass yielded 5.65-6.23 t ha-1 of dry matter or 54.4-58.5 GJ of metabolizable energy, one MJ contained 10.2-11.1 of digestible protein.

Under grazing management the swards of white clover ‘Atoliai’ and perennial ryegrass and tall fescue and reed canary grass were the most productive. One hectare yielded on average 4.56-5.07 t of dry matter or 48.2-54.6 GJ of metabolizable energy. One MJ had 12.2-13.0 g of digestible protein.

Under mixed management, early red clover ‘Vyliai’ / grass and white clover ‘Atoliai’ / grass swards gave a similarly high yield. Red clover / grass swards gave 5.84-6.21 t ha-1, and white clover / grass swards – 5.76-6.13 t ha-1 of dry matter yield, or 52.6-57.4 and 55.4-57.7 GJ of metabolizable energy, respectively. One MJ had 10.0-10.9 and 10.4-11.4 g of digestible protein.

Pure timothy, perennial ryegrass and tall fescue / reed canary grass swards gave high yields (5.08-6.05 t ha-1 of dry matter or 47.6-56.4 GJ ha-1) when cut and mixed-used. One MJ had 8.23-10.2 g of digestible protein. Under grazing management dry matter yield was by 1.44-1.79 t ha-1 lower.

Key words: swards, management systems, yield, nutritive value.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2003, 1, 81, 283-290

UDK 633.2.033.004.69

METHODS AND TIMING OF WHITE CLOVER OVERSOWING INTO AN OLD PASTURE SWARD

Elvyra BUTKUVIENË

Vëþaièiai Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëda district

E-mail: elvyra@vezaiciai.lzi.lt

Abstract

Timing and methods of white clover oversowing were investigated in an old pasture in 1991-1998. We also investigated the efficacy of white clover seed coating. It was established that the best method of white clover oversowing (4 kg ha-1) is early spring with a disk drill straight into the pasture sward or into twice disked pasture sward. Yield of pasture herbage increased by 0.19-0.86 t ha-1DM. Good results were obtained when white clover was oversown early in spring with a rototilling drill. After direct oversowing of both coated and non-coated white clover seed a reliable extra yield was obtained. Oversowing of white clover increased the amount of legume in the pasture by 7.4-23.3 %. The most favourable conditions for germination and persistence of white clover were after oversowing coated and non-coated seed into a disked pasture with a disk drill. The abundance of white clover increased the content and accumulation of crude protein, ash and fat in the pasture herbage. The amount of crude fibre had a tendency to decrease.

Key words: white clover, coated seed, oversowing, disk drill, rototilling drill.

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2003, 1, 81, 283-290

UDK 633.2.033.004.69

BALTØJØ DOBILØ PAPILDOMO ÁSËJIMO Á SENUS GANYKLINIUS ÞOLYNUS BÛDAI IR LAIKAS

E. Butkuvienë

Santrauka

1991-199

8 metais tirta baltøjø dobilø papildomo ásëjimo laikas ir bûdai senose ganyklose. Taip pat tirtas baltøjø dobilø sëklø draþavimo efektyvumas. Papildomo ásëjimo bandymai rodo, kad baltuosius dobilus verta ásëti á nepiktþolëtas ganyklas, kuriø derlingumas sumaþëjæs dël blogo naudojimo ir prieþiûros.

Nustatyta, kad baltuosius dobilus (4 kg ha-1

) geriausia ásëti anksti pavasará sëjamàja maðina su diskiniais noragëliais tiesiog á ganyklos velënà arba jà du kartus sulëkðèiavus. Gautas didþiausias sausøjø medþiagø derliaus priedas (0,50-0,86 t ha-1). Gerai tinka ir specialus sudëtinis agregatas, t.y. frezeris ir sëjamoji maðina. Èia derliaus priedas 0,3 t ha-1 sausøjø medþiagø. Papildomai ásëjus baltøjø dobilø, ankðtiniø þoliø ganykloje pagausëjo 7,4-23,3 %. Palankiausios sàlygos baltiesiems dobilams sudygti ir iðsilaikyti buvo ásëjus draþuotà ir nedraþuotà sëklà á du kartus lëkðèiuotà velënà sëjamàja su diskiniais noragëliais. Neblogai baltieji dobilai sudygo ir iðsilaikë pasëti pakrikai ant ganyklos pavirðiaus anksti pavasará, vos tik nutirpus sniegui. Vëlinant baltøjø dobilø ásëjimà, ankðtinës þolës turëjo tendencijà maþëti. Pagausëjus ankðtiniø þoliø, gausëjo ir þaliø proteinø bei þaliø riebalø ganyklos þolëje, o þalios làstelienos kiekis turëjo tendencijà maþëti.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: baltieji dobilai, draþuota sëkla, papildomas ásëjimas, diskinë sëjamoji, frezinë sëjamoji.


·Raðykite mums: lzi@lzi.lt