·Raðykite mums: lzi@lzi.lt

I skyrius. DIRVOTYRA IR AGROCHEMIJA

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2002, 4, 80, 3-22

UDK 633.2.032(252):631.416

NEMUNO ÞEMUPIO SALPÞEMIØ IR POTVYNIO SÀNAÐØ SAVYBIØ RYÐYS

Kazimieras KATUTIS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Cintjoniðkiø 10-2, Ðilutë

El. paðtas: pievos @ silute.omnitel.net

Santrauka

Straipsnyje pateikti ilgameèiø (1987-1999 m.) Nemuno deltos potvynio neðmenø kiekio tyrimai bei jø átaka dirvoþemiø formavimuisi Nemuno þemaslënyje. Nemuno þemaslënyje tipingose vietose buvo padaryti 9 deltos skersiniai pjûviai ir iðtirtos dirvoþemio ir nusëdusio dumblo fizikinës ir agrocheminës savybës bei nustatytas tarpusavio ryðys.

Þemupyje vyrauja salpþemiai, taèiau skirtingø dirvoþemiø iðsidëstymas ávairiose slënio dalyse labai skiriasi, pvz., virðutinëje – Jûros þemaslënyje vyrauja karbonatingi salpþemiai, þemutinëje – Minijos þemaslënyje – durpþemiai.

Dirvoþemiai skersiniame profilyje skiriasi pagal jø agrocheminius rodiklius. Pavaginëje salpos zonoje vyrauja neutralûs dirvoþemiai, kuriuose yra labai maþai organinës medþiagos (vidutiniðkai 3,6 %). Tolstant nuo upës, organinës medþiagos dirvoþemyje gausëja: durpþemiuose – iki 80 %, ir jie rûgðtëja iki pH 5,0.

Judriojo fosforo, kalio, kalcio ir magnio daugiausiai buvo centrinës salpos dalies dirvoþemyje, daug maþiau minëtø elementø buvo prieþemyninës dalies mineraliniuose dirvoþemiuose ir durpþemiuose.

Nustatyta, kad tarp nusëdusiø potvynio neðmenø ir susiformavusiø dirvoþemiø yra dësningas ryðys. Tai rodo pastovesnës dirvoþemiø kokybinës savybës, kaip organinës medþiagos kiekis ir dirvoþemio granuliometrinë sudëtis, tamprûs koreliaciniai ryðiai su nusëdusiais potvynio neðmenimis.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: potvynis, dirvoþemiai, potvynio sànaðos, biogeniniai elementai.

Chapter 1. SOIL SCIENCE AND AGROCHEMISTRY

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2002, 4, 80, 3-22

UDK 633.2.032(252):631.416

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PROPERTIES OF THE FLUVISOLS IN THE LOWER NEMUNAS AND FLOOD SEDIMENTS

K. Katutis

Summary

Nine cross-sections of the delta were made in the most representative places of the Lower Nemunas during 1987-1999. The experiments were conducted with the purpose to estimate agrochemical properties of the soil and flood sediments and to identify the relationship between them.

Fluvisols

predominate in the Nemunas Lowland, the other soil types account for a very small area. Different parts of the lower Nemunas have different soil types: in the upper part of the valley of the Jûra Calcaric Fluvisols predominate and Histols predominate in the northern part of the lowland (part of the Minija valley, Tenenys rivers).

In the cross-sections the soils differ in the agrochemical parameters. Neutral soils with a small amount of organic matter (average 3.6 %) prevail in the pre-bed zone of the lowland. Moving away from the river the quality of organic matter in the soil increases to 80 % in the Histols and soil acidity declines to 5.0 pH in the Histols.

The highest contents of mobile phosphorus, potassium and magnesium were established in the soil of the central part of the flood land. Much lower contents of these elements were established in mineral soils of the pre-land part of flood land and in peat soil.

A regular relationship between the flood sediment and formed soils was identified. It is demonstrated by more stable soil quality properties such as organic matter content, soil granulometric composition and strong correlation with flood sediments.

Key words: flood water, soils, flood sediments, biogenic elements.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2002, 4, 80, 23-37

UDK 631.417.1:631.442.1

HUMUSO KIEKIO IR KOKYBINËS SUDËTIES KITIMAS ÁVAIRAUS HUMUSINGUMO PRIESMËLIO DIRVOÞEMYJE

Valerija JANUÐIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas Vokës filialas

Trakø Vokë, Vilnius

El. paðtas: voke@takas.lt

Santrauka

1988-1998 m. Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filiale ávairaus humusingumo (1,5 %; 2,3 %; 2,5 %; 3,3 %) priesmëlio ant karbonatingo fliuvioglacialinio þvyro paprastajame iðplautþemyje (IDp) mikrolaukeliø bandyme buvo tiriama træðimo (be tràðø, mineralinës tràðos, mineralinës tràðos derintos su mëðlu) átaka humuso kiekiui, kokybinei sudëèiai, humuso balansui, taip pat auginamø augalø (bulvës, mieþiai, dobilai, rugiai aviþos) derliui. Visi dirvoþemiai buvo neutraloki, dide

lio fosforingumo ir kalingumo.

Per tyrimø laikotarpá ávairaus humusingumo dirvoþemiuose humuso kiekis ir kokybinë sudëtis kito nevienodai. Vien mineralinës tràðos nedarë neigiamos átakos humuso kaupimuisi tik maþo humusingumo (1,5 %) dirvoþemyje. Mineralines tràðas derinant su mëðlu, ið esmës didëjo humuso visuose tirtuose dirvoþemiuose. Daugiausiai judriøjø ir labiliøjø humuso medþiagø humuso sudëtyje buvo maþo humusingumo dirvoþemyje (atitinkamai 30-31 % ir 18-19 %) ir maþiausiai – humusingame (atitinkama

i 25-26 % ir 14-15 %). Humusingo (3,3 %) dirvoþemio humuso sudëtyje buvo daugiau kalcio humatø. Fulvorûgðèiø, kaip ir „agresyviosios” jø frakcijos (FR-1a), kiekis humuso sudëtyje maþëjo, didëjant dirvoþemio humusingumui. Mineralines tràðas derinant su mëðlu ið esmës didëjo huminiø ir fulvorûgðèiø santykis: maþo humusingumo dirvoþemyje nuo 0,62 iki 0,74, vidutinio humusingumo – nuo 0,81-0,82 iki 0,93-0,96, humusingame – nuo 1,0 iki 1,07.

Maþo humusingumo dirvoþemyje gautas maþiau deficitinis humuso balansas, didëjant humusingumui – humuso nuostoliai didëjo. Mineralines tràðas derinant su mëðlu, gautas teigiamas humuso balansas visuose dirvoþemiuose, taèiau jo atsargos padidëjo nevienodai: maþo humusingumo dirvoþemyje 9,9 %, vidutinio humusingumo – 5,1-2,8 % i

r humusingame – 2,1 % nuo pradinio humuso kiekio.

Augintø augalø derlius buvo didþiausias, kai dirvoþemyje buvo 2,3-2,5 % humuso, o labiliøjø humuso medþiagø – 2300-2400 mg C kg

-1. Augalø derliaus koreliacinis ryðys su labiliøjø humuso medþiagø kiekiu dirvoþemyje gautas tampresnis nei su bendrojo humuso kiekiu.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: humusas, labiliosios humuso medþiagos, huminës rûgðtys, fulvorûgðtys, humuso balansas, derlius.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2002, 4, 80, 23-37

UDK 631.417.1:631.442.1

CHANGES OF THE CONTENT AND QUALITATIVE COMPOSITION OF HUMUS IN SANDY LOAM SOIL WITH DIFFERENT AMOUNT OF HUMUS

V. Januðienë

Summary

The microplot trials were conducted in 1988-1998 at the Vokë Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agricultur

e on sandy loam on calcaric gravel haplic luvisol (LVh) with a different humus level (1.5 %; 2.3 %; 2.5 %; 3.3 %). The effect of fertilization (without fertilizers, mineral fertilizers, mineral fertilizers with manure) on the content, qualitative composition, balance of humus and on the yield of grown crops (potatoes, barley, clover, winter rye, oats) was studied.

During the period of two crop rotations in the soils with different humus level unequal changes of the content of humus and its qualitative composition were determined. Mineral fertilizers had no negative effect on the content of humus only in the soil with a low humus level (1.5 %). Mineral fertilizers with manure increased the amount of humus in all the mentioned soils. The highest per cent of mobile and labile humus substances in the humus composition was in the soil with a low humus level (30-31% and 18-19 % accordingly) and the least in the soil with a high humus level (25-26 % and 14-15 % accordingly). A larger amount of humic acids bound with calcium was in the soil with a high humus level. The amount of fulvic acids and its fraction extracted in 0.1 N H2SO4 decreased in the soils by increasing the amount of humus in the soil. Mineral fertilizers with manure increased the ratio of humic and fulvic acids: in the soil with a low humus level from 0.62 to 0.74, in the soil with medium humus level from 0.81-0.82 to 0.93-0.96, in the soil with a high humus level from 1.00 to 1.07.

A positive balance of humus was found in all the studied soils when mineral fertilizers with manure had been applied, but the amount of humus increased differently – 9.9 % from the initial amount of humus in the soil with a low humus level, 5.1-2.8 % – in the soils with a medium humus level, 2.1 % – in the soil with a high humus level.

The highest yields of the grown crops were obtained, when humus content in the soil was 2.3-2.5 % and that of labile humus substances 2300-2400 mg C kg-1. A stronger direct correlation was determined between the crop yield and the amount of labile humus substances as compared with the amount of total humus in the soil.

Key words: humus, labile humus substances, humic acids, fulvic acids, balance of humus, yield.

 

II skyrius. ÞEMDIRBYSTË IR AUGALININKYSTË

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2002, 4, 80, 38-49

UDK 633.16<324>:631.531.04

ÞIEMINIØ MIEÞIØ VYSTYMOSI IR DERLIAUS FORMAVIMOSI PRIKLAUSOMUMAS NUO SËJOS LAIKO IR SËKLOS NORMOS

Albinas AUÐKALNIS

Lietu

vos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. paðtas:

albinas@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Þieminiø mieþiø sëjos laiko ir sëklos normos átaka pasëliø produktyvumo rodikliams tirta 1997-2000 m. Dotnuvoje drenuotame lengvo priemolio giliau karbonatingame giliau glëjiðkame rudþemyje (RDg4-k2). Þieminiai mieþiai ‘Moldavskij 16’ buvo sëti rugsëjo 1, 10, 20 ir 30 dienomis iðsëjant daigiø sëklø 3,0; 4,0; 5,0 ir 6,0 mln. ha

-1.

Aukðèiausi buvo ir daugiausiai produktyviø stiebø þieminiai mieþiai turëjo pasëjus rugsëjo 1 d. Sëjà vëlinant, jø skaièius ir aukðtis maþëjo. Grûdø skaièius varpose didþiausias buvo sëjant rugsëjo 10 d., o ankstyvesnë ir vëlyvesnë sëja bei sëklos normos didinimas jø skaièiø maþino.

Grûdø derlius ið esmës sumaþëjo þieminius mieþius sëjant rugsëjo 20 ir 30 dienomis, palyginus su rugsëjo 1 d. sëja. Þieminius mieþius sëjant rugsëjo 1 dienà, tinkamiausia sëklos norma 3,0-4,0 mln. ha

-1, o sëjant rugsëjo 10 d. – 4,0-5,0 mln. ha-1 daigiø sëklø.

Reikðm

iniai þodþiai: þieminiai mieþiai, sëjos laikas, sëklos norma, produktyvumo rodikliai, grûdø derlius.

Chapter 2. AGRICULTURE AND CROP PRODUCTION

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2002, 4, 80, 38-49

UDK 633.16<324>:631.531.04

THE INFLUENCE OF SOWING DATE AND SEED RATE ON WINTER BARLEY DEVELOPMENT AND YIELD

A. Auðkalnis

Summary

Sowing date and seed rates of the winter barley cv. ‘Moldavskij 16’ were investigated on sandy loam Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic cambisols at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during 1997-2000. Winter barley was sown on 1, 10, 20 and 30 September. 300, 400, 500 and 600 viable seed m-2 were sown on each sowing date. The highest number of productive stems was identified in the treatment sown on 1 September. Later sowing resulted in a decreased in stem number. Plant height declined significantly at the sowing dates later than 1 September. 1000 kernel weight decreased when winter barley was sown later, at an increased seed rate.

Sowing time and seed rate influenced the productivity of winter barley. The highest winter barley grain yield 4.49-4.38 t ha-1 was obtained when winter barley had been sown on 1 and 10 September. The optimal rate was 300-400 seeds m-2 sown on 1 September, and 400-500 seeds m-2 sown on 10 September. The winter barley yield decreased by on average 0.33-0.97 t ha-1 or by 7.4-21.6 %, when sown on 20 and 30 September.

Key words: winter barley, sowing date, seed rate, parameters of productivity, grain yield.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo d

arbai, 2002, 4, 80, 50-59

UDK 633.854.797

DYGMINØ SËJOS LAIKO ÁTAKA SËKLØ DERLIUI, JO CHEMINEI SUDËÈIAI, DERLIAUS STRUKTÛRAI BEI AUGIMUI IR VYSTYMUISI

Stasys JUKNEVIÈIUS, Juozas PEKARSKAS

Lietuvos þemës ûkio universitetas

Akademija, Kauno rajonas

El.paðtas:

DA@nora.lzua.lt

Santrauka

1997-1999 metais LÞÛU Bandymø stotyje karbonatingame giliau glëjiðkame iðplautþemyje vidutinio sunkumo priemolyje ant molio - Idg4-k p1/m tirta sëjos laiko átaka dygminø sëklø derliui, jo cheminei sudëèiai, derliaus struktûrai bei augimui ir vystymuisi.

Nustatyta, kad gausiausias vidutinis dygminø (

Carthamus tinctorius L.) sëklø derlius – 2,01 t ha-1 gautas juos pasëjus geguþës 1 dienà. Vëlinant sëjà 9 ir 18 dienø sëklø derlius ið esmës sumaþëjo – 0,51-0,85 t ha-1. Daugiausia þaliø proteinø ir riebalø bei maþiausia þalios làstelienos susikaupë sëklose, pasëjus dygminus anksèiausiai – geguþës 1 dienà. Vëlinant sëjos laikà iki geguþës 18 dienos, þaliø proteinø sumaþëjo ið esmës – 0,52-0,44 proc. vnt. ir riebalø – 1,26-1,43 proc. vnt. bei ið esmës padidëjo þalios làstelienos – 0,45-1,13 proc. vnt. Þaliø pelenø kiekiui sëjos laikas esminës átakos neturëjo. Vëlinant sëjà, alanino, valino, izoleucino, leucino, tirozino, fenilalanino, histidino, arginino ir serino kiekiai dygminø sëklose sumaþëjo ið esmës, o metionino – ið esmës padidëjo. Sëjos laikas neturëjo esminës átakos prolino, glicino, lizino, asparagino rûgðties, treonino ir glutamo rûgðties kiekiams dygminø sëklose. Sëjant dygminus geguþës 1 – geguþës 18 dienomis, augalø aukðtis sumaþëjo ið esmës – 5,70-8,80 cm, ðoniniø ðakø bei produktyviø dëþuèiø kiekis – 1,07-2,24 ir 19,84-18,30 vnt., vieno augalo sëklø ir 1000 sëklø masë – 11,47-20,17 ir 4,34-10,67 gramo bei sëklø daigumas – 15,66-11,66 proc. vnt. Sëjos laikas neturëjo esminës átakos dygminø þiedø kiekiui. Dygminø sudygimas ir vystymasis priklausë nuo meteorologiniø sàlygø ir sëjos laiko. Jø vegetacija truko 107-138 dienas.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: sëjos laikas, dygminai, sëklø derlius, aminorûgðtys, dygminø vystymasis.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2002, 4, 80, 50-59

UDK 633.854.797

INFLUENCE OF SAFFLOWER (CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS L.) SOWING TIME ON SEED YIELD, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, YIELD STRUCTURE, GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

S. Juknevièius, J. Pekarskas

Summary

The influence of sowing time on safflower seed yield, chemical composition, yield structure, growth and development was investigated on a Calc(ar)i-Endohypogleyic Luvisols- LVg-n-w-cc soil of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture Experimental Station during the period of 1997-1999.

The highest yield of safflower seeds (2.0 t ha-1) was received having sown them on May 1st. If the sowing time is 9 and 18 days later, seed yield decreases by 0.51-0.85 t ha-1. The highest content of crude protein and fat, as well as the lowest content of crude fibre were accumulated in seeds having sown the safflower on the earliest date – May 1st. In the case of sowing on May 18th the amount of crude protein decreased by 0.52-0.44 % unit, the amount of fat by 1.26-1.43 % units, but the amount of green cellular tissue increased by 0.45-1.13 % units. Sowing time had no significant effect on the amount of crude ash. In the case of later sowing time the amounts of alanine, valine, izoleucine, leucine, tirozine, fenilalanine, histidine, arginine and serine in safflower seed decreased, while that of metionine increased. Sowing time had no essential effect on the amounts of proline, glicine, lysine, asparagine acid, treonine and glutame in safflower seed. Having sown safflower during the period of May 1st-18th, a significant decrease in plant height – 5.70-8.80 cm, number of side branches and productive boxes – 1.07-2.24 and 19.84-18.30 units, one plant seeds and 1000 seed weight – 11.47-20.17 and 4.34-10.67 g and seed germinating power – 15.66-11.66 % units was observed. Sowing time had no significant influence on the number of inflorescences. Safflower germination and development depended on meteorological conditions and sowing time. Its growing season lasted for 107-138 days.

Key words: sowing time, safflower, seed yield, amino acids, safflower development.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2002, 4, 80, 60-66

UDK 631.51.022:633.63:581.19

PRIEÐSËJINIS DIRVOS PARUOÐIMAS CUKRINIAMS RUNKELIAMS LENGVO PRIEMOLIO DIRVOÞEMYJE

Kæstutis ROMANECKAS, Regina ÞULIENË, Regina ROMANECKIENË

Lietuvos þemës ûkio universitetas

Akademija, Kauno rajonas

El. paðtas: rkestas@nora.lzua.lt

Santrauka

Lietuvos þemës ûkio universiteto Bandymø stotyje lengvo priemolio (giliai glëjiðko karbonatingo iðplautþemio) dirvoþemyje 1995-1999 m. tirta prieðsëjinio dirvos purenimo bûdø átaka cukriniams runkeliams. Dirva prieð sëjà purenta purentuvu KPS-400 (5-6 cm gyliu), sudëtiniu purentuvu RAU-300 (4 cm gyliu) ir v

ertikaliø rotoriø purentuvu VRK-305 (3-4 cm gyliu). Tyrimai rodo, kad visi padargai dirvoþemio fizikinëms savybëms maþai turëjo átakos. Supurenus dirvà purentuvu VRK-305, cukriniø runkeliø sëklos dygo geriausiai (53,1 proc.), gautas didþiausias ðakniavaisiø derlius (58,8 t ha-1), cukringumas (17,7 proc.) ir maþiausias tirpiø pelenø kiekis (0,91 proc.).

Reikðminiai þodþiai: cukriniai runkeliai, prieðsëjinis dirvos dirbimas, dirvoþemio fizikinës savybës, sëklø lauko daigumas, ðakniavaisiø derlius, cukringumas, tirpûs pelenai.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2002, 4, 80, 60-66

UDK 631.51.022:633.63:581.19

PRE-SEEDING SOIL PREPARATION FOR SUGAR BEET IN LIGHT LOAM SOILS

K. Romaneckas, R. Þulienë, R. Romaneckienë

Summary

Over the period of 1995-1999 at the Experimental Station of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture we investigated the influence of different soil mellowing methods on physical soil properties and sugar beet. The soil before sowing was mellowed by: a conventional S-tine cultivator KPS-400 (5-6 cm depth), combined cultivator RAU-300 (4 cm depth) and rotovator VRK-305 (3-4 cm depth). The investigation showed that all of the cultivators did not deteriorate the physical properties of the soil. The highest sugar beet seed germination (53.1 %), yield (58.8 t ha-1) and sugar content (17.7 %) of roots and the lowest amount of soluble ash in roots (0.91 %) were observed in the plots, mellowed by a rotovator VRK-305.

Key words: sugar beet, pre-seeding soil mellowing, physical soil properties, seed germination, root yield, sugar content, impurities.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2002, 4, 80, 67-74

UDK 551.5:636.63:581.19

METEOROLOGINIØ SÀLYGØ ÁTAKA CUKRINIØ RUNKELIØ ÐAKNIAVAISIØ CUKRINGUMUI

Birutë PETKEVIÈIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Rumokø bandymø stotis

Klausuèiai, Vilkaviðkio rajonas

El. paðtas: rumokai@post.omnitel.net

Santrauka

1989-2001 metais Rumokø bandymø stotyje darytas cukriniø runkeliø skirtingø veisliø palyginimo lauko bandymas. Straipsnyje nagrinëjama meteorologiniø sàlygø átakà ðio bandymo cukriniø runkeliø cukringumui ir derl

iui.

Iðanalizavus duomenis, galima teigti, kad cukriniø runkeliø cukringumo kitimà kasmet vidutiniðkai 1 procentiniu vienetu lëmë pasirinktos veislës savybës ir 0,5 proc. vnt. – meteorologinës sàlygos. Nustatyta, kad cukringumas labai priklausë nuo krituliø kiekio rugpjûèio ir rugsëjo mënesiais (r = 0,85), nuo saulës ðvytëjimo trukmës rugsëjá ir spalá (r = 0,70) bei cukriniø runkeliø ðakniavaisiø derliaus kiekio (r = 0,78). Ðakniavaisiø derlius labai priklausë (r = 0,84) nuo aktyviø temperatûros sumos (laikotarpiu nuo sudygimo iki lapams uþskleidþiant tarpueilius), nuo krituliø kiekio (r = 0,7) rugpjûèio, rugsëjo ir spalio mënesiais.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: cukriniai runkeliai, meteorologinës sàlygos, cukringumas, derlius.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2002, 4, 80, 67-74

UDK 551.5:636.63:581.19

EFFECT OF WEATHER CONDITIONS ON SUGAR CONTENT IN SUGAR BEET ROOTS

B. Petkevièienë

Summary

Field experiment with sugar beet varieties was carried out at the Rumokai Experimental Station during 1989-2001. The present article describes the effect of weather conditions on sugar content and sugar beet root yield.

Analysis of the data derived from the comparison of sugar beet varieties suggests that variation of sugar content on an annual basis is on average influenced by the properties of the selected variety – 1 percent unit and weather conditions – 0.5 percent unit. A strong relationship of sugar content with the precipitation rate in August and September (r = 0.85), the length of sunny period in September and October (r = 0.70), and the beet root yield (r = 0.78) was determined. A strong relationship between the root yield (r = 0.84) and the sum of active temperatures (within the period from germination to inter-row coverage by leaves), (r = 0.7) and precipitation level in August, September and October was indentified.

Key words: sugar beet, weather conditions, sugar content, yield.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2002, 4, 80, 75-85

UDK 631.847.211

RHIZOBIUM LEGUMINOSARUM BV. VICIAE

ÁVAIRIØ ÐTAMØ IR SKIRTINGØ VEISLIØ ÞIRNIØ BEI VIKIØ SIMBIOTINIS SUDERINAMUMAS

Edmundas LAPINSKAS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filialas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

El. paðtas: filialas@vezaiciai.lzi.lt

Santrauka

Lietuvos Þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filiale 1997-2000 m. vegetaciniais ir laboratoriniais bandymais buvo tiriamas vikiø gumbeliniø bakterijø (

Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae Berkum) trijø ðtamø ir 6 veisliø þirniø bei 6 veisliø vikiø simbiotinis suderinamumas; ið viso atliktos 36 ðtamø ir veisliø augalø inokuliavimo kombinacijos.

Dirvoþemis – tipingas nepasotintasis balkðvaþemis (velëninis jaurinis menkai pajaurëjæs lengvas priem

olis). Jo pHKCl 4,0-5,0, humuso – 1,36-2,63 %, judriøjø P2O5 – 90-231 ir K2O – 186-250 mg kg-1 dirvoþemio.

Þirniø (

Pisum sativum L.) ir vikiø (Vicia sativa L.) inokuliavimo veiksmingumas priklausë nuo gumbeliniø bakterijø ðtamo ir augalø veislës. Efektyviausi ir plaèiausiu specifiðkumu pasiþymëjo R. leguminosarum bv. viciae ðtamai Þ 2 ir B 39. Pirmas ðtamas sudarë veiksmingà simbiozæ su 6 veisliø þirniø ir 5 veisliø vikiø augalais, antras – su 5 veisliø þirniø ir 6 veisliø vikiø augalais.

Daugumos gumbelini

ø bakterijø ðtamø ir þirniø bei vikiø veisliø augalø genomai buvo suderinti efektyviai simbiozei. Taèiau vienos þirniø veislës ’Þalsviai’ ir gumbeliniø bakterijø ðtamø 145 bei B 39 genomai nebuvo suderinti ir jie negalëjo formuoti efektyvios simbiozës.

Þaliø baltymø procentas nuo inokuliavimo dauguma atvejø nedidëjo nei þirniø, nei vikiø derliuje. Iðimtá sudarë þirniø veislës ‘Grafila’ ir ‘Ilgiai’ bei vikiø veislës ‘Baièiai’ ir ‘Þalsviai’, kurioms nuo ðtamo 145 baltymingumas padidëjo atitinkamai 3,35; 4,78

; 2,71 ir 2,54 proc. vieneto.

Dideliu virulentiðkumu iðsiskyrë gumbeliniø bakterijø ðtamas 145, kuris þirniø dviejø veisliø ir vikiø trijø veisliø augaluose sudarë 1,7-2,2 karto daugiau gumbeliø, negu neinokuliuotuose augaluose.

Iðaiðkintas vikiø sëklos luobelës toksiðkumas gumbeliniø bakterijø ðtamams. Maþiausiai gumbelines bakterijas slopino ðviesios (gelsvai þalios, gelsvai baltos), o labiausiai – juodos sëklos.

Nustatyti dësningumai tarp aplinkos sàlygø (oro temperatûra, dirvoþemio pH

KCl, bazingumas, humusas, aliuminio, P ir K junginiai) ir Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae ðtamø efektyvumo.

Reikðminiai þodþiai:

Rhizobium, ðtamai, þirniai, vikiai, veislës, simbiozës efektyvumas, simbiozës suderinamumas.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2002, 4, 80, 75-85

UDK 631.847.211

SYMBIOTIC COMPATIBILITY OF RHIZOBIUM LEGUMINOSARUM BV. VICIAE STRAINS AND DIFFERENT PEA AND VETCH VARIETIES

E. Lapinskas

Summary

Pot and laboratory tests were carried out at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s

Vëþaièiai Branch during 1997-2000 with the aim of testing symbiotic compatibility of three strains of vetch Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae Berkum and six pea and vetch varieties. In total 36 inoculation combinations of strains and varieties were conducted.

The soil of the experimental site is Orthidystric Albeluvisols (slightly podzolized sod - podzolic light loam) with pHKCl 4.0-5.0, humus content 1.36-2.63 %, mobile P2O5 – 90-231 and K2O – 186-250 mg kg-1 soil.

Efficiency of pea (Pisum sativum L.) and vetch (Vicia sativa L.) inoculation depended on Rhizobium strain and on plant variety. R. leguminosarum bv. viciae strains Þ 2 and B 39 were found to be the most effective. They also had the widest specificity. The first strain formed an effective symbiosis with the plants of six pea and five vetch varieties, the second strain with the plants of five pea and six vetch varieties.

Most of Rhizobium strains and plants of pea and vetch varieties were compatible to form an effective symbiosis. However, genomes of one pea variety ’Þalsviai’ and those of Rhizobium strains 145 and B 39 were incompatible, which prevented them from forming an effective symbiosis.

In most cases inoculation did not result in an increase in crude protein content in pea and vetch yield. An exception was pea varieties ‘Grafila’ and ‘Ilgiai’ and vetch varieties ‘Baièiai’ and ‘Þalsviai’, whose inoculation with strain 145 resulted in an increase in protein content by 3.35; 4.78; 2.71 and 2.54 percentage units, respectively.

Rhizobium

strain 145 was characterised by a great virulence. It formed 1.7-2.2 times more nodules in the plants of two pea and three vetch varieties compared with noninoculated plants.

Toxicity of vetch seed coat to Rhizobium strains was ascertained. Light-coloured (yellowish – green, yellowish white) seed had the least inhibitory effect on legume bacteria, while black seed had the greatest inhibitory effect.

Regularities between ambient conditions (air temperature, soil pHKCl, base content, humus, aluminium, P and K compounds) and the efficiency of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strains were identified.

Key words: Rhizobium, strains, peas, vetch, varieties, efficiency of symbiosis, symbiotic compatibility.

 

III skyrius. AUGALØ SELEKCIJA

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2002, 4, 80, 86-97

UDK 633.22:631.526.32

PAPRASTØJØ ÐUNAÞOLIØ VEISLË ‘VELINTA’

Pavelas TARAKANOVAS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. paðtas:

pavelas@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Darbo tikslas – sukurti naujà vëlyvà paprastøjø ðunaþoliø (

Dactylis glomerata L.) veislæ.

Veislë ‘Velinta’ sukurta masinës atrankos bûdu ið Dagestano laukinës ðunaþolës populiacijos (k - 405) vëlyvø augalø.

Naujos veislës þalios masës derlius 67,71 t ha

-1, sausøjø medþiagø – 15,43 t ha-1, t.y. uþ standartinæ ðunaþoliø veislæ ‘Asta’ veislë ‘Velinta’ derlingesnë atitinkamai 7,8 ir 0,7 %. Ðunaþoliø ‘Velinta’ vidutinis sëklø derlius – 212,41 kg ha-1, standartinës veislës – 294,41 kg ha-1.

Veislës ‘Velinta’ augalai plaukëti pradeda 12 dienø vëliau negu veislës ‘Asta’. Sausosiose medþiagose veislë ‘Velinta’ þaliø proteinø turi daugiau 13,52 % (+1,33 %), làstelienos maþiau 28,18 % (-2,14 %), o sausøjø medþiagø virðkinamumas (in vitro) ið esmës didesnis (67,25 %) negu standartinës veislës (56,97 %).

Reikðminiai þodþiai: paprastoji ðunaþolë, veislës, selekcija, sëklininkystë.

Chapter 3. PLANT BREEDING

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture, Scientific articles, 2002, 4, 80, 86-97

UDK 633.22:631.526.32

THE COCKSFOOT VARIETY ‘VELINTA’

P. Tarakanovas

Summary

The variety ‘Velinta’ was created by multiple selection of productive and late plants from the wild population from Dagestan. It is a late, hay - type variety. It reaches heading stage at the end of May, beginning of June, seeds mature at the end of July, which is 11 days later, than of the standard variety ‘Asta’.

Under a 3- cut management the variety produced during the vegetative growth period on average 67.71 t ha-1 of green material and 15.43 t ha-1 of dry matter and insignificantly exceeded the standard variety ‘Asta’ by 7.8 % and 0.7 % respectively.

The average seed yield is 212.41 kg ha-1, significantly lower than that of the standard 294.41 kg ha-1.

The variety ‘Velinta’ has a lower winter hardiness (1.90 points) compared with the standard variety (1.45 points).

The new variety has a higher crude protein content (13.52 %), and dry matter digestibility (67.25 %) compared with the standard variety (12.19 and 56.97 % respectively).

Key words: cocksfoot, variety, breeding and seed production.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2002, 4, 80, 98-108

UDK 633.16:631.526.32

VASARINIØ MIEÞIØ VEISLËS ‘LUOK˒ IR ‘LÞI 6121’

Algë LEISTRUMAITË

Lietuv

os þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. paðtas:

alge@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Vasariniø mieþiø veislë ‘Luokë’ sukurta Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute (LÞI) sukryþminus [‘Vega’ x ( ‘Ofir’ x ‘Berenice’ )] x ‘Flare’ 1990 metais. 1991-1995 veislë tirta selekciniuose augynuose. Konkursiniuose bandymuose tirta 1996-2001 metais. Per ðá laikotarpá prikulta vidutiniðkai 5,28 t ha

-1. Nauja veislë derlingesnë uþ standartinës veislës ‘Ûla’ mieþius 0,37 t ha-1, arba 7,5 %. Naujos veislës grûdai stambûs, vidutinë 1000-èio grûdø masë 48,9 g, natûrinis svoris – 674 g l-1. Augalø vidutinis aukðtis – 72,6 cm, atsparûs iðgulimui. Veislë vidutinio ankstyvumo. LÞI 1996-2000 metø duomenimis, grûduose baltymø buvo 12,4 %, krakmolo – 58,1 %. Varpos dvieilës, geltonos. Varpos ilgis – 7,5 cm.

Vasariniø mieþiø veislë ‘LÞI 6121’ sukurta Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute sukryþminus ‘Kriniènij’ x [ (‘KM 1192’ x ‘Ofir’) x (‘Deba’ x ‘KM 1192’)] 1986 metais. 1987-1993 m. veislë tirta selekciniuose augynuose. Konkursiniuose bandymuose tirta 1994-2001 metais. Per ðá laikotarpá prikulta vidutiniðkai 5,12 t ha

-1. Nauja veislë buvo 0,21 t ha-1, arba 4,3 % derlingesnë uþ standartinæ veislæ ‘Ûla’. Naujos veislës grûdai stambûs, vidutinë 1000-èio grûdø masë 46,9 g, natûrinis svoris 692 g l-1. Augalø vidutinis aukðtis – 76,9 cm. Augalai atsparûs iðgulimui. Veislë vidutinio ankstyvumo. LÞI 1996-2000 metø duomenimis, grûduose baltymø buvo 13,3 %, krakmolo – 59,3 %. Varpos dvieilës, geltonos. Varpos ilgis – 8,2 cm.

Valstybiniams veisliø tyrimams veislës ‘Luokë’ ir ‘LÞI 6121’ perduotos 1999 metais. 2001 metais mieþiø veislë ‘Luokë’ áraðyta á Tinkamiausiø Lietuvoje auginti augalø veisliø sàraðà.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: vasariniai mieþiai, selekcija, veislë.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2002, 4, 80, 98-108

UDK 633.16:631.526.32

THE NEW SPRING BARLEY VARIETIES

A. Leistrumaitë

Summary

The new spring barley cultivar ‘Luokë’ was developed from the crossing combination [‘Vega’ x (’Ofi

r’ x ‘Berenice’)] x ‘Flare’ in 1990. During 1991-1998 the selected line 6791-35 was studied in the initial breeding nurseries and in the advanced yield trials. During the period 1996-2001 the new variety produced on average 5.28 t ha-1 grain. It outyielded the check variety by 0.37 t ha-1 or 7.5 %. The length of the growing period of the new variety ‘Luokë’ is 87 days. ‘Luokë’ is resistant to lodging, plant height is 72.6 cm, spikes are two-rowed, 7.5 cm long. The grains are large, 1000 grain weight is 48.9 g, volume weight 674 g l-1. They contains 12.4 % of crude protein, 58.1 % of starch. The seeds are of straw yellow colour with grown - in glumes. Awns are 18.7 cm long.

The new spring barley cultivar ‘LÞI 6121’ was developed from the crossing combination ‘Kriniènij’ x [(‘KM 1192’ x ‘Ofi

r’) x (‘Deba’ x ‘KM 1192’)] in 1986. During 1987-1998 the selected line 6121-2 was studied in the initial breeding nurseries and in the advanced yield trials. Durinf the period 1994-2001 the new variety produced on average 5.12 t ha-1 of grain. It outyielded the check variety by 0.21 t ha-1 or 4,3 %. The length of the growing period of the new variety ‘LÞI 6121’ is 89 days. ‘LÞI 6121’ is resistant to lodging, plant height is 76.9 cm, spikes are two-rowed, 8.2 cm long. The grains are large, 1000 grain weight is 46.9 g, volume weight 692 g l-1. They contain 13.3 % of crude protein, 59.3 % of starch.The seeds are of straw yellow colour with grown - in glumes. Awns are 19.0 cm long.

In 1999 the varieties were transformed to the Official Trials. In 2001 the variety ‘Luokë’ was registered in Lithu

ania.

Key words: spring barley, breeding, variety.

 

Chapter 4. PLANT PROTECTION

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2002, 4, 80, 109-124

UDK 633.112.9:632.952

EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT DOSES AND APPLICATION TIMING OF TRIAZOLE AND STROBILURINE FUNGICIDES IN WINTER TRITICALE

Dalia JANUÐAUSKAITË

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Vëþaièiai Branch

E-mail:

dalia@vezaiciai.lzi.lt

Zenonas DABKEVIÈIUS

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture

E-mail: dabkevicius@lzi.lt

Abstract

The inves

tigation of two fungicides against fungal diseases of winter triticale (cv. ‘Tewo’) was carried out at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Vëþaièiai Branch during 2000-2002. The fungicides Juventus (metkonazol 60 g l-1) and Allegro (kresoxim-methil 125 g l-1+ epoxikonazol 125 g l-1) were used at full, two-third and half doses once and twice. Both of the fungicides were quite effective against leaf rust (Puccinia recondita) and septoria (Stagonospora nodorum), and less effective against tan spot (Drechslera tritici-repentis). Biological efficacy of Juventus applied at any dose or time against rust was 98.6-99.7 %, against septoria – 80.3-88.7 %, against tan spot – 59.6-80.2 %. Allegro efficacy against those diseases was slightly higher – 97.2-100 %, 89.8-98.3 % and 56.8-85.8 %, respectively. The higher doses of fungicides were not markedly superior to the lower ones.

The highest yield increase was obtained in the treatments sprayed with the higher doses twice with both fungicides, especially with Allegro. But in order to reduce the impact of pesticides on the environment, reduced doses of fungicides and fewer applications should be used. It is economically profitable to use Juventus 1.0 l ha-1 once at GS 49-51 or 0.5 l ha-1 dose twice at GS 37-39 and 55-59, or Allegro 0.75 l ha-1 twice.

Key words: winter triticale, leaf rust, septoria, tan spot, fungicidal effects, yield

IV skyrius. AUGALØ APSAUGA

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2002, 4, 80, 109-124

UDK 633.112.9:632.952

TRIAZOLØ IR STROBILURINØ NORMØ IR PANAUDOJIMO DAÞNUMO EFEKTYVUMAS ÞIEMINIØ KVIETRUGIØ PASËLYJE

D. Januðauskaitë, Z. Dabkevièius

Santrauka

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filiale 2000-2002 metais tirta þieminiø kvietrugiø (‘Tewo’) apsauga nuo lapø ligø, naudojant triazolø ir strobilurinø grupës fungicidus juventus (metkonazolas) ir allegro (kresoxim-metilas + epoxikonazolas). Kvietrugiai fungicidais purkðti visa, trijø ketvirèiø ir puse rekomenduojamos normos vienà ir du kartus. Fungicidai buvo efektyvesni nuo rûdþiø (

Puccinia recondita) – 98,6-99,7 % ir septoriozës (Stagonospora nodorum) – 80,3-88,7 %, ir maþiau – nuo kvieèiø dryþligës (Drechslera tritici-repentis) – 59,6-80,2 %. Efektyvesnis nuo visø ligø buvo allegro. Net ir pusiau sumaþintos fungicidø normos, panaudojus vienà kartà, buvo pakankamai efektyvios nuo kvietrugiø lapø ligø. Nuo fungicidø, naudotø ávairiomis dozëmis vienà ir du kartus, derlius padidëjo nuo 0,15 iki 1,22 t ha-1 2000 m., nuo 0,75 iki 1,94 t ha-1 2001 m. ir nuo 0,02 iki 0,32 t ha-1 2002 m. Taèiau nustatyta, kad tikslingiausia naudoti fungicidà juventus vienà kartà 1,0 l ha-1 49-55 tarpsniu, arba 0,5 l ha-1 du kartus 37-39 ir 55-59 tarpsniais, arba allegro 1 l ha-1 vienà kartà ar 0,75 l ha-1, du kartus atitinkamais tarpsniais.

Reikðminiai

þodþiai: þieminiai kvietrugiai, rudosios rûdys, septoriozë, kvieèiø dryþligë, fungicidø poveikis, derlius.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2002, 4, 80, 125-134

UDK 633.11<324>:631.563:632.4:632.952

ÁVAIRIØ PRIEMONIØ ÁVERTINIMAS MAÞINANT KVIEÈIØ GRÛDØ UÞTERÐTUMÀ MIKROMICETØ PRADAIS

Aurimas KRASAUSKAS

Botanikos institutas

Þaliøjø eþerø g. 49, Vilnius

El. paðtas: auris@nora.lzua.lt

Vytautas ÐLAPAKAUSKAS

Lietuvos þemës ûkio universitetas

Akademija, Kaunas

El. paðtas: bo@nora.lzua.lt

Santrauka

Tyrimai atlikti 2000-2001 m. Lietuvos þemës ûkio universiteto (LÞÛU) Bandymø stotyje bei Botanikos katedroje. Derliaus nuëmimo metu tirtø kvieèiø grûduose rastos 26 mikromicetø rûðys. Dominavo

Alternaria ir Fusarium genèiø grybai – Alternaria alternata, Fusarium gibbosum, F. nivale. Sandëliuojami grûdai buvo labai uþterðti mikromicetø pradais – iki 1490 cfug-1. Sandëlio ore labiausiai buvo iðplitæ Penicillium ir Aspergillus genèiø mikromicetai – Penicillium expansum, P. granulatum, Aspergillus flavus ir kiti. Sandëliø mikologinë bûklë priklauso nuo mikroklimato, kurio svarbiausi veiksniai yra santykinë oro drëgmë ir pastato konstrukcijose esanèio vandens aktyvumas (aw). Ávertintas fungicidø flamenko 0,5 %, folikuro BT 0,5 % ir 1 % dezinfekcinës medþiagos TH4+ poveikis labiausiai paplitusiø rûðiø mikromicetams. Tyrimø sàlygomis mikromicetø augimà ir vystymàsi labiausiai slopino 1 % TH4+, o kiti du – nepakankamai.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: þieminiai kvieèiai, grûdai, sandëliavimas, mikromicetai fungicidai.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2002, 4, 80, 125-134

UDK 633.11<324>:631.563:632.4:632.952

EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT MEASURES TO REDUCE WHEAT GRAIN CONTAMINATION WITH FUNGI PROPAGULES

A. Krasauskas, V. Ðlapakauskas

Summary

Investigations were carried out at the Lithuanian Agricultural University Trial Station and Department of Botany during the period of 2000-2001 with the purpose to study the contamination of winter wheat with fungi propagules and measures to reduce it. Fungal species of Fusarium and Alternaria dominated on grain from field and species of Penicillium, Aspergillus on grain from storage. The highest number of fungal propagules – up to 1490 cfug-1was found on grain in the storage.

The effect of 0.5 % Flamenco, 0.5 % Folicur BT fungicides and 1 % and TH4+ on dominating fungal species under the laboratory conditions was tested. None of the tested preparations was effective enough.

Grain storage buildings must be clean, well ventilated, periodically inspected and disinfected.

Key words: winter wheat, grain, storage, fungi, fungicides.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2002, 4, 80, 135-153

UDK 633.11<324>:[631.84+632.95]:631. 559: 581.19

FUNGICIDØ IR JØ MIÐINIO SU AZOTO TRÀÐOMIS POVEIKIS ÞIEMINIAMS KVIEÈIAMS

Irena G

AURILÈIKIENË, Vytas MAÐAUSKAS,

Audronë MAÐAUSKIENË, Jurgita CESEVIÈIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuvos sen., Këdainiø rajonas

El. paðtas: irenag@lzi.lt; agrochemija@lzi.lt;

masaudrone@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Þieminiø kvieèiø ‘Ðirvinta 1’ træðimo karbamidu kartu su fungicidais tyrimai daryti 1996-1998 metais, o KAS-32 tràðø (karbamido ir amonio salietros tirpalo) su fungicidais þieminiams kvieèiams ‘Zentos’ – 1998-2000 m. Pavasará atsinaujinus vegetacijai (BBCH 21) visi augalai træðti N

60.

Fungicidai, naudoti kartu su azoto tràðø tirpalu, septoriozës (

Septoria spp.) plitimà stabdë efektyviau, negu naudoti be azoto tràðø. Rudàsias rûdis (Puccinia recondita) labiau slopino apsaugantys lapus fungicidai, naudoti vieni, o miltligës (Erysiphe graminis) – vienodai veiksmingai tiek naudoti vieni, tiek su azoto tràðomis. Azoto tràðos, naudotos miðinyje su sportaku paskatino stiebalûþës (Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides) plitimà, palyginus su sportaku, naudotu be azoto tràðø, bet nepaveikë paðaknio puviniø (Fusarium spp., Gaeumannomyces graminis ir kt.) plitimo. Bamblëjimo pradþioje (BBCH 32) þieminius kvieèius ‘Ðirvinta 1’ papildomai nupurðkus karbamido 15 % tirpalu ir fungicidu sportaku, grûdø derlius padidëjo 0,76 t ha-1. Efekto 45 % priskirtina papildomai naudotoms azoto tràðoms, o 55 % – fungicidui. Tokio pat tarpsnio þieminius kvieèius ‘Zentos’ papildomai patræðus KAS-32 15 % tirpalu, já iðpurðkiant kartu su sportaku, o vamzdelëjimo pabaigoje (BBCH 49) panaudojus arèerá ir decá, gautas 1,38 t ha-1 vidutinis derliaus priedas, kurio 30 % lëmë papildomas træðimas azoto tràðomis, o 70 % augalø apsaugos priemonës. Vamzdelëjimo tarpsnio pabaigoje (BBCH 49) nupurðkus fungicidu tiltu ir 10 % karbamido miðiniu, þieminiø kvieèiø ‘Ðirvinta 1’ derlius padidëjo 1,31 t ha-1. Ðio derliaus priedo 23 % lëmë karbamido tirpalas, 77 % – fungicidas. Iðpurðkus ant augalø fungicidø ir azoto tràðø tirpalà, grûdø baltymø, ðlapiojo glitimo, sedimentacijos rodiklio vertës iðliko nepakitusios arba ðiek tiek pagerëjo, negu panaudojus augalø apsaugos priemones be azoto tràðø.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: fungicidai, karbamidas, KAS-32, þieminiai kvieèiai, ligos, derlius, kokybë.

ISSN 1392-3194

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2002, 4, 80, 135-153

UDK 633.11<324>:[631.84+632.95]:631. 559: 581.19

EFFECT OF FUNGICIDES APPLIED IN MIXTURES WITH NITROGEN FERTILISERS ON THE WINTER WHEAT STANDS

I. Gaurilèikienë, V. Maðauskas, A. Maðauskienë, J. Cesevièienë

Summary

Application of fungicides in combination with urea was investigated in ‘Ðirvinta 1’ stands in 1996-1998 and UAN-32 (urea - ammonium nitrogen solution) in combination with fungicides in ‘Zentos’ stands in 1998-2000. The soil of the trial site was light loamy Gleyic Cambisol. N60 as ammonium nitrogen was applied in spring at the beginning of wheat growing season (GS 21).

Fungicides applied in mixtures with nitrogen fertilisers reduced the spread of septoria (Septoria spp.) more effectively compared with the treatment without nitrogen fertiliser. Fungicide-nitrogen fertiliser mixtures had a lower effect on the reduction of brown rust (Puccinia triticina) spread. The incidence of mildew (Erysiphe graminis) was identical in both cases: where fungicides had been sprayed separately, and in combination with fertiliser. Protection of plants against eyespot (Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides) declined when Sportac had been applied in mixture with nitrogen fertiliser, compared with a separate application of the fungicide, but had no influence on the spraying of common root rot (Fusarium spp., Gaeumannomyces graminis and other). 45 % of the yield increase was obtained due to the additional nitrogen application and 55 % due to the fungicide when the winter wheat ‘Ðirvinta 1’ stand at the GS 32 was additionally treated with nitrogen using 15 % urea solution in mixture with the fungicide Sportac. 30 % of the yield increase was obtained due to addition of nitrogen and 70 % due to plant protection products when the winter wheat variety ‘Zentos’ at the GS 32 had been treated with 15 % UAN-32 in mixture with Sportac, and at the GS 49 with Archer and Decis. A combination of the fungicide Tilt and 10 % urea applied at the GS 49 also contributed to the yield increase of the winter wheat variety ‘Ðirvinta 1’: 23 % of this effect was obtained due to the addition of nitrogen fertiliser and 77 % due to the fungicide.Results suggest that the application of plant protection products on leads to a decrease in the indirect parameters of the grain breadmaking quality. Nitrogen fertilizers applied in mixture with fungicides tended to increase grain quality.

Key words: fungicides, urea, urea-ammonium nitrogen, winter wheat, diseases, yield, quality.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2002, 4, 80, 154-162

UDK 632.651:633.16

AUGALØ PARAZITINIAI NEMATODAI MIEÞIØ RIZOSFEROJE

Sonata KAZLAUSKAITË

Lietuvos þemës ûkio universitetas

Studentø g. 11, Akademija, Kauno rajonas

El. paðtas: sonatak@bamba.lt

Santrauka

Augalø parazitiniai nematodai yra svarbûs visiems ekosistemos

komponentams. Agroekosistemose, nesilaikant fitosanitarijos reikalavimø, susidaro agrofitopatogeniniai kompleksai. Darbo tikslas buvo atlikti mieþiø rizosferos nematodø komplekso sudëties tyrimus. Tyrimai atlikti 1997-1999 m. Lietuvos þemës ûkio universiteto Bandymø stotyje. Mieþiai buvo auginami tausojanèiosios þemdirbystës sàlygomis. Dirvoþemio mëginiai nematodø analizëms atrinkti atitinkamais mieþiø vystymosi tarpsniais. Iðskiriant nematodus ið dirvoþemio taikytas modifikuotas piltuvëlinis Bermano metodas. Nustatyta, kad mieþiø rizosferoje fitohelmintø trofinës grupës nematodai sudarë vidutiniðkai nuo 29,04 iki 31,43 % nematodø komplekso. Vyravo Pratylenchus spp., Tylenchorhynchus spp. ir Tylenchus spp. genèiø atstovai. Kitø genèiø fitonematodø buvo nustatyta nedaug.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: augalø parazitiniai nematodai, nematodø gausumas, nematokompleksas.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2002, 4, 80, 154-162

UDK 632.651:633.16

PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES IN BARLEY RHIZOSPHERE

S. Kazlaus

kaitë

Summary

Plant parasitic nematodes are very important components in any ecosystem. If phytosanitary requirements are ignored, the agrophytopathogenic complexes form in agroecosystems. The aim of the present research was to analyse the composition of plant rhizosphere nematodes complex. The experiments were carried out at the Experimental Station of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture in the period of 1997-1999. Barley was grown under the conditions of sustainable agriculture. Soil samples for the analyses of nematodes were taken at respective barley development stages. Modified funnel Berman method was used for picking out nematodes from the soil. It was determined that plant parasitic nematodes accounted for approximately 29.0-31.4 % of the nematode complex in barley rhizosphere. The most prevalent were representatives of the genera Pratylenchus spp., Tylenchorhynchus spp. and Tylenchus spp. Plant parasitic nematodes belonging to other genera were identified only in inconsiderable amounts.

Key words: plant parasitic nematodes; abundance of nematodes; nematocomplex.

 

V

skyrius. ÞOLININKYSTË

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2002, 4, 80, 163-178

UDK 633.321+633.24]:633.531.01

RAUDONØJØ ANKSTYVØJØ TETRAPLOIDINIØ DOBILØ ‘VYLIAI’ AUGINIMAS SËKLOMS IR POVEIKIS MIEÞIAMS

Vytautas ÞEMAITIS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës in

stitutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. paðtas: jonasgut @ lzi.lt

Santrauka

Bandymai daryti 1995-1999 m. Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute Dotnuvoje drenuotuose lengvo priemolio rudþemio RDg8-k1 (VG

i1) dirvoþemiuose. Raudonøjø ankstyvøjø dobilø (Trifolium pratense praecox W.) diploidiniø ‘Liepsna’ sëta 6 kg ha-1, tetraploidiniø ‘Vyliai’ – 3, 6, 9 ir su paðariniais motiejukais (Phleum pratense L.) 6+4 ir 9+1 kg ha-1. Abiejø veisliø sëklos dvejus metus imtos ið pirmos þolës ir atolo. 6+4 ir 9+1 kg ha-1 sëjose ‘Vyliai’ pirmais metais imti paðarui antrais sëkloms ið atolo, kitais atvejais – sëkloms ið atolo dvejus metus. Palyginimui auginti paðariniai motiejukai ‘Gintaras II’ sëkloms, træðti N45-60. Po pirmø ir antrø derliaus metø þoliø sëti mieþiai N0 ir N45 fonuose. Straipsnyje pateikiami þolës sausøjø medþiagø derliaus, jo botaninës sudëties, dobilø sëklos ir mieþiø grûdø derliaus bei sëkliniø dobilø auginimo sàlyginio pelno ir kiti duomenys. Uþsiimant prekine dobilø ‘Vyliai’ sëklininkyste, verta turëti pirmø ir antrø metø dobilø tais paèiais metais ir palikti vienus ar kitus sëkloms pagal sëkliniams dobilams vasaros palankumà. Visais dobilø ‘Vyliai’ naudojimo atvejais jø sëtina ne daugiau kaip 6 kg ha-1 kondicinës sëklos, o sëkloms palikti ankstyvà atolà.

Reikðminiai þodþiai:

raudonieji dobilai, paðariniai motiejukai, veislës, sëklos normos, naudojimas, sëklos derlius, poveikis mieþiams.

Chapter 5. GRASSLAND HUSBANDRY

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2002, 4, 80, 163-178

UDK 633.321+633.24]:633.531.01

CULTIVATION OF EARLY TETRAPLOID RED CLOVER VARIETY ‘VYLIAI’ FOR SEED AND ITS EFFECT ON BARLEY

V. Þemaitis

Summary

Experiments were carried out at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in Dotnuva over the period 1995-1999. The soil of the experimental site was light loam, drained, Epicalcari – Epihipogleyic Cambisols CMg-p-w-cap. The diploid clover ‘Liepsna’ was sown at a rate of 6 kg ha-1, tetraploid ‘Vyliai’ at rates of 3, 6, 9 and with timothy 6+4 and 9+1 kg ha-1. The seed of both varieties was harvested for two years from the first cut and aftermath. ‘Vyliai’ sown at 9 and 6+4 kg ha-1 in the first year was harvested for forage, in the second year for seed from the aftermath, in the other cases – for seed from the aftermath for two years. For comparison timothy ‘Gintaras II’ was grown for seed, fertilised with N45-60. After the first and second year grasses we grew barley without nitrogen, or fertilised with N45.

When the first year ‘Vyliai’ was harvested for forage the dry matter yield was 9.0 t ha-1, and the next year’s dry matter yield of the first herbage was 1.7-2.5 times higher than that from the grass matured for seed for the second time. The seed yields of the first grass were several times lower than those of aftermath, and therefore were loss- making. First-year ‘Liepsna’ was only slightly more seedy than ‘Vyliai’, and the second-year ‘Liepsna’ was vice versa. The seed yield of ‘Vyliai’ sown at 3 kg ha-1 was lower than that sown at 6. 9 kg ha-1 pure or with timothy. Second-year clover was 1.5-2.0 times more seedy than first-year clover. Second-year ‘Vyliai’ was harvested for forage in the first year, its seed yield was almost the same as that of the first-year (154-164 kg ha-1) – 1.5 times higher than of clover used for the second time for seed. The seed of the second-year clover, especially of largely thinned out ‘Liepsna’ was contaminated with weeds. Average seed yield of timothy was 376-434 kg ha-1.

After first-year clover the yield of barley was 3.89-4.14 t ha-1, similar in all investigated treatments, after timothy 1.4-1.5 times lower. Under the effect of the first-year ‘Vyliai’ and application of N45 to the second barley, grain yield increased 0.95-1.68 t ha-1 – more after ‘Vyliai’, compared with ‘Liepsna’, and after ‘Vyliai’ mixtures with timothy sown at 6+4 kg ha-1, compared with pure clover. When nitrogen had not been applied after the second-year clover, the grain yield was 0-0.68 t ha-1, having applied N45 – 0.22-0.64 t ha-1 higher than in both cases after timothy. Without nitrogen the grain yield was 0.33-0.60 t ha-1 higher after ‘Vyliai’ in the first year cut for forage and grown with timothy, compared with pure stands for seed. Having applied N45 grain yield increase significantly changed – after pure seed stands ‘Vyliai’ it was 1.01-1.58, after the stands used for forage – 0.25-0.70 t ha-1.

We recommend growing ‘Vyliai’ seed only from the early aftermath. After the first seed yield ‘Vyliai’ persists better, and in the second year produces more seed than ‘Liepsna’. When ‘Vyliai’ for seed is intended to be used for one first year, it is best to sow it pure and after seed harvesting to plough it down for cereals. But very luxuriant and in mixtures with timothy clover should be cut 2-3 times for forage in the first year and in the following year it should be matured for seed. In all cases of use for seed pure or mixed with timothy ‘Vyliai’ should be sown at a rate not exceeding 6 kg ha-1 of viable seed.

Key words: red clover, timothy, clover varieties, seed rates, seed yield, effect on barley.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2002, 4, 80, 179-192

UDK 633. 21/. 28: 581. 524.1

DAUGIAMEÈIØ VARPINIØ ÞOLIØ ALELOPATINIS AKTYVUMAS SKIRTINGAIS VYSTYMOSI TARPSNIAIS

Aldona KRYÞEVIÈIENË, Vanda PAPLAUSKIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. paðtas: lzeminst.@lzi. lt

Santrauka

Lauko-laboratoriniai tyrimai atlikti LÞI Dotnuvoje 1998-2000 m. Tirtos 4 rûðiø daugiametës varpinës þolës – pievinës miglës (

Poa pratensis L.), daugiametës svidrës (Lolium perenne L.), paðariniai motiejukai (Phleum pratensis L.) ir tikrieji eraièinai (Festuca pratensis Huds.). Þolës augo lengvo priemolio sekliai glëjiðkame sekliai karbonatingame rudþemyje (cambisols), kuriame humuso buvo 1,9 %, pH – 6,8, P2O5 – 154 ir K2O – 138 mg kg-1. Tirtas þoliø antþeminës dalies, ðaknø bei atskirø augalo daliø vandeniniø iðtraukø (4 skirtingø koncentracijø) poveikis daiginamiems raudoniesiems ridikëliams (Raphanus sativus L.) – augalui testui. Gauti daigumo duomenys rodë iðtraukø alelopatiná aktyvumà. Jo dydis, naudojant A. Grodzinskio metodà ir sudarytà skalæ pagal kumarinø kieká iðtraukose, iðreikðtas sutartiniais kumarininiais vienetais (SKV). Bendras fenoliniø junginiø kiekis iðtraukose buvo ávertintas fotokolorimetriniu metodu.

Nustatyta, kad þoliø rûðys pagal jø vandeniniø iðtraukø, ruoðtø skirtingu vystymosi tarpsniu, alelopatiná aktyvumà iðsidëstë nevienodai. Veikiant antþeminës dalies ir ðaknø didþiausiø koncentracijø iðtraukoms (drëkintas filtrinis popierius, ant kurio buvo daiginama), augalo testo daigumas buvo slopinamas, maþiausiø koncentracijø – daþniausiai stimuliuojamas. Antþeminiø augalo daliø iðtraukos buvo toksiðkesnës negu ðaknø ir labiau slopino augalo testo daigumà. Visos

tirtos iðtraukos pavasará ir rudená buvo maþiau aktyvios, negu ruoðtos vystantis þoliø vaisiniams ûgliams, ypaè masinio þydëjimo ir sëklø brendimo metu. Pastarosioms iðtraukoms veikiant, augalo testo daigumas buvo atitinkamai tik 24 ir 15 %. Jø iðtraukø vidutinis aktyvumas svyravo nuo 240 iki 360 SKV, o daigumà distiliuotame vandenyje prilyginus 100 %, SKV svyravo tarp 8 ir 9. Þydinèiø visø rûðiø þoliø lapø iðtraukos turëjo didþiausià slopinantá poveiká, o daugiameèiø svidriø – dar ir þiedynø. Bendro fenoliniø junginiø (neidentifikuotø) kiekio kitimas iðtraukose buvo panaðus kaip ir SKV atskirø augalo daliø iðtraukose bei þoliø vystymosi tarpsniø metu. Taèiau nustatytas bendras jø kiekis neatspindëjo iðtraukø aktyvumo pagal þoliø rûðis, ypaè pieviniø migliø.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: varpinës þolës, iðtraukos, augalas testas, alelopatija.

ISSN 1392-3194

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2002, 4, 80, 179-192

UDK 633.21/.28:581.524.1

ALLELOPATHIC ACTIVITY OF PERENNIAL GRASSES AT DIFFERENT GROWTH STAGES

A. Kryþevièienë, V. Paplauskienë

Summary

Field-laboratory tests were carried out at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in Dotnuva during 1998-2000. The tests involved 4 species of perennial grasses – smooth-stalked meadow grass (Poa pratensis L.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perene L.), common timothy (Phleum pratense L.) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.). The grasses grew on Epicalcari-Epihygogleyic Cambisols CM-p-w-cap. light loamy containing 1.9 % of humus, pH – 6.8, P2O5 – 154 and K2O – 138 mg kg-1. We investigated the effect of water extracts (different concentrations) of grass overground part, roots and individual plant parts on germinating plants-tests- red horse radish (Raphanus sativus L.). The obtained germination data showed the allelopathic activity of the extracts. Its value, using A. Grodzinski method and the developed scale according to content in extracts is expressed by conventional coumarine units (CCU). The total amount of phenolic compounds in extracts was measured by the photocolorimetric method.

It was determined that grass species according to allelophatic activity of their water extractions prepared at different growth stages, ranked differently. Under the effect of the highest concentrations of plant overground part and root extracts (filter paper on which germination took place was wetted) the germination of plant-test was suppressed, while under the effect of the lowest concentrations germination, in most cases, was stimulated. The extracts of the overground part of plants were more toxic than root extracts and gave a stronger suppressive effect on the germination of plant-test. All the tested extracts were less active in spring and autumn than those prepared at the stage of fruit shoots development, especially at mass flowering and seed maturity stages. Under the effect of the latter extracts the germination of plants was 24 and 15 %, respectively. Their average activity ranged from 240 to 360 CCU, while when the germination in the control treatment was equalled to 100 %, CCU ranged between 8 and 9. Leaf extracts of all flowering grass species had the greatest suppressive effect and of perennial ryegrass also the extracts of inflorescences. Fluctuation of total (unidentified) content of phenolic compounds in the extracts was similar to that of CCU in individual plant parts and at individual growth stages. Hower, the determined total content did not reflect the activity of extracts according to grass species, especially of smooth-stalked meadow grass (Poa pratensis).

Key words: grasses, extracts, plant-test, allelopathy.

 

Chapter 6. APICULTURE

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2002, 4, 80, 193-200

UDK 638.16

INVESTIGATION OF POLLEN COMPOSITION AND CATALASE ACTIVITY IN UNIFLORAL SUMMER AND POLYFLORAL SPRING HONEY

Violeta ÈEKSTERYTË

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiai district

E-mail:violeta@lzi.lt

Abstract

Unifloral spring rape and clover honeys were gathered in the apiary of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Këdainiai dis

trict, and heather honey in Jurbarkas district during 1995-1998. Spring rape honey of 1998 was collected mainly from one source. It contained 96.3 % of spring rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera annua Metzg.) pollen and only 3.7 % of other nectar plants. Botanical and chemical composition in unifloral honey of different years was diverse. Heather honey of 1995 had the highest content (50.1 %) of heather (Calluna vulgaris L.) pollen. The data of melissopalynological analyses of monoflorial clover honey, collected during 1995-1998, suggest that the honey collected in 1997 was the purest – it contained 75.1 % of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) pollen. Examination of catalase activity in honey, kept at different temperatures, showed that: catalase activity significantly declined (14.5 %) in the spring rape honey, kept at the 15-25° C per 1.5 years; in the spring rape, clover and heather honeys kept at 15-25° C catalase activity significantly declined after 3.5 years by 25.0, 44.4 and 22.2 %, accordingly. Reduction in catalase activity was not significant in the clover (7.2 %) honey stored for 2.5 years at 5-8° C, however, in the spring rape and heather honeys it was greater – 18.2 and 18.4 %, accordingly. After 3.5 years’ storage in these conditions, the change in catalase activity was not significant only for the clover honey.

Key words: honey, botanical origin, catalase, storage, temperature.

VI skyrius. BITININKYSTË

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2002, 4, 80, 193-200

UDK 638.16

MONOFLORINIO

VASAROS, POLIFLORINIO PAVASARIO MEDAUS ÞIEDADULKIØ SUDËTIES IR KATALAZËS AKTYVUMO TYRIMAI

V. Èeksterytë

Santrauka

Monoflorinis vasariniø rapsø, dobilø medus buvo surinktas Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute Këdainiø rajone, o virþiø medus – Jurbarko rajone 1995-1996 metais. Vasariniame rapsø meduje, surinktame 1998 metais, vyravo vasariniø rapsø (

Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera annua Metzg.) þiedadulkës, kurios sudarë 96,3 %, kitø augalø þiedadulkiø ðiame meduje buvo 3,7 %. Skirtingø metø monoflorinio medaus botaninë ir cheminë sudëtis nevienoda. 1995 metø virþiø meduje buvo daugiausia virþiø (Calluna vulgaris L.) þiedadulkiø – 55,1 %. Iðtyrus monofloriná dobilø medø, rinktà 1995-1998 m. nustatyta, kad 1997 metais surinktas gryniausias dobilø medus – jame buvo 75,1 % raudonøjø dobilø (Trifolium pratense L.) þiedadulkiø. Rapsø meduje, laikytame 15-25° C temperatûroje 1,5 metø, ið esmës sumaþëjo katalazës aktyvumas 14,5 %. Rapsø, dobilø ir virþiø meduje, laikytame 15-25° C temperatûroje 3,5 metø, katalazës aktyvumas sumaþëjo ið esmës – atitinkamai 25,0, 44,4 ir 22,2 %. Katalazës aktyvumas ið esmës nepakito dobilø meduje, laikytame 5-8° C temperatûroje, 2,5 metø. Taèiau vasariniø rapsø ir virþiø meduje katalazës aktyvumas sumaþëjo daugiau negu dobilø meduje. Ðis pokytis buvo atitinkamai 18,2 ir 18,4 %. Laikant medø ðiomis sàlygomis 3,5 metø, katalazës aktyvumas nepakito ið esmës tik dobilø meduje.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: medus, botaninë sudëtis, katalazë, laikymas, temperatûra.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2002, 4, 80, 201-214

UDK 638.144

UTILISATION OF SPRING HONEY FLOW

Jurgis RAÈYS

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiai district

E-mail: b

itinsk@lzi.lt

Abstract

Means that practically have not been investigated in Lithuania before were used for the intensification of bee colonies’ development in spring. They were as follows: spring stimulating feeding on sugar syrup with protein and mineral additives, autumn feeding, use of Carniolan bees notable for intensive brood rearing early in spring, spring heating of nests by electricity, two bee colonies in one beehive. Conventional bee keeping was used as a check treatment in our apiary.

Bee colonies consume much food in spring for brood rearing and support of their lives, therefore honey production in 1996 from April 16 to May 8, i.e. during 22 days was less than 3 kg per colony, and “double” colonies consumed even their reserves. The year of 1998 was more successful, honey production over the period of 24 days was from 3,6 to 5.7 kg per colony. Most of the colonies efficiently used the spring honey flow in 1999: Carniolan bee colonies gathered 14.2 kg, “double colonies” – 7.6 kg of honey. Bee colonies additionally fed in spring and “double colonies” used spring honey flow more for brood rearing and strengthening of colonies.

Annual honey production per check colony was on average 16.2 kg. Carniolan bees produced significantly more honey, i.e. 30.2 kg per colony and “double colonies” 25.8 kg. The other means of stimulation also had a positive effect on bee efficiency. In the treatment involving electrical heating honey production was 22,7 kg, in the treatment involving early feeding in the autumn – 22.0 kg, and in the treatment involving spring stimulation – 20.8 kg. Compared with the check colony, the treatments with Carniolan bees gave 178.8 Lt more income per colony, the treatment involving early autumn feeding – 78.0 Lt, the treatments involving electrical heating in spring – 72.8 Lt, the treatments involving extra feeding in spring – 49.4 Lt, and the treatments with two colonies in a beehive – 47.4 Lt.

Key words: bees, brood, stimulating feeding, spring honey, efficiency.

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2002, 4, 80, 201-

214

UDK 638. 144

PAVASARINIO MEDUNEÐIO IÐNAUDOJIMAS

J. Raèys

Santrauka

Bièiø ðeimø vystymuisi pavasará intensyvinti naudotos Lietuvoje beveik netyrinëtos priemonës: pavasará taikytas skatinamasis maitinimas cukraus sirupu su baltyminiais ir mineraliniais priedais, ankstyvas rudeninis maitinimas, anksti pavasará intensyviai perus auginanèios Krajinos rasës bitës, pavasarinis lizdø ðildymas elektra, dvi bièiø ðeimos viename avilyje. Kontrolinis variantas – Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto bityne áprastas

bitininkavimo bûdas.

Perams auginti bei savo gyvybingumui palaikyti pavasará bièiø ðeimos sunaudoja daug maisto, todël 1996 m. nuo balandþio 16 d. iki geguþës 8 d., t.y. per 22 dienas neprineðë nei po 3 kg medaus, o „dvigubos “ ðeimos naudojo ir turëtus rezervus. Sëkmingesni buvo 1998 m., kai per 24 d. prineðta nuo 3,6 iki 5,7 kg medaus. Dauguma ðeimø gerai iðnaudojo 1999 m. pavasario meduneðá: Krajinos rasës bièiø ðeimos pririnko 14,2 kg, „dvigubos” – 7,6 kg medaus. Pavasará papildomai maitintos bei „dvig

ubos” ðeimos pavasario meduneðá labiau iðnaudojo perams auginti ir ðeimai stiprinti.

Per metus kontrolinës ðeimos surinko vidutiniðkai po 16,2 kg medaus. Ið esmës daugiau, t.y. po 30,2 kg surinko Krajinos bitës bei po 25,8 kg „dvigubos” ðeimos. Bièiø darbingumà këlë ir kiti skatinimo bûdai. Naudojant ðildymà elektra, surinkta 22,7 kg, anksti pamaitinus rudená – 22,0 kg, skatinant pavasará – 20,8 kg medaus.

Nustatyta, kad bitininkaujant su Krajinos bitëmis, gauta 178,8 Lt, anksti pamaitinus rudená – 78,0 Lt, pavasará ðildþius elektra – 72,8 Lt, papildomai maitinus pavasará – 49,4 Lt, laikant dvi ðeimas avilyje – 47,4 Lt priedo, palyginus su kontroline ðeima.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: bitës, perai, skatinamasis maitinimas, pavasarinis medus, efektyvumas.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2002, 4, 80, 215-223

UDK 638.124.5:638.121.1

NUKLEUSØ KONSTRUKCIJOS IR SUDARYMO BÛDØ ÁTAKA VAISINGOMS BIÈIØ MOTINËLËMS

Diana TAMAÐAUSKIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuva, Këdainiø rajonas

El. paðtas: diana@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Vaisingas bièiø motinëles uþauginti nelengva. Jaunos nevaisingos motinëlës susiporavimui perkeliamos á nedideles ðeimeles, kurios vadinamos nukleusais.

Stebëjimai atlikti vienvieèiuose polistiroliniuoses, keturvieèiuose su dviem 205 x 135 mm dydþio rëmeliais mediniuose ir vienvieèiuose su skirtingu skaièiumi 100 x 115 mm dydþio rëmeliø taip pat mediniuose nukleusuose.

Kasmet suporavimui buvo paruoðiamos trys partijos jaunø bièiø motinëliø ir nukleusuose keièiamos vidutiniðkai kas 18 dienø.

Dël ávairiø fiziniø trûkumø iðbrokuota vidutiniðkai 3,3 %, pagal kiauðinëliø dëjimà – 5,8 % bièiø motinëliø. Nukleusø su skirtingu skaièiumi 100 x 115 mm dydþio rëmeliø grupëje daugiausiai motinëliø susiporavo ir dëjo kiauðinëlius nukleusuose su trim rëmeliais – 56,7 %. Ið 60,0 % nukleusø su vienu 100 x 115 mm dydþio rëmeliu bitës iðsiskraidë. Tokio dydþio rëmelá aptupia 30-35 g bièiø. Manoma, kad tai per maþai, kad galëtø nukleusas gyvuoti.

Ið vidutiniðkai 50,0 % keturvieèiø su dviem rëmeliais nukleusø bitës iðsiskraidë. Didesnë jø pusë naujai sudaryti. Sudarytuose vienà kartà susiporavo 43,4 % bièiø motinëliø. Geriausi rezultatai gauti sudarius polistirolinius vienvieèius nukleusus su vidutiniðkai 150,0 g bièiø. Juose susiporavo 62,7 % bièiø motinø. Ið 21,8 % ðios grupës naujai sudarytø nukleusø iðsiskraidë bitës.

Tikslas – nustatyti nukleusø konstrukcijos ir sudarymo bûdø átakà vaisingø bièiø motinëliø kiekiui.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: bitës, bièiø motinëlës, bièiø motinëliø susiporavimas, nukleusai, rëmeliai, kiauðinëliø dëjimas, bièiø iðsiskraidymas, motinëliø brokavimas.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2002, 4, 80, 215-223

UDK 638.124.5:638.121.1

EFFECT OF NUCLEUS DESIGN AND FORMATION METHODS ON THE NUMBER OF BEE QUEENS

D

. Tamaðauskienë

Summary

Production of mated bee queens is one of the hardest and most responsible stages in bee queens’ rearing work. Young queens’ are inhabited for mating in small bee colonies, called nucleuses.

Three types of nucleuses were used in our investigations: plastic single-colony, wooden four-colony with 2 frames of 205 x 135 mm and single-colony with a different number of frames 100 x 115 mm.

3 batches of mated bee queens are produced annually. 3 bee queens are inhabited and mate in one nucleus on average every 18 days.

After visual assessment on average 3.3 % of all mated bee queens were rejected, and 5.8 % according to egg laying. The highest number of bee queens 56.7 % mated and laid eggs in the nucleuses with 3 frames (100 x 115 mm). In the nucleuses with 1 little frame 7 bee queens mated during the two experimental years, 60.0 % of these nucleuses dispersed or swarmed. One little frame (100 x 115 mm) is normally seated by 30-40 g of bees. It is thought that this amount of bees is insufficient to provide necessary conditions for the existence of nucleus: adequate temperature is not maintained, food supply is weak, insufficient amount of royal jelly is produced to feed the bee queen.

In wooden four-colony nucleuses on average every second colony (50.0 %) fly out. The greatest flying away of bees was determined in the newly forming nucleuses. In the ones formed one time 43.4 % of all introduced bee queens mated. The best results were obtained when forming new one-colony plastic nucleuses with on average 150.0 g of bees. 62.7 % of bee queens mated in them. In this group of nucleuses the greatest flying away of bees 21.8 % was observed in the newly formed ones. It is not economical to form a nucleus for each new bee queen in respect to bee colonies also, as bee colonies are weakened by removing young bees and brood rearing and utilisation of honey flow are deranged.

Key words: bee, bee queens, mating of bee queens, nucleuses, frames, egg laying, flying away of bees, reject.

 

Proceedings of the European Environmental and Bee Conservation Congress

„Research for Practical Beekeeping”

Europos aplinkos ir bièiø apsaugos kongreso „Mokslas bitininkystës praktikai”

praneðimai

Proceeding of the congress, 2002, 225-234

UDK 638.124.3:577.19

PHEROMONE COMMUNICATION IN HONEYBEES (APIS MELLIFERA L.)

Algirdas SKIRKEVIÈIUS

Institute of Ecology

Akademijos 2, Vilnius

Vilnius Pedagogical University

Studentø 39, Vilnius

E-mail: algskirk@ktl.mii.lt

Abstract

It was determined by electrophysiological and behavioural experiments that the queen pheromone has the latency period of action in the bee colony. When the action of the queen pheromone is absolutely lost, the colony enters the state of queenlessness and begins to rear the new queen.

The sensitivity of the pheromone receptors of worker bees from colonies with the queen, was weaker than the sensitivity of bees from colonies without the queen. A new queen reared in place of the removed one does not change the sensitivity of the pheromone receptors of worker bees. The sensitivity of the pheromone receptors of worker bees decreases only when young brood appears in the colony.

Key words: Apis mellifera queen pheromone, queenlessness, sensitivity of pheromone receptors of worker bees.

Europos aplinkos ir bièiø a

psaugos kongreso praneðimai, 2002, 225-234

UDK 638.124.3:577.19

MEDUNEÐIØ BIÈIØ (

APIS MELLIFERA L.) FEROMONINË KOMUNIKACIJA

A. S

kirkevièius

Santrauka

d

arbo tikslas – iðaiðkinti sàlygas, kuriomis atsistato bièiø darbininkiø jautrumas motinos feromonui po to, kai ið ðeimos paðalinama motinëlë. Vienu metu tirtos bièiø ðeimos, kurios turëjo motinëlæ ir ið kuriø ji buvo paðalinta ir augino naujà. Motinëlës feromono ðaltinis buvo jos spiritinio ekstrakto dozë 1·10-7 – 1·10-2 jos ekvivalento. Motinëlës feromono ekvivalentas buvo spiritinis ekstraktas su 100 µg trans-9-oksodecen-2-o rûgðties. Bièiø darbininkiø feromonø receptoriø jautrumo motinëlës feromonui nustatymas buvo susietas su svarbiais bièiø ðeimos gyvenimo pokyèiais: motinëlës netekimu, naujos motinëlës auginimu, perø atsiradimu ir pan.

Elektrofiziologiniø ir elgesio tyrimø rezultatai rodo, kad motinëlës feromonas bièiø ðeimoje turi latentiná veikimo periodà. Kai feromonas nebeveikia, ðeima pereina á motinëlës neturëjimo bûsenà ir pradeda auginti naujà motinëlæ.

Bièiø darbininkiø feromonø receptoriø jautrumas motinëlës feromonui didesnis tokiose ðeimose, kuriose nëra kiauðinëlius dedanèios motinëlës. Naujos motinëlës iðauginimas vietoj paðalintos nepakeièia bièiø darbininkiø feromonø receptoriø jautrumo. Jis pakinta, t. y. sumaþëja tik tuomet, kai ðeimoje a

tsiranda jaunos lervos.

Feromonø receptoriø jautrumo padidëjimo ir jø jautrumo a

tsistatymo á prieð tai buvusá lygmená mechanizmai nëra tokie patys.

Reikđminiai ţodţiai:

Apis mellifera, motinëlës feromonas, neturinti motinëlës bièiø ðeima, darbininkiø feromonø receptoriø jautrumas.

 

Proceeding of the congress, 2002, 235-248

UDK 638.121.1:577.19

amounts OF (E)-9-OXO-2-DECENOIC ACID IN THE PHEROMONE OF HONEYBEE (Apis mellifera L.) QUEENS and factors controlLing its conversion in honey

Violeta APÐEGAITË, Algimantas RUKÐËNAS

Institute of Ecology

Akademijos 2, Vilnius

E-mail: apviola@ekoi.lt

Algirdas SKIRKEVIÈIUS

Institute of Ecology

Akademijos 2, Vilnius

Vilnius Pedagogical University

Studentø 39, Viln

ius

E-mail: algskirk@ktl.mii.lt

Abstract

Studies were conducted to investigate the effect of queen’s maturation, mating and ageing on the amount of released (E)-9-oxo-2-decenoic acid (9-ODA) in various Apis mellifera L. races and the factors that regulate 9-ODA conversion in honey. The results of the investigation have revealed:

1. The amount of 9-ODA in bee queens is highly variable. This variation in different races is different. The physiological state and age of bee queens are of great significance to the pheromone they produce: the amount of 9-ODA in the extract of a newly emerged bee queen is the lowest, whereas its content in the extract of a two-year-old intensively egg-laying queen is the highest.

2. The temperature of honey is important for the conversion of 9-ODA: when it changes from +20°C to +90°C, the rate of the 9-ODA conversion into other substances also changes. On average, 37.82 % of 9-ODA are converted in the period of 5 min when the temperature of honey is +20°C; when the honey temperature reaches +50°C, 45.16 % of this acid are converted; at the temperature of +70°C, only 17.46 % are converted; however, at the temperature of +90°C, the process of conversion terminates altogether. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) accelerates the conversion of 9-ODA in honey, whereas nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) decelerates this process. A carbohydrate medium is necessary for the 9-ODA conversion into other substances.

Key words: Apis mellifera L., queen pheromone, (E)-9-oxo-2-decenoic acid, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide.

Europos aplinkos ir bièiø apsaugos kongreso praneðimai, 2002, 235-248

UDK 638.121.1:577.19

(E

)-9-OKSODECEN-2-O RÛGÐTIES KIEKIS BIÈIØ (APIS MELLIFERA L.) MOTINËLIØ FEROMONUOSE IR VEIKSNIAI, REGULIUOJANTYS JOS KONVERSIJÀ MEDUJE

V. Apðegaitë, A. Skirkevièius, A. Rukðënas

Santrauka

Tirta, koká poveiká turi (

E)-9-oksodecen-2-o rûgðties (9-ODR) iðskyrimui: Apis mellifera L. bièiø motinëlës rasë, lytinis brendimas, apvaisinimas ir senëjimas. Taip pat analizuoti veiksniai, kurie reguliuoja ðios rûgðties konversijà meduje. Nustatyta:

1) bièiø motinëlëse 9-ODR kiekis labai ávairuoja. Skirtingose rasëse ðis ávairavimas yra nevienodas. Bièiø motinëlës amþius ir fiziologinë bûklë turi átakos jos iðskiriamam 9-ODR kiekiui. Kà tik iðsiritusi motinëlë ðios rûgðties iðskiria maþiausiai, o dvejø metø intensyviai dedanti kiauðinëlius - daugiausiai.

2) 9-ODR konversijai meduje turi reikðmës jo temperatûra: keièiant medaus

temperatûrà nuo +20 iki +90oC, keièiasi jame ir 9-ODR konversijos á kitas medþiagas greitis. +20oC temperatûroje per 5 min. konvertuoja vidutiniðkai 37,82 % 9-ODR, +50oC – 45,16 %, +70oC – tik 17,46 %, o +90oC – ðis procesas visai nevyksta. Nikotinamidadenindinukleotidfosfatas pagreitina 9-ODR konversijà meduje á kitas medþiagas, o nikotinamidadenindinukleotidas sulëtina ðá procesà. 9-ODR konversijai á kitas medþiagas bûtina angliavandeniø terpë.

Reikðminiai þodþiai:

Apis mellifera L., bièiø motinëlës feromonai, (E)-9-oksodecen-2-o rûgðtis, nikotinamidadenindinukleotidfosfatas, nikotinamidadenindinukleotidas.

 

Proceeding of the congress, 2002, 249-255

UDK 638.124

THE ROLE OF THE RESPONSES OF APIS MELLIFERA L.WORKERS TO THE QUEEN PHEROMONE IN DETERMINING THEIR BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS THE QUEEN

Graþina VAITKEVIÈIENË

Institute of Ecology

Akademijos 2, Vilnius

E-mail: vaigra@ekoi.lt

Abstract

Behavioural investigations showed that only the bee queen extract elicited retinue behaviour in worker bees. Bees staying at the stimulus less than 3 seconds formed the majority, with a limited number (7 %) lingering more than 30 seconds. With an increase in the duration of a pheromone stimulus, the antennal reaction (EAG) of workers increased, but the highest sensitivity to the changes of the stimulus duration occurred in the range under 0.1 seconds.

While increasing the extract dose, the appropriate behavioural acts (attraction, licking, and aggression) could be elicited. In addition, it is important to note that definite doses, which can elicit different behaviour, appear to depend significantly on the sensitivity of a bee to the pheromone. The current paper discusses the role of the juvenile hormone as one of the factors modulating the sensitivity of workers to the pheromone.

Key words: Apis mellifera, bee, queen pheromone, olfaction, retinue, age.

Europos aplinkos ir bièiø apsaugos kongreso praneðimai, 2002, 249-255

UDK 683.124

APIS MELLIFERA

L. BIÈIØ DARBININKIØ REAKCIJOS Á BIÈIØ MOTINËLËS FEROMONÀ REIKÐMË

G. Vaitkevièienë

Santrauka

Bièiø darbininkiø elgesio stebëjimai rodo, kad tik panaudojus bièiø motinëlës ekstraktà, o ne pavienius jo komponentus, galima ið dalies imituoti bièiø motinëlës palydos elgesá. Priviliotos bitës darbininkës prie stimulo daþniausiai iðbûna maþiau negu 3 s. Tik labai nedaug jø (7 %) iðbûna ilgiau nei 30 s. Elektrofiziologiniai uodimo receptoriø tyrimai (elektroantenograma – EAG) rodo, kad receptoriø atsakas stipresnis ilgëjant stimului, taèiau didþiausias jautrumas stimulo trukmës pokyèiams

yra tol, kol stimulo trukmë nevirðija 0,1 s.

Bièiø darbininkiø jautrumas bièiø motinëlës feromonui priklausë nuo jø amþiaus, bet ekstrakto dozë 10

-5 bièiø motinëlës ekvivalento (Mekv.) niekada jø neviliojo (bièiø tiriamoje grupëje buvo ne daugiau kaip 100). Antra vertus, kartais didesnës ekstrakto dozës (10-2 ir 10-1 Mekv.) sukeldavo toká stimulø apspitimà, kad tai labiau buvo panaðu á puolimà, nei á taikø elgesá ðiø stimulø atþvilgiu.

Didinant bièiø motinëlës feromono dozæ, galima sukelti vienas po kito vykstanèius 3 pagrindinius veiksmus: priviliojimà, feromono laiþymà ir agresyvumà. Jø pasireiðkimo laipsnis priklauso nuo pateikto stimulo savybiø ir nuo bitës fiziologinës bûklës. Manoma, kad vienas ið darbininkiø jautrumo bièiø motinëlës feromonui moduli

atoriø galëtø bûti juvenilinis hormonas.

Reikðminiai þodþiai:

Apis mellifera, bitës, bièiø motinëlës feromonas, uoslë, palyda, amþius.

 

Proceeding of the congress, 2002, 256-261

UDK 638.121.2:638.124

AGE-RELATED CHANGES IN RETROCEREBRAL COMPLEX OF HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.) WORKERS REARED IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

Ana BUDRIENË, Graþina VAITKEVIÈIENË

Institute of Ecology,

Akademijos 2, Vilnius

E-mail:vaigra@ekoi.lt

Abstract

In this work, data on the state of the retrocerebral complex in workers of different Apis mellifera L. races in response to changing environmental and social conditions are presented. The corpora allata (CA) and corpora cardiaca (CC) of adult Apis mellifera carnica workers reared in a queenright colony increased steadily in size. After six days spent in a thermostat, there was a decrease in the CA volume of all Apis mellifera races in comparison with that on the first day. Two peaks (on day 1-2 and 18) were noticed in the course of age-related changes of CA volume in free-flying queenless Apis m. buckfast workers. In caged Apis m. buckfast workers, only the first peak (on day 1-2) in growth of the CA volume is expressed.

Key words: Apis mellifera, bee, corpora allata, corpora cardiaca, age

Europos aplinkos ir bièiø a

psaugos kongreso praneðimai, 2002, 256-261

UDK 638.121.2:638.124

SKIRTINGOJE APLINKOJE AUGANÈIØ MEDUNEÐIØ BIÈIØ (

APIS MELLIFERA L.) DARBININKIØ RETROCEREBRALINIO KOMPLEKSO VYSTYMOSI POKYÈIAI

A. Budrienë, G. Vaitkevièienë

Santrauka

Pateikiami duomenys

apie ávairiø rasiø bièiø darbininkiø retrocerebralinio komplekso vystymàsi esant skirtingoms aplinkos ir socialinëms sàlygoms. Natûraliai keièiantis Apis mellifera carnica ðeimos su motinële darbininkiø darbams ir amþiui, didëja tiek jø corpora allata (CA), tiek ir corpora cardiaca (CC). Po ðeðiø dienø, laikant bites uþdarytas narveliuose termostate (30oC), visø tirtø bièiø rasiø CA tûris sumaþëja.

Kasdieninis Apis m. buckfast

darbininkiø CA tûrio ávertinimas rodo, kad laisvai skraidanèioms bitëms darbininkëms bûdingi 2 CA tûrio augimo pikai: pirmà, antrà ir 18-à dienomis. Laikant ðios rasës bites uþdarytas narveliuose jø CA augimui bûdingas tik pirmasis pikas.

Reikđminiai ţodţiai:

Apis mellifera, corpora allata, corpora cardiaca, amţius.

 

Proceeding of the congress, 2002, 262-266

UDK 638.157

EFFICACY OF GABON PA 92 AGAINST VARROA JACOBSONI QUD MITES

Jonas A. BALÞEKAS

The Lithuanian Beekeepers Union

Akademija, Këdainiai, Lithuania

E-mail: JBalzekas@takas.lt

Abstract

7 fields experiments were conducted over the period of 1994-2000 with the aim to determine the efficacy of the acaricide Gabon PA 92 for Varroatosis treatment. Based on seven year data it was established that the efficacy of the acaricide was 98.6 % , and was similar to that of Apistan. The efficacy of Gabon strips used for the first and second time was the same. Gabon is recommended for the control of varroa mites in Lithuanian apiaries. Mites did not develop resistance to this acaricide during the seven year period of its application.

Key words: Varroatosis, Gabon PA 92, acrinathrin, Apistan, fluvalinate, mite infestation of bees and brood.

Europos aplinkos ir bièiø apsaugos kongreso praneðimai, 2002, 262-266

UDK 638.157

GABONO PA 92 VEIKSMINGUMAS VARROA JACOBSONI

QUD ERKËMS NAIKINTI

J

.A. Balþekas

Santrauka

1994 - 2000 m. autoriaus bityne (Ukmergës raj.) atlikti 7 lauko bandymai. Nustatytas gabono PA 92 veiksmingumas varozës erkëms naikinti. Septyneriø metø duomenimis, gabono veiksmingumas nesiskyrë nuo apistano. Per ðá laikotarpá nesusiformavo atsparios gabonui erkës. Trejø metø duomenimis, juostelës veiksmingiausios buvo pirmus dvejus metus. Treèià kartà panaudojus tas paèias gabono juosteles, bièiø erkëtumas buvo 7,5 karto didesnis, palyginus su pirmà kartà naudotomis juostelëmis.

Penkerius metus gabonu gydytø bièiø ðeimø meduje akrinatrino nerasta. Gabonas PA 92 yra keturis kartus pigesnis uþ apistanà ir rekomenduojamas naudoti Lietuvos bitynuose varozës erkëms naikinti, naudojant gydymui tas paèias juosteles du kartus.

Reikðminiai

þodþiai: varozë, gabonas PA 92, akrinatrinas, apistanas, fluvalinatas, bièiø ir perø erkëtumas.
·Raðykite mums: lzi@lzi.lt