Chapter 1. AGRICULTURE AND CROP PRODUCTION

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 76, 3-20

UDK 631.811.3:633.1:[631.416.4+631.893+631.51]

THE BALANCE OF POTASSIUM BY APPLYING DIFFERENT SOIL TILLAGE-FERTILISATION SYSTEMS ON SLOPING SOILS OF WESTERN LITHUANIA

Dalia FEIZIENË

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture

Akademija, Dotnuva parish, Këdainiai district

E-mail: virgis@lzi.lt

Abstract

Four primary and presowing soil tillage systems in combination with different rates of mineral NPK fertilisers were investiga

ted in three landscape positions at the Kaltinënai Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during 1995-1999. The rates of mineral NPK fertilisers were calculated according to the nutrient status in the soil and the planned yield level of a crop. The main conclusions of growing cereals for four successive years in the soil sensitive to erosion were drawn up. By increasing the yield of grain and straw production of the cereals, the offtake of potassium also increased, but K2O concentration in the crop production did not alter regularly. These changes, as we suppose, were affected by the ratio among NPK nutrients available. This, in turn, was influenced by different tillage systems. Landscape position, climatic conditions and biological features of the crop had an effect on K2O utilisation. Reduced soil tillage systems, which do not include a deep mechanical soil mixing, had a greater influence on the crop ability for better potassium (K2O) utilisation from the fertilisers. K2O balance for the whole crop rotation was negative in all landscape positions and by using all tillage and fertilisation systems as well. In soils sensitive to erosion occurrence the reduced soil tillage systems may be used for four successive years by growing cereal crops. The effect of mineral fertilisers was similar to that of the traditional one.

Key words: fertilisation, potassium, soil tillage, relief, cereals.

1 skyrius. ÞEMDIRBYSTË IR AUGALININKYSTË

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 76, 3-20

UDK 631.811.3:633.1:[631.416.4+631.893+631.51]

KALIO BALANSAS TAIKANT SKIRTINGAS ÞEMËS DIRBIMO-TRÆÐIMO SISTEMAS KALVOTOSE VAKARØ LIETUVOS DIRVOSE

D. Feizienë

Santrauka

1995-1999 m. LÞI Kaltinënø bandymø stotyje, trijose skirtingose kalvos dalyse tirtos 4 pagrindinio-prieðsëjinio þemës dirbimo sistemos ir træðimas skirtingomis mineraliniø NPK tràðø normomis, apskaièiuotomis pagal maisto medþiagø kieká dirvoþemyje ir planuojamà derliø. Vandens ir mechaninei erozijai jautriose dirvose 4 metus ið eilës auginant

varpinius javus nustatyta, kad didëjant javø grûdø bei ðiaudø derliui, didëjo ir kalio kiekis visoje produkcijoje, taèiau K2O koncentracija visuose javuose kito labai nevienodai. Tokius jos pokyèius, matyt, nulëmë skirtingas augalams prieinamø maisto medþiagø (NPK) santykis, kurá lëmë nevienodas þemës dirbimas. Kalio (K2O) pasisavinimà ið dirvoþemio lëmë reljefas, meteorologinës sàlygos, auginamo augalo biologinës savybës ir skirtingi þemës dirbimo bûdai. Tràðø kalá (K2O) augalai geriausiai pasisavino taikant netradicines þemës dirbimo sistemas (II, III ir IV), t.y. tas sistemas, kuriose dirvoþemis nebuvo giliai maiðomas. Sëjomainos rotacijos kalio (K2O) balansas buvo neigiamas visose kalvos dalyse ir taikant visas þemës dirbimo sistemas bei træðimà mineraliniø tràðø vidutinëmis arba padidintomis normomis. Vandens ir mechaninei erozijai jautriose kalvotose dirvose 4 metus ið eilës auginant varpinius javus, galima taikyti dirvosaugines þemës dirbimo sistemas (II arba IV) – mineraliniø tràðø veikimas jose prilygsta tràðø veikimui tradicinëje þemës dirbimo sistemoje.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: træðimas, kalis, þemës dirbimas, reljefas, javai.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 76, 21-37

UDK 632.51:[631.51+631.893]:633.1

PERENNIAL WEED CONTROL AND CEREAL PRODUCTIVITY BY APPLYING DIFFERENT SOIL TILLAGE-FERTILISATION SYSTEMS ON HILLY SOILS OF WESTERN LITHUANIA

Virginijus Feiza

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture

Akademija, Dotnuva parish, Këdainiai district

E-mail: virgis@lzi.lt

Abstract

Complex

research including soil tillage investigation on weediness was carried out at the Kaltinënai Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during 1995-1999. Data revealed that perennial weeds on the top and slope of a hill were controlled better when the herbicide Roundup had been used in autumn for the application in the stubble at a rate of 4.0 l/ha. After 2-3 weeks followed soil chiseling with a chisel cultivator KCh-5.1 to 20-22 cm depth and in spring presowing soil tillage comprised soil cultivation with a cultivator KPS 4-03 having S shape spring tines to 6-8 cm depth in tandem with a harrow BZSS-1.0 attached. At the foot of the slope, the best effect of reduced tillage systems on perennial weed control was got in the second year of their use. The worst effect on perennial weed control was got when the herbicide Roundup had been used in autumn for the application in the stubble at a rate of 4.0 l/ha and was followed by presowing soil harrowing with the rotary knife harrow. The application of mineral NPK fertilisers impeded weed control. The application of the herbicide Roundup in combination with soil chiseling and presowing soil tillage with the cultivator KPS 4-03 having S shape spring tines to the depth of 6-8 cm in tandem with the harrow BZSS-1.0 attached was the most suitable soil tillage system concerning crop yielding capability on sloping agricultural land.

Key words: tillage, fertilisation, cereals, weeds, relief.

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 76, 21-37

UDK 632.51:[631.51+631.893]:633.1

DAUGIAMEÈIØ PIKTÞOLIØ NAIKINIMAS IR JAVØ PRODUKTYVUMAS TAIKANT SKIRTINGAS ÞEMËS DIRBIMO-TRÆÐIMO SISTEMAS KALVOTOSE VAKARØ LIETUVOS DIRVOSE

V. Feiza

Santrauka

1995-1999 metais Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Kaltinënø bandymø stotyje atlikti kompleksiniai tyrimai, kuriø vienas ið uþdaviniø – nustatyti þemës dirbimo-træðimo sistemø átakà daugiameèiø piktþoliø skaièiaus kitimui. Erozijai jautriose dirvose (kalvos virðûnë ir ðlaitas) daugiametës piktþolës, tarp jø ir varpuèiai, p

er visà sëjomainos rotacijà geriausiai ir nuosekliausiai buvo naikinamos rudená javø raþienas nupurðkus raundapu (4,0 l/ha), po 2-3 savaièiø purenant sunkiuoju kultivatoriumi KÈ-5,1 20-22 cm gyliu, o pavasará prieð sëjà kultivuojant kultivatoriumi KPS-4-03 su „S” raidës formos noragëliais 6-8 cm gyliu ir akëjant vidutinio sunkumo akëèiomis BZSS-1,0. Uþneðtoje ir drëgnesnëje paðlaitëje supaprastintø þemës dirbimo sistemø maksimalus veikimas, naikinant daugiametes piktþoles, pasireiðkë nuo antrø jø taikymo metø. Træðimas mineralinëmis NPK tràðomis apsunkino daugiameèiø piktþoliø kontrolæ. Rudeninis purðkimas raundapu ir purenimas sunkiuoju kultivatoriumi (èizeliu) bei prieðsëjinis kultivavimas kultivatoriumi KPS-4-03 su „S” raidës formos noragëliais 6-8 cm gyliu ir akëjimas vidutinio sunkumo akëèiomis BZSS-1,0 prilygo rudeniniam giliam arimui plûgu su kultûrinëmis verstuvëmis bei prieðsëjiniam kultivavimui kultivatoriumi KPS-4-03 su „S” raidës formos noragëliais 6-8 cm gyliu kartu akëjant vidutinio sunkumo akëèiomis BZSS-1,0. Ðios þemës dirbimo sistemos buvo tinkamiausios, garantuojanèios pastovø ir gausø javø derliø kalvoto reljefo dirvose.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: þemës dirbimas, træðimas, javai, piktþolës, reljefas.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 76, 38-46

UDK 632.51

THE INFLUENCE OF STELLARIA MEDIA (L.) VILL., SONCHUS ASPER (L.) HILL., CAPSELLA BURSA-PASTORIS (L.) MEDIK. PLANTS AIR-DRY WEIGHT AND DENSITY ON THEIR SEED RAIN IN THE SPRING BARLEY CROP

Vytautas PILIPAVIÈIUS

Lithuanian University of Agriculture

Akademija, Kaunas district

E-mail.: vpilip@nora.lzua.lt

Abstract

The field trials were carried out in the period of 1997-1999 at the Research Station of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture. The aim of the experiments was to analyse the weed seed rain dependence of common chickweed (Stellaria media (L.) Vill.), prickly sowthistle (Sonchus asper (L.) Hill.) and shepherd’s purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.) on weed density and on their air-dry weight in the crop of spring barley. Quantitative changes of Stellaria media, Sonchus asper and Capsella bursa-pastoris seed rain were described by regression procedures indicating correlation coefficient, strength and reliability of relationship.

The experiments showed that changeable air-dry weight of Stellaria media, Sonchus asper and Capsella bursa-pastoris had an essential influence on their weed seed rain. There were established statistically reliable 99 and 95 % linear dependences and obtained such correlation coefficients, respectively r = 0.833**, r = 0.786*, r = 0.766*.

Weed seed rain change of analysed weed species in relation to their plants density was not regular and monosemantic. There was established linear correlation statistically reliable 95 % probability level between the plants density of Stellaria media and its seed rain, the coefficient of correlation – r = 0.711*. Relationship between the Sonchus asper plants density and its seed rain was linear and statistically reliable of 99.9 % probability level, the coefficient of correlation – r = 0.918***. Analysing relationship between the plants density of Capsella bursa-pastoris and its seed rain, the results were not analogical as of Stellaria media and Sonchus asper. There was established only weak linear correlation – r = 0.474 which was not proved statistically.

Key words: weed seed rain, air-dry weed weight, weed density, Stellaria media (L.) Vill., Sonchus asper (L.) Hill., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 76, 38-46

UDK 632.51

DARÞINIØ ÞLIÛGIØ, ÐIURKÐÈIØJØ PIENIØ IR TRIKERÈIØ ÞVAGINIØ ORASAUSËS MASËS IR SKAIÈIAUS ÁTAKA JØ SËKLØ BYRËJIMUI VASARINIØ MIEÞIØ PASËLYJE

V. Pilipavièius

Santrauka

Lauko bandymai buvo vykdomi 1997

-1999 metais Lietuvos þemës ûkio universiteto Bandymø stotyje. Tyrimø tikslas – iðanalizuoti trijø piktþoliø rûðiø: darþiniø þliûgiø (Stellaria media (L.) Vill.), ðiurkðèiøjø pieniø (Sonchus asper (L.) Hill.) ir trikerèiø þvaginiø (Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.) iðbyranèiø sëklø priklausomumà nuo augalø orasausës masës ir skaièiaus vasariniø mieþiø pasëlyje. Darþiniø þliûgiø, ðiurkðèiøjø pieniø, trikerèiø þvaginiø sëklø byrëjimo kitimo dësningumai buvo ávertinti regresijos lygtimis nurodant koreliacijos koeficientus, ryđio stiprumŕ ir patikimumŕ.

Atlikti tyrimai rodo, kad kintanti darþiniø þliûgiø, ðiurkðèiøjø pieniø ir trikerèiø þvaginiø orasausë masë ið esmës darë átakà ðiø piktþoliø iðbyranèiø sëklø skaièiui. Nustatytas tiesinis, statistiðkai patikimas 99 ir 95 % tikimybës lygiui, priklausomumas. Atitinkamai gauti tokie koreliacijos koeficientai: r = 0,833**, r = 0,786* ir r = 0,766*. Analizuojamø piktþoliø rûðiø sëklø byrëjimo kitimas, atsiþvelgiant á jø augalø skaièiø, nebuvo dësningas ir vienarei

kðmis. Tarp darþiniø þliûgiø augalø skaièiaus ir iðbirusiø jø sëklø skaièiaus nustatyta patikima tiesinë koreliacija r = 0,711*. Tarp ðiurkðèiøjø pieniø augalø skaièiaus ir iðbirusiø jø sëklø skaièiaus taip pat nustatytas stiprus tiesinis patikimas priklausomumas, koreliacijos koeficientui esant – r = 0,918***. Analizuojant priklausomumà tarp trikerèiø þvaginiø augalø skaièiaus ir iðbirusiø jø sëklø skaièiaus, negauti analogiðki rezultatai kaip su jau aptartomis piktþoliø rûðimis. Buvo nustatytas tik silpnas tiesinis priklausomumas r = 0,474, kurio statistinis patikimumas 95 % tikimybës lygiui nebuvo árodytas.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: piktþoliø sëklø byrëjimas, orasausë piktþoliø masë, piktþoliø

skaièius, Stellaria media (L.) Vill., Sonchus asper (L.) Hill., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 76, 47-54

UDK 633.521:631.55

THE INFLUENCE OF FIBRE FLAX VARIETIES’ RIPENESS AND HARVESTING METHOD ON FIBRE OUTPUT AND QUALITY

Zofija JANKAUSKIENË, Stasys MIKELIONI

S

Upytë Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture

Upytë, Panevëþys district

E-mail:

lzi.upyte@post.omnitel.net

Abstract

The trial was carried out in 1996-1998 at the Upytë Research Station where we

investigated the influence of harvesting at different flax ripeness (5 days after green ripeness stage, at early yellow, yellow and brown (full) ripeness stage) and harvesting method (decapsuling during pulling or decapsuling 10-12 days after pulling) on the fibre output and quality of different varieties (‘Ariane’, ‘Baltuèiai’ and ‘Belinka’) after straw dew-retting.

Average data of 3 years showed, that the highest fibre content (15.6 %) was obtained from ‘Ariane’. The varieties ‘Belinka’ and ‘Baltuèiai had a lower fibre content – 13.7 % and 14.4 % respectively. Fibre content of the variety ‘Ariane’ was the highest (18.4 %) when flax had been pulled at the ripeness stage “5 days after green ripeness” and that of the varieties ‘Baltuèiai’ and ‘Belinka’ (15

.1 and 16.4 %) when they had been pulled at the early yellow ripeness. The lowest fibre content (12.6-14.0 %) was obtained from flax at brown (full) ripeness. The influence of harvesting method on the fibre output was not determined.

The lowest fibre firmne

ss had ‘Baltuèiai’ (12.4 kg F), the indexes for ‘Belinka’ and ‘Ariane’ were 13.5 and 13.2 kg F, but the differences in fibre firmness between the two varieties were not significant. The later was the time of pulling, the lower was fibre firmness – from 15.0 kg F (at the ripeness stage “5 days after green ripeness”) to 11.0 kg F (at flax brown (full) ripeness). Fibre firmness was higher (13.4 kg F) when decapsuling flax during pulling and lower when decapsuling 10-12 days after pulling (12.6 kg F).

The most

flexible fibre was obtained from ‘Belinka’ (42.9 mm) and ‘Baltuèiai’ (41.8 mm), ‘Ariane’ fibre flexibility was lower – 39.0 mm. The influence of harvesting time and method on fibre flexibility was not established.

Key words: fibre flax, variety, ripeness, harvesting method, fibre output, firmness, flexibility.

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 76, 47-54

UDK 633.521:631.55

LINØ SUBRENDIMO IR NUËMIMO BÛDO ÁTAKA SKIRTINGØ PLUOÐTINIØ LINØ VEISLIØ PLUOÐTINGUMUI BEI PLUOÐTO KOKYBEI

Z. Jankauskienë, S. Mikelionis

Santrauka

1996-1998 m. Upytës bandymø stotyje tirta pluoðtiniø linø veisliø ‘Ariane’, ‘Baltuèiai’ ir ‘Belinka’ subrendimo (raunant 5 d. po þaliosios brandos pradþios, ankstyvosios geltonosios, geltonosios ar rudosios brandø tarpsniais) ir nuëmimo bûdo (karðiant galvenas rovimo metu arba 10-12 d. po nurovimo) átaka pluoðtingumui ir pluoðto lankstumui bei stiprumui.

Pluoðtingiausia linø veislë bandymuose buvo ‘Ariane’ (vidutiniðkai 15,7 %), maþiausiai pluoðtinga – ‘Baltuèiai’ (13,7 %). Didþiausias linø ðiaudeliø pluoðtingumas buvo: ‘Ariane’ veislës – nurovus 5 dienos po þaliosios brandos, ‘Baltuèiai’ ir ‘Belinka’ veisliø – nurovus ankstyvosios geltonosios brandos. Raunant linus vëlesniais brandos tarpsniais, pluoðtingumas maþëjo. Tyrinëtø

linø veisliø nuëmimo bûdø átaka ðiaudeliø pluoðtingumui nenustatyta.

Stipriausias buvo linø ‘Belinka’ pluoðtas – vidutiniðkai 13,5 kgj, nedaug atsiliko ‘Ariane’ pluoðto stiprumas – vidutiniðkai 13,2 kgj. Maþiausias buvo linø ‘Baltuèiai’ pluoðto stiprumas – vidutiniðkai 12,4 kgj. ‘Baltuèiai’ ir ‘Ariane’ stipriausias pluoðtas buvo nurovus 5 dienos po þaliosios brandos, raunant vëlesniø brandø tarpsniais pluoðto stiprumas maþëjo. ‘Belinka’ pluoðtas buvo stipriausias nurovus ankstyvosios geltonosios brandos; n

urovus anksèiau arba vëliau, pluoðto stiprumas buvo maþesnis. Klojëjant linus su galvenomis, pluoðto stiprumas buvo vidutiniðkai 5,1 % maþesnis, palyginus su klojëtais be galvenø.

Lanksèiausias buvo linø ‘Belinka’ pluoðtas – vidutiniðkai 42,9 mm, maþiau lankstus ‘Baltuèiai’ – 41,8 mm. Linø ‘Ariane’ pluoðto lankstumas buvo maþiausias – vidutiniðkai 39,0 mm. Linø subrendimo ir tyrinëtø linø nuëmimo bûdø átakos pluoðto stiprumui nenustatyta.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: pluoðtiniai linai, veislë, branda, derliaus nuëmimo bûdas, pluoðto kiekis, lankstumas, stiprumas.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 76, 55-69

UDK 633.491:631.8:631.559

EFFECT OF FERTILIZATION AND STORAGE TEMPERATURE ON THE QUALITY OF CHIPS PRODUCED FROM DIFFERENT POTATO VARIETIES GROWN IN LITHUANIA

Asta MAKARAVIÈIÛTË

Elmininkai Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture

N. Elmininkai, Anykđèiai district

E-mail: elmininkai@anyksciai.omnitel.net

Abstract

The effects of different fertilizer backgrounds and storage temperature on the reducing sugar content in potato tubers and the quality of chips produced from such potatoes were investigated at the Elmininkai Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during 1997-2000. Potatoes of 10 varieties belonging to different maturity groups were grown in the plots with different fertilizer levels: very early ‘Venta’ and ‘Ukama’, early ‘V

okë’, medium early ‘Mirta’ and ‘Karolin’, medium late ‘Hertha’, ‘Saturna’ and ‘Agria’, late ‘Aistës’ and ‘Speci’.

It was established, that different fertilizer backgrounds had no determinant regular effect on the reducing sugar content in potato tubers, as well as the quality of chips, produced from such potatoes. Varietal properties, meteorological conditions during potato vegetative growth period had a greater impact on the above mentioned indicators than fertilizer backgrounds, used in the experiment. Storage temperatures (+2-5 0C and +8-12 0C) had the greatest influence on the changes of reducing sugar content during storage as well as chips colour. Potatoes, stored at higher temperatures (+8-12 0C) accumulated lower amounts of reducing sugar than those kept at lower (+2-5 0C) temperatures. Besides, chips produced from such potatoes were superior in colour. During all the experimental years the lowest content of reducing sugar was found in the tubers of the following potato varieties: very early ‘Ukama’ (up to

0.27 %), early ‘Vokë’ (up to 0.11 %), medium early ‘Karolin’ (up to 0.19 %), medium late ‘Saturna’ (up to 0.20 %) and ‘Agria’ (up to 0.27 %). Potatoes of the above mentioned varieties were most suitable for processing into chips.

Key words: potato, variety, fertilization, reducing sugar, chips.

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 76, 55-69

UDK 633.491:631.8:631.559

TRÆÐIMO IR LAIKYMO TEMPERATÛROS ÁTAKA ÁVAIRIØ VEISLIØ BULVIØ TRAÐKUÈIØ

KOKYBEI

A. Makaravièiûtë

Santrauka

1997-2000 m. Lietuv

os þemdirbystës instituto Elmininkø bandymø stotyje velëniniame jauriniame priesmëlio ant priemolio dirvoþemyje buvo atliekami tyrimai, kuriuose buvo tiriama træðimo ir laikymo temperatûros átaka bulviø traðkuèiø, pagamintø ið skirtingø veisliø bulviø, kokybei. Tyrimai buvo atliekami su 10 skirtingo ankstyvumo bulviø veisliø: labai ankstyvomis ’Venta’ ir ’Ukama’, ankstyvosiomis ’Vokë’, vidutinio ankstyvumo ’Mirta’ ir ’Karolin’, vidutinio vëlyvumo ’Hertha’, ’Saturna’ ir ’Agria’ bei vëlyvosiomis ’Aistës’ ir ’Speci’.

Nustatyta, kad skirtingi træðimo fonai neturëjo lemiamos dësningos átakos redukuojanèio cukraus kiekiui bulviø gumbuose bei pagamintø traðkuèiø kokybei. Ðiems rodikliams átakos daugiau turëjo genetinës veislës savybës, meteorologinës sàlygos bulviø vegetacijos metu bei laikymo temperatûra. Laikymo temperatûra (+2-5

0C ir +8-12 0C) turëjo lemiamà átakà redukuojanèio cukraus kiekiui bulviø gumbuose bei pagamintø traðkuèiø kokybei. Bulvës, laikytos aukðtesnëje temperatûroje (+8-12 0C), sukaupë maþesná redukuojanèio cukraus kieká, be to, ið tokiø bulviø pagaminti traðkuèiai buvo geresnës kokybës. Redukuojanèio cukraus kiekis bulviø gumbuose lemia traðkuèiø spalvà: kuo ðis kiekis didesnis, tuo tamsesni pagaminti traðkuèiai. Todël ðiø medþiagø kiekis bulvëse neturëtø virðyti 0,30 % þalios masës. Vidutiniais tyrimø duomenimis, maþiausiai redukuojanèio cukraus sukaupë ðiø veisliø bulvës: labai ankstyvos ’Ukama’ (iki 0,27 %), ankstyvosios ’Vokë’ (iki 0,11 %), vidutinio ankstyvumo ’Karolin’ (iki 0,19 %) bei vidutinio vëlyvumo ’Saturna’ (iki 0,20 %) ir ’Agria’ (iki 0,27 %). Minëtø veisliø bulvës yra tinkamiausios traðkuèiams gaminti.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: bulvës, veislës, træðimo fonai, redukuojantis cukrus, traðkuèiai.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 76, 70-77

UDK 633.112.9<321>:632.4

THE SPREAD OF FUNGAL LEAF DISEASES IN THE STANDS OF SPRING TRITICALE

Irena GAURILÈIKIENË

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture

Akademija, Dotnuva parish, Këdainiai district

E-mail:

irenag@lzi.lt

Abstract

Assessments with a view to investigating the spread and development of leaf diseases in spring triticale stands were carried out in Dotnuva in 1997-2000. Brown rust (Puccinia recondita Rob. ex Desm.) infection on the spring triticale stands in 1998 was severe. The spring triticale variety ‘Gabo’ showed resistance reaction to P. recondita. Pustules were surrounded by necrotic spots. Septoria leaf blotch (Septoria spp.) appeared in the spring triticale stands from the end of booting to early ripe stages (GS 49-71), depending on meteorological conditions of the season. In 1998 and 1999 the first symptoms of Tan spot (Drechslera tritici-repentis (Died.) Shoem.) appeared at heading (GS 55), but in 2000 – only at early milk ripe (GS 73). Septoria leaf blotch annually, Brown rust and Tan spot in some years can incur economic losses in spring triticale stands.

Key words: spring triticale, Brown rust, Septoria leaf blotch, Tan spot.

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 76, 70-77

UDK 633.112.9<321>:632.4

LAPØ GRYBINIØ LIGØ PAPLITIMAS VASARINIØ KVIETRUGIØ PASËLIUOSE

I. Gaurilèikienë

Santrauka

Lapø grybinës ligos vasariniuose kvietrugiuose tirtos Dotnuvoje 1997-2000 m. Rudosios rûdys vasariniuose kvietrugiuose labai iðplito 1998 m. Kvietrugiuose ‘Gabo’ pastebëta rezistentiðkumo reakcija rudosioms rûdims, pustulos buvo apribotos nekrotine dëme. Lapø septoriozë pasirodë vasariniø kvietrugiø pasëliuose paskutinio lapo vamzdelëjimo – ankst

yvos brandos tarpsniuose, priklausomai nuo metø meteorologiniø sàlygø. Pirmieji rusvosios dëmëtligës poþymiai 1998 ir 1999 m. pasirodë plaukëjant, o 2000 m. – tik ankstyvosios brandos metu. Lapø septoriozë kasmet, rudosios rûdys ir rusvoji dëmëtligë atskirais metais vasariniø kvietrugiø pasëliuose buvo þalingos.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: vasariniai kvietrugiai, rudosios rûdys, lapø septoriozë, rusvoji dëmëtligë.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 76, 78-86

UDK 633.352:631.847.211

THE PRODUCTIVITY OF FODDER GALEGA (GALEGA ORIENTALIS LAM.) AND ITS MIXTURES AND SOIL MICROBIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY

Ligita BALEÞENTIENË

Lithuanian University of Agriculture

Akademija, Kaunas district

E-mail:

ligita@nora.lzua.lt

Abstract

Field trials were carried out at the Research Station of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture over the period of 1997-2000 with the aim to study the productivity of fodder galega and mixtures with grasses grown on sandy morain loam humic horizon of Calcari-Epihypogleyic Luvisol, LVg-p-w-cc soil. This study also aimed to determine suitability of grasses for growing in mixtures with galega, their productivity and efficiency of natural increase in the biological soil activity. The data of productivity, green material (GM) and dry matter (DM) yield, value of feed units (FU), digestible proteins (DP) and even covering of soil were established to be better in mixtures than in pure-sown galega. 25 % of timothy (Phleum pratense L.) and 25 % of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) were found to be the most suitable grass components for mixtures with galega. These mixtures were characterised by the highest number of microorganisms, activity of invertase and urease, and value of Trichoderma spp.

Key words: Galega orientalis Lam., mixtures, productivity, nutritive value, microbiological activity.

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 76, 78-86

UDK 633.352:631.847.211

RYTINIØ OÞIARÛÈIØ (

GALEGA ORIENTALIS LAM.) IR JØ MIÐINIØ PRODUKTYVUMAS BEI DIRVOŢEMIO MIKROBIOLOGINIS AKTYVUMAS

L. Baleþentienë

Santrauka

Rytiniø oþiarûèiø produktyvumui ir tinkamumui miðiniams nustatyti Lietuvos þemës ûkio universiteto Bandymø stotyje 1997-2000 m. atlikti lauko bandymai. Bandymai daryti smëlingo moreninio priemolio karbonatingojo sekliai paglëjëjusio iðplautþemio–

Idg8-k sp humusingame horizonte (sandy moraine loam Calcari-Epihypogleyic Luvisol, LVg-p-w-cc). Tyrimø tikslas – nustatyti, kurios varpinës þolës labiau tinka produktyviems miðiniams su rytiniais oþiarûèiais ir natûraliai didina dirvoþemio mikrobiologiná aktyvumà. Miðiniø produktyvumas, þalios masës ir sausøjø medþiagø derlius, paðariniø ir virðkinamøjø proteinø kiekis nustatytas didesnis, negu grynø oþiarûèiø. Tinkamiausi rytiniø oþiarûèiø miðiniai yra su paðariniais motiejukais (Phleum pratense L.) ir daugiametëmis svidrëmis (Lolium perenne L.), kai varpinës þolës sudaro 25 %. Sëjant miðinius nustatytas didþiausias mikroorganizmø, tarp jø ir Trichoderma spp. skaièius, invertazës ir ureazës aktyvumas.

Reikđminiai ţodţiai:

Galega orientalis Lam., miðiniai, produktyvumas, paðarinë vertë, mikrobiologinis aktyvumas.

 

Chapter 2. MICROBIOLOGY

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 76, 87-102

UDK 631.442.1:631.461:631.826

VARIATION OF MICROORGANISMS IN HAPLI-ALBIC ARENOSOL FERTILIZED WITH SAPROPEL OF VARIOUS CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

Olga SALINA, Jûratë REPEÈKIENË, Albinas LUGAUSKAS

Institute of Botany

Þaliøjø eþerø 47, Vilnius

E-mail: lugauskas@botanika.lt

Eugenija BAKÐIENË

Vokë Branch

of Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture

Trakø Vokë, Vilnius

E-mail: vokefil@takas.lt

Abstract

The abundance of microorganisms, fungal species and Streptomyces series diversity in tested soil fertilized with various types of sapropel and NPK per 6 years of crop rotation is presented. The majority of fungi amounts were isolated from the soil fertilized with siliceous and organic sapropel but their abundance was seldom equal or excelled the amount detected in the control soil treatment fertilized with manure. Mineral fertilizers in most cases stimulated fungal development. The occurrence of fungi depended greatly on moisture content in the soil. Fungal species of Penicillium, Mortierella, Mucor, Aspergillus, Acremonium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Trichoderma dominated in the tested soil during the experiment. The least fungal species diversity was established in the soil of the maize root zone at the beginning and the most – in the soil with winter rye at the end of crop rotation. Some species as Penicillium ochro-chloron and Mortierella alpina were spread in the soil of all experiment treatments, others, for example Mortierella polycephala and Sporotrichum olivaceum in the soil with organic sapropel, Penicillium piscarium and Trichoderma harzianum – with siliceous sapropel.

Phytophatogenic fungal species from Fusarium, Verticillium, Rhizoctonia and Sclerotinia were dominating species but the symptoms of plant diseases were not noticed. The least amount of phytopatogenic fungal propagules was isolated from the soil where maize was grown.

The highest number of bacteria was found in the soil fertilized with organic and siliceous sapropel. Calcareous and organic sapropel was noticed as the best media for the growth of actinomycetes. Species of Streptomyces belonging to series Achromogenes, Albocoloratus and Chromogenes predominated in the tested soil.

Key words: soil microorganisms, sapropel, NPK fertilizers, manure, sewage.

2 skyrius. MIKROBIOLOGIJA

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 76, 87-102

UDK 631.442.1:631.461:631.826

MIKROORGANIZMØ KAITA PAPRASTAJAME PAJAURËJUSIAME SMËLÞEMYJE TRÆÐIANT ÁVAIRIOS CHEMINËS SUDËTIES SAPROPELIU

O. Salina, J. Repeèkienë, A. Lugauskas, E. Bakðienë

Santrauka

Pateikiami duomenys apie mikroorganizmø gausumà bei mikromicetø rûðiø ir

Streptomyces genties grupiø ávairovæ dirvoþemyje, træðtame ávairios cheminës sudëties sapropeliu ir mineralinëmis NPK tràðomis per 6 sëjomainos metus. Daugiausiai grybø pradø buvo iðskirta silikatiniu ir organiniu sapropeliu træðtame dirvoþemyje, taèiau jø gausumas retai prilygdavo arba virðydavo mikromicetø kieká dirvoþemyje, træðtame mëðlu. Mineralinës tràðos daugeliu atveju stimuliavo mikromicetø vystymàsi. Grybø paplitimas labai priklausë nuo dirvoþemyje sukaupto drëgmës kiekio. Paðariniø þoliø ðaknyno zonos dirvoþemyje tyrimø metu dominavo Penicillium, Mortierella, Mucor, Aspergillus, Acremonium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Trichoderma genèiø grybø rûðys. Maþiausia mikromicetø rûðinë ávairovë nustatyta kukurûzø ðaknyno zonos dirvoþemyje rotacijos pradþioje, didþiausia – þieminiø rugiø pasëliuose rotacijos pabaigoje. Kai kurios rûðys, pvz., Penicillium ochro-chloron ir Mortierella alpina, buvo paplitusios visø bandymo variantø dirvoþemyje, Mortierella polycephala ir Sporotrichum olivaceum dirvoţemyje su organiniu, Penicillium piscarium ir Trichoderma harzianum – su silikatiniu sapropeliu. Tarp dominuojanèiø rûðiø pasitaikydavo ir fitopatogeniniø mikromicetø ið Fusarium, Verticillium, Rhizoctonia ir Sclerotinia genèiø, taèiau jø paþeistø augalø pastebëta nedaug. Maþiausiai fitopatogeniniø grybø pradø iðskirta ið dirvoþemio auginant kukurûzus.

Didþiausias bendras bakterijø skaièius aptiktas dirvoþemyje, træðtame organiniu bei silikatiniu sapropeliu. Nustatyta, kad bakterijø gausumas tirtuose dirvoþemiuose daugiau priklausë nuo klimato sàlygø, negu nuo naudojamø mineraliniø ar organiniø tràðø bei auginamø augalø. Streptomicetø gausumas maþiau priklausë nuo drëgmës kiekio dirvoþemyje. Daugiausia jø rasta karbonatiniu bei organiniu sapropeliu træðtam

e dirvoþemyje. Træðimas sapropeliu savo poveikiu streptomicetø vystymuisi prilygo træðimui mëðlu, ypaè vëlesniuose bandymo etapuose, kai sapropelis pradëjo intensyviai irti. Iðskirti Streptomyces genties izoliatai pagal kultûrines savybes suskirstyti á 10 serijø. Dominavo ðtamai, priklausantys Achromogenes, Albocoloratus ir Chromogenes serijoms. Silikatinis sapropelis turëjo teigiamà átakà mikroorganizmø gausumui sausros metu bei streptomicetø rûðinei ávairovei.

Reikđminiai ţodţiai: dirvoţemis, mikroorgani

zmai, sapropelis, mëðlas, srutos, NPK tràðos.

 

Chapter 3. PLANT BREEDING

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 76, 103-111

UDK 633.111:631.52

GENOTYPE – ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION AND AGRONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF THE LITHUANIAN WINTER WHEAT VARIETIES

Vytautas RUZGAS

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture

Akademija, Dotnuva parish, Këdainiai district

E-mail:

ruzgas@lzi.lt

Abstract

Winter wheat is a widely grown crop. Therefore it is desirable for the new varieties to be highly adaptable and give a high and stable yield under different growing conditions. To improve the grain yield and its quality it is necessary to develop varieties with satisfactory agronomic performance and high ability to efficiently intercept the solar radiation.

Investigations of the newly developed varieties were carried out at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during the period of 1998-2000. The grain yield components, harvest index, genotype and environment interaction as well as the plant structure, shape of leaves and level of solar radiation in the plant canopy were studied.

The new varieties have a high harvest index (0.45-0.50). The variety ‘Ada’ produced the most stable yield in 4 environments. The most erect leaves were developed in the varieties ‘Seda’, ‘Tauras’ and ‘Ada’. Plant structure of the new varieties facilitates the penetration of solar radiation deeper within the canopy by 113-185 percent compared with the local check variety ‘Ðirvinta 1’.

Key words: winter wheat, grain, yield components, plant structure, adaptation.

3 skyrius. AUGALØ SELEKCIJA

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 76, 103-111

UDK 633.111:631.52

LIETUVIÐKØ ÞIEMINIØ KVIEÈIØ VEISLIØ GENOTIPO IR APLINKOS SÀVEIKA BEI JØ AGRONOMINIAI RODIKL

IAI

V. Ruzgas

Santrauka

Å¢ieminiai

kvieèiai auginami ávairiose ðalies ir aplinkiniø valstybiø agroekologinëse zonose. Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto þieminiø kvieèiø kûrimo programoje siekiama, kad naujos sukurtos veislës bûtø adaptyvios- gerai iðnaudotø saulës radiacijà bei pasiþymëtø geromis agronominëmis savybëmis. 1998-2001 metais buvo tyrinëtos naujos, institute sukurtos, þieminiø kvieèiø veislës. Buvo tiriami ðiø veisliø derliaus komponentai, derliaus indeksas, augalø struktûra, lapø forma, saulës radiacijos lygis pasëlio vidiniuose arduose bei veisliø plastiðkumas. Nustatyta, kad naujos veislës pasiþymëjo geru derliaus indeksu (0,45-0,50). Stabiliausiai ið tirtø veisliø ávairiuose Lietuvos regionuose augo veislë ‘Ada’. Staèiausi lapai, labiausiai praleidþiantys saulës ðviesà á pasëlio tankmæ, buvo naujøjø veisliø ‘Seda’, ‘Tauras’ ir ‘Ada’. Ðios veislës, palyginti su senesne ‘Ðirvinta 1’, 113-185 % geriau praleido saulës ðviesà á pasëlio þemesniuosius lapø ardus.

Reikđminiai ţodţiai: ţieminiai kvie

èiai, grûdø derlius, derliaus komponentai, augalø struktûra, adaptyvumas.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 76, 112-119

UDK 633.16<321>:631.527.8

PRODUCTION OF SPRING BARLEY DOUBLED HAPLOID LINES DEVELOPED BY ANTHER CULTURE METHOD

Birutë BASIULIENË, Algë LEISTRUMAITË, Vanda PAPLAUSKIENË

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture

Akademija, Dotnuva parish, Këdainiai district

E-mail:

alge@lzi.lt

Abstract

Advanced biotechnological methods are used to enhance the efficancy of spring barley breeding. Anther culture method has been used for the production of spring barley DH lines at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture (LIA) since 1996. Androgenic plants were produced from the spring barley genotypes of Lithuanian-origin with a frequency of 4.2-12 %, which is sufficient for breeding purpose. The effect of different amounts of maltose as carbon source and ficoll as agent increasing medium density in induction medium BAC3 on anther culture response was determined. In 1998-2000 we assessed the yield and other agronomic characters in spring barley DH lines, produced by anther culture. After three years of screening 4 DH lines notable for agronomically valuable traits, were selected for breeding purposes. The spring barley DH line 7533-26 was distinguished by a short straw, satisfactory tillering and good lodging resistance. The DH line 7456-39 was distinctive for high yield, 1000 kernel weight, and lodging resistance. The DH line 7456-33 was distinctive for spike length, high 1000 kernel weight, and lodging resistance. The DH line 7456-46 was distinctive for spike length, high grain number and high grain weight per spike. The 4 DH lines will be included in the competitive yield trials and spring barley breeding program. The DH line 7533-26 will be transferred to a long-term seed storage in the Lithuanian Genebank as a donor of short straw character. PO, GOT, lap, acP, est isozymes polymorphism was studied in spring barley cultivars and DH lines. Electrophoretic spectra PO, GOT and LAP of the investigated barley varieties were identical. Individual plants of DH lines had identical electrophoretic spectra of all investigated isoenzymes.

Key words: spring barley, anther culture, doubled haploid (DH) lines, BAC3, FHG, main yield components, isoenzyme.

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 76, 112-119

UDK 633.16<321>:631.527.8

VASARINIØ MIEÞIØ DIHAPLOIDINIØ (DH) LINIJØ KÛRIMAS DULKINIØ KULTÛROS METODU

B. Basiulienë, A. Leistrumaitë, V. Paplauskienë

Santrauka

Selekciniam procesui palengvinti bei sutrumpi

nti ðalia klasikinio metodo naudojami ávairûs biotechnologiniai bei biocheminiai vertinimo metodai.

1996-2000 m. vasariniø mieþiø DH linijoms kurti naudotas dulkiniø kultûros metodas ir geriausios linijos ávertintos agronominiu bei biocheminiu poþiûriais. Kaliaus indukcijai dulkinës, sodintos maitinamosiose BAC3 ir FHG terpëse, kaliø indukavo atitinkamai 70,8 ir 69,1 %. Naudoti skirtingi maltozës ir fikolio kiekiai BAC3 terpëje maþai turëjo átakos dulkiniø indukcijai.Tirti genotipai vienodai reagavo á maltozës ir fikolio koncentracijos pasikeitimus. Augalø regeneravimo potencialas labiau variavo negu dulkiniø indukcija. Lietuviðki vasariniø mieþiø genotipai augino þalius augalus pakankamu daþniu augalø selekcijai (4,2-12 %). Sukurtos DH linijos ávertintos selekciniu poþiûriu. Pagal trejø metø duomenis, vertingiausios yra DH linijos: 7533-26 (nedidelis augalø aukðtis, geras produktyvumas, krûmijimasis, atsparumas iðgulimui ir ligoms, nedidelis baltymø kiekis), 7456-39 (didelis derlingumas, didelë 1000 grûdø m

asë, atsparumas iðgulimui ir ligoms), 7456-33 (varpos ilgis, didelë 1000 grûdø masë, atsparumas iðgulimui ir ligoms, nedidelis baltymø kiekis), 7456-46 (didþiausias varpos ilgis, grûdø skaièius varpoje, vienos varpos grûdø svoris). Vasariniø mieþiø veislëse bei sukurtose DH linijose tirti izofermentø: PO, LAP, GOT, ACP ir EST elektroforeziniai spektrai. Tarp tirtø veisliø nustatyti 7 ACP ir 4 EST elektroforeziniø spektrø tipai. PO, GOT ir LAP elektroforeziniai spektrai tirtø vasariniø mieþiø veisliø tarpusavyje identiðki. Atskiri DH linijø augalai turëjo vienodus visø tirtø izofermentø elektroforezinius spektrus.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: vasariniai mieþiai, dulkiniø kultûra, dihaploidinës (DH) linijos, BAC3, FHG, pagrindiniai derliaus komponentai, izofermentai.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 76, 120-126

UDK [633.264:633.265]:631.527.5:631.523.12

A BREEDING PERSPECTIVE ON NOVEL DIPLOIDS ARISING THROUGH SOMATIC INSTABILITY IN HYBRIDS OF LOLIUM x FESTUCA

Izolda PAÐAKINSKIENË

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture

Akademija, Dotnuva paris

h, Këdainiai district

E-mail:

izolda@lzi.lt

Abstract

A new phenomenon of diploidization and somatic recombination is reported in octoploid hybrids of Lolium multiflorum x Festuca arundinacea. The outcome of this ‘genome turbulence’ is a number of genotypes which are diploid, and which are also novel (novel diploids) in that they contain genetic material of both the Lolium and the Festuca parental types. Chromosome painting by GISH was used to validate the somatic recombination, and isoenzyme and DNA fingerprinting studies were used to progress the work and to characterise particular novel diploid genotypes. Further crosses involving the behaviour of the novel diploids in combination with F. pratensis and F. arundinacea are leading to new theories about how the genome of F. pratensis may have evolved, and diverged from its natural diploid status, since becoming included as part of the allopolyploid F. arundinacea. These findings give a new perspective to the breeding of polyploid hybrids.

Key words: Lolium multiflorum, Festuca arundinacea, Festuca pratensis, genomic instability, somatic recombination, diploidization, GISH, DNA fingerprinting.

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 76, 120-126

UDK [633.264:633.265]:631.527.5:631.523.12

DIPLOIDINIØ NAUJADARØ, ATSIRADUSIØ DËL SVIDRËS IR ERAIÈINO

HIBRIDØ SOMATINIO NESTABILUMO, SELEKCINIO PRITAIKYMO PERSPEKTYVA

I. Paðakinskienë

Santrauka

Apraðomas na

ujas diploidizacijos ir somatinës rekombinacijos reiðkinys, aptiktas tiriant oktaploidinius svidrës ir eraièino (Lolium multiflorum x Festuca arundinacea) hibridus. Ðio „genetinio nesvarumo” pasekmë – keletas diploidiniø genotipø, kurie yra genominiai naujadarai, susidaræ ið tëviniø svidrës ir eraièino rûðiø. Somatinei rekombinacijai ávertinti taikytas chromosomø spalvinimas GISH metodu, o izofermentø ir DNR profiliø analizë naudota atskiriems diploidiniams naujadarams charakterizuoti. Sukryþminus ðiuos diploidinius naujadarus su F. pratensis ir F. arundinacea, gauta naujø teoriniø þiniø apie F. pratensis rûðies genominius pokyèius, evoliucionuojant ið savarankiðkos diploidinës rûðies ir ásiterpiant á alopoliploidiná F. arundinacea rûðies genomà. Gauti genominiai naujadarai bus naudojami naujiems þoliø alopoliploidams kurti.

Reikđminai ţodţiai:

Lolium multiflorum, Festuca arundinacea, Festuca pratensis hidridai, genomø nestabilumas, diploidizacija, somatinë rekombinacija, GISH, DNR atspaudai.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 76, 127-133

UDK 633.521:631.523

‘VEGA 2’ AND ‘KASTYÈIAI’ – THE NEWEST FIBRE FLAX CULTIVARS

Kãstutis Baèelis

Upytë Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture

Upytë, Panevëþys district

E-mail:

lzi.upyte@post.omnitel.net

Abstract

Fibre flax breeding in Lithuania was started in 1922. Since then 18 varieties of fibre flax have been bred. During the flax breeding process (1990-2001) new, productive, lod

ging resistant, with valuable characters and properties for cultivation varieties ‘Vega 2’ (1997) and ‘Kastyèiai’ (2000) have been developed at the Upytë Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture and registered in our Republic. Average data of 5 years’ competitive trials showed that the new variety ‘Vega 2’, compared to the standard ‘Orđanskij 2’, produced 20 % higher yield of stems, 18.3 % higher linseed yield and 47 % higher yield of long fibre. The variety ‘Kastyèiai’ produced on average 1t/ha linseed yield and significantly outyielded the standard varieties ‘Orđanskij 2’ and ‘Baltuèiai’, and was equal to the variety ‘Belinka’. Long fibre yield of ‘Kastyèiai’ was significantly higher – by 0.32; 0.16 and 0.17 t/ha respectively. The characteristics of the new varieties are presented in this paper.

Key words: breeding, fibre flax, lodging resistance, variety, fibre quality.

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 76, 127-133

UDK 633.521:631.523

‘VEGA 2’ IR ‘KASTYÈIAI’ – NAUJAUSIO

S PLUOÐTINIØ LINØ VEISLËS

K. Baèelis

Santrauka

Linø selekcija Lietuvoje pradëta 1922 m. Nuo selekcinio darbo pradþios iki dabar sukurta 18 naujø linø veisliø. 1990-2001 m. Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Upytës bandymø stotyje sukurtos dvi naujos, produktyvios, atsparios iðgulimui linø veislës ‘Vega 2’ ir ‘Kastyèiai’.

Vidutiniais penkeriø metø konkursiniø veisliø bandymø duomenimis, veislës ‘Vega 2’ linai, palyginus su standartine veisle ‘Orðanskij 2’, iðaugino ið esmës didesná stiebeliø (20 %), sëmenø (18,3 %) ir ilgo pluoðto (47,0 %) derliø. Veislë ‘Vega 2’ yra vidutinio ankstyvumo, pasiþymi gera pluoðto kokybe, registruota Lietuvoje nuo 1997 m., o Latvijoje – nuo 2001 m. Vidutiniais ðeðeriø metø konkursiniø bandymø duomenimis, linus ‘Kastyèiai’, palyginus su standartinëmis veislëmis ‘Orðanskij 2’, ‘Belinka’ ir ‘Baltuèiai’, gauta atitinkamai 0,32, 0,16 ir 0,17 t/ha ið esmës didesnis ilgo pluoðto derlius. Veislë ‘Kastyèiai’ – vidutinio vëlyvumo, pluoðtinga, registruota Lietuvoje nuo 2000 m. Abi veislës sukurtos tarpveislinës hibridizacijos ir individinës atrankos metodais. Apraðoma veisliø charakteristika.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: selekcija, linai, atsparumas iðgulimui, veislë, pluoðto kokybë.

 

Chapter 4. APICULTURE

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 76, 134-143

UDK 638.145.54

COMPARISON OF THE BEE COLONIES WITH NATURALLY MATED AND INSTRUMENTALLY INSEMINATED QUEENS

Jonas J. BALÅ¢EKAS

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture

Akademija, Dotnuva parish, Këdainiai district

E-mail: bitinsk@lzi.lt

Abstract

Experiments were carried out at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture with a view to comparing bee colonies with instrumentally inseminated queens (5 mm3 and 10mm3 sperm dose) with the bee colonies with naturally mated queens. We used Caucasian x Carniolan bee hybrids. Having instrumentally inseminated queens, 87.8 % of them began laying eggs. After 3 experimental years the survival rate of naturally mated queens was 41.7 %, of instrumentally inseminated queens (5 mm3 semen rate) – 16.7 %, and that of queens instrumentally inseminated with 10 mm3 semen – 50.0 %.

Bee colonies of the naturally mated queens demonstrated a better over winter survival. In spring bee colonies whose queens had been instrumentally inseminated with 10mm3 semen, started to rear brood earlier.

Before the honey flow the strength of all bee colonies in all treatments was similar. In autumn bee colonies with instrumentally inseminated queens reared more brood. Bees produced by these queens had smaller errors of morphological characters and coefficients of variance. No significant difference was established between honey production of the bee colonies with instrumentally inseminated bee queens and those with naturally mated queens.

When solving the problem of bee isolation stations in Lithuania, we suggest using instrumental insemination of bee queens with a 10 mm3 semen dose on a wider scale.

Key words: naturally mated queens, instrumentally mated queens, Caucasian x Carniolan hybrids, bee colony, morphological characters, colony strength.

4 skyrius. BITININKYST

Ë

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 76,

134-143

UDK 638.145.54

NATÛRALIAI SUSIPORAVUSIØ IR DIRBTINAI APSËKLINTØ BIÈIØ MOTINØ ÐEIMØ PALYGINIMAS

J. J. Balţekas

Santrauka

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute atlikti tyrimai, palyginant dirbtinai apsëklintø su 5 mm

3 ir 10 mm3 spermos bièiø motinø ðeimas su natûraliai susiporavusiø motinø bièiø ðeimomis. Bandymas darytas su Kaukazo x Krajinos miðrûnëmis. Dirbtinai apsëklinus motinas, 87,8 % jø pradëjo dëti kiauðinëlius. Po trejø bandymo metø natûraliai susiporavusiø motinø iðgyveno 41,7 %, dirbtinai apsëklintø su 5 mm3 spermos – 16,7 %, dirbtinai apsëklintø su 10 mm3 spermos – 50,0 %.

Geriau þiemojo natûraliai susiporavusiø motinø bièiø ðeimos. Pavasará anksèiau auginti perus pradëjo bièiø ðeimos, kuriø motinos buvo dirbtinai apsëklintos su 10 mm

3 spermos.

Prieð meduneðá visø variantø bièiø ðeimø stiprumas buvo panaðus. Rudená daugiau perø augino bièiø ðeimos su dirbtinai apsëklintomis motinomis. Ðiø motinø bitës turëjo maþesnes morfologiniø poþymiø paklaidas ir variacijos koeficientus. Nenustatyta esminio skirtumo tarp dirbtinai apsëklintø bièiø motinø ðeimø medaus produkcijos ir natûraliai susiporavusiø motinø bièiø ðeimø.

Sprendþiant bièiø izoliaciniø punktø problemà Lietuvoje, siûloma plaèiau taikyti dirbtiná bièiø motinø apsëklinimo metodà, apsëklinant motinas 10 mm

3 spermos doze.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: natûraliai susiporavusios motinos, dirbtinai apsëklintos motinos, Kaukazo x Krajinos miðrûnës, bièiø ðeima, morfologiniai poþymiai, ðeimø stiprumas.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 76, 144-153

UDK 638.124:577.19

ABILITY OF WORKER HONEYBEES TO LEARN AFTER KEEPING THEM IN DIFFERENT CONDITIONS

Algirdas SKIRKEVIÈIUS

Institute of Ecology,

Akademijos 2, Vilnius

Vilnius Pedagogical University,

Studentø 39, Vilnius

E - mail: algskirk@ktl.mii.lt

Laima BLAÞYTË, Zuzana SKIRKEVIÈIENË

Institute of Ecology

Akademijos 2, Vilnius

E - mail: blazyte@ekoi.lt

Abstract

Worker honeybees (Apis mellifera carnica Pollm.) have been investigated. They were kept in natural (a bee colony) and unnatural (small cages in a thermostat) conditions from 0,5 till 3,0 hours without food until the beginning of the conditioning trials.

the conditioned reflex to queen extract can be successfully formed in 93.2 % of worker honeybees kept without food for 0.5 h after they have been taken away from a colony (the stimuli had to be delivered 2.9±0.44 times; bees responded to 5.7±0.11 queen extract doses).

the formation of the olfactory reflex to queen extract in worker honeybees taken from the colony and kept in a thermostat depends on the length of their existence without food: when they were kept without food for 0.5 h, the conditioned reflex was trained only in 10.0 % of the individuals; when they were kept without food for an hour, the percentage of the individuals, in which conditioned reflex occurred, reached 59.1 % (the stimuli had to be delivered 4.1±0.07 times; bees responded to 4.3±0.01 queen extract doses); when the honeybees were kept without food for 2.0 h, the number of individuals, which learned, grew up to 82.8 % (the stimuli had to be offered 2.3±0.50 times; bees responded to 5.3±0.20 doses). Those bees, which were kept without food for 3.0 h, grew weak or died.

Key words: Apis mellifera carnica Poll., olfactory reflex, conditioning, conditioned reflex, conditioned stimulus, reward.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 76, 144-153

UDK 638.124:577.19

BIÈIØ DARBININKIØ, LAIKYTØ SKIRTINGOMIS SÀLYGOMIS, GEBËJIMAS MOKYTIS

A. S

kirkevièius, L. Blaþytë, Z. Skirkevièienë

Santrauka

Tyrimø rezultatai rodo, kad bièiø darbininkiø laikymo sàlygos turi reikðmës sàlyginio reflekso á motinos ekstraktà iðugdymui. Bitës darbininkës

Apis mellifera carnica Pollm. laikytos natûraliomis (bièiø ðeimoje) ir dirbtinëmis (termostate nedideliuose narveliuose) sàlygomis, neleidþiant maitintis iki sàlyginio reflekso ugdymo pradþios nuo 0,5 iki 3 val.

Sàlyginá refleksà á motinos ekstraktà pavyksta iðugdyti vidutiniðkai 93,2 % bièiø darbininkiø, kurios po iðëmimo ið ðeimos negavo maisto 0,5 val. (dirgiklá su pastiprinimu reikëjo pateikti vidutiniðkai 2,9±0,44 karto, bitës reagavo vidutiniðkai á 5,7±0,11 motinos ekstrakto dozës

).

Sŕ

lyginio reflekso á motinos ekstraktà iðugdymas atskirtoms nuo ðeimos ir laikomoms termostate bitëms priklausë nuo jø buvimo be maisto trukmës: jeigu jos negavo maisto 0,5 val., tai sàlyginá refleksà pavyko iðugdyti tik 10,0 % individø, jeigu 1 val. ­ tai 59,1 % (dirgiklá su pastiprinimu reikëjo pateikti vidutiniðkai 4,1±0,07 karto, bitës reagavo vidutiniðkai 4,3±0,01 motinos ekstrakto dozës), jeigu 2 val. ­ tai 82,8 % (dirgiklá su pastiprinimu reikëjo pateikti vidutiniðkai 2,3±0,50 karto, bitës reagavo vidutiniðkai 5,3±0,20 motinos ekstrakto dozës), laikytos be maisto 3 val., bitës nusilpo ir mirë.

Reikđminiai ţodţiai:

Apis mellifera carnica Poll., uoslës refleksas, feromonai, motinos ekstraktas, bitës darbininkës.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 76, 154-163

UDK 638.142:536

HEAT LOSSES FROM THE NEST OF WINTERING BEES THROUGH EXTERNAL CONSTRUCTIONS OF A BEEHIVE

Jurgis RAÈYS

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture

Akademija, Dotnuva parish, Këdainiai district

E-mail: bitinsk@lzi.lt

Abstract

Experiments to determine heat losses occurring through beehive constructions from a nest of wintering bees were carried out at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture's Department of Apiculture in co-operation with assoc. professor V.Ðapola from the Kaunas University of Technology. The experiment was set up in a beehive whose walls, bottom and ceiling were produced from the foamplastic constructions having the same conductivity (k = 0.5W/(m2K). It was determined that the greatest local heat fluxes pass through the upper parts of the beehive. Heat fluxes in the lower part of the nest and through the bottom are 2.5-5.07 times lower. The greatest heat losses through the walls occur at the height of a bee cluster concentration. In December – January the greatest heat load of side – walls was 150-200 mm above the bottom of the beehive. When the experiments were conducted at the ambient temperature varying within 0.3-20.4 0C limits it was determined that heat fluxes through the ceiling of the beehive were 1.12-1.29 times higher than those occurring through the walls.

Key words: bees, beehive, ambient temperature, heat exchange.

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 76, 154-163

UDK 638.142:536

ÐILUMOS NUOSTOLIAI IÐ ÞIEMOJANÈIØ BIÈIØ LIZDO PE

R AVILIO IÐORINES KONSTRUKCIJAS

J. Raèys

Santrauka

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Bitininkystës skyriuje, bendradarbiaujant su Kauno Technikos universiteto doc.

V. Ðapola, 1994-1996 m. nustatinëti þiemojanèiø bièiø ðilumos nuostoliai per avilio konstrukcijas. Tyrimai atlikti eksperimentiniame avilyje, kurio visos sienos, dugnas bei lubos pagaminti ið vienodo ðilumos laidumo konstrukcijø (k = 0,5 W/(m2K)). Nustatyta, kad didþiausi vietiniai ðilumos srautai prateka per avilio konstrukcijø virðutines dalis, lizdo apatinëje dalyje ir per dugnà srautai bûna 2,5-5,07 kartø maþesni. Daugiausia ðilumos per sienas prarandama bièiø kamuolio susitelkimo aukðtyje. Gruodþio ir sausio mënesiais didþiausias ðoniniø sienø ðiluminis apkrovimas buvo 150-200mm virð avilio dugno. Tyrimus atlikus aplinkos temperatûrai kintant nuo -0,3 iki -20,4 0C nustatyta, kad per avilio lubas ðilumos srautai buvo 1,12-1,29 karto didesni negu per sienas.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: bitës, avilys, aplinkos temperatûra, ðilumos mainai.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 76, 164-172

UDK 638.123(474.5)

THE CONSERVATION OF GENETIC RESOURCES OF LOCAL BEES (APIS MELLIFERA MELLIFERA L.) IN LITHUANIA

Diana TAMAÐAUSKIENË

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture

Akademija, Dotnuva parish,

Këdainiai district

E-mail: bitinsk@lzi.lt

Abstract

Since 1970 populations of Caucasian and Carniolan bee races began spreading in Lithuania and greatly assimilated the local bees, which brought potential threat to local bees’ survival.

In 1996 the Department of Apiculture of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture started the work on the conservation of genetic resources of Lithuanian local bees. In order to conserve the genetic resources of Lithuanian local bees, their colonies were assessed according to morphological characters, economic performance and biological qualities.

The data of investigation suggest that local bees are very impure. According to morphological characters 39.3 % of the bee colonies corresponded to the race standard. 13.5 % of these bee colonies were used for reproduction, as they maintained biological qualities characteristic of local bees: good overwinter survival, white (dry) capping of honey, great activity.

Their honey production is rather low (on average 11.3 kg/b.c.), and this hindered adequate estimation and selection of bee colonies. Thus, the colonies of local bees were transferred to new locations with melliferous plants. With the spread of chalkbrood, the selection was done not only according to morphological characters and economic performance but also according to the disease resistance.

Key words: local bees, morphological characters, biological qualities, economic performance, length of proboscis, cubital index, discoidal shift, selection.

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë.

Mokslo darbai, 2001, 76, 164-172

UDK 638.123(474.5)

VIETINIØ BIÈIØ (

APIS MELLIFERA MELLIFERA L.) GENOFONDO IÐSAUGOJIMAS LIETUVOJE

D. Tamaðauskienë

Santrauka

Iki mûsø dienø iðlikusios vietinës bitës (

A. m. mellifera L.) Lietuvoje gyveno tûkstanèius metø. Geros meduneðio sàlygos, daþnas lipèiaus meduneðis, ðaltos þiemos, nepastovûs pavasariai sukûrë þiemojimui atsparias, prisitaikiusias vietos sàlygoms, bet piktas ir spietlias bites.

Nuo 1970 metø Lietuvoje pradëjo plisti Kaukazo kalnø pilkøjø ir Krajinos rasiø bitës. Jos pradëjo smarkiai miðrintis su vietinëmis bitëmis, kurioms iðkilo iðnykimo grësmë.

1996 metais LÞI Bitininkystës skyriuje pradëti darbai Lietuvos vietiniø bièiø genofondui iðsaugoti. Bièiø ðeimos yra kasmet bonituojamos pagal morfologinius poþymius, ûkines ir biologines savybes. Tyrimø duomenys rodo, kad vietinës bitës yra labai susimiðrinusios. Pagal morfologinius poþymius, 39,3 % bièiø ðeimø atitiko rasës standartà. Dauginimui buvo panaudota 13,5 % ðiø bièiø ðeimø, kurios iðlaikë ir bû

dingas vietinëms bitëms biologines savybes: geras þiemojimas, baltas (sausas) medaus dengimas, didelis aktyvumas. Medaus produkcija maþa – vidutiniðkai 11,3 kg/b.ð. Tai trukdë tinkamai ávertinti bièiø ðeimas, atlikti atrankà. Vietiniø bièiø ðeimos perkeltos á naujas vietas, kuriose gausu medingø augalø. Iðplitus askosferozei, atranka atliekama ne tik pagal morfologinius poþymius, biologines ir ûkines savybes, bet ir pagal atsparumà ðiai ligai.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: vietinës bitës, morfologiniai poþymiai, biologinës savybës, ûkinës savybës, bièiø straublelio ilgis, kubitalinis indeksas, diskoidalinio taðko padëtis, atranka.

 

ISSN 1392-3194

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 76, 173-180

UDK 638.16:615:616+581.33.001.4

USE OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF HONEY FOR HEPATITIS A TREATMENT AND FOR REDUCTION OF INCREASED ACIDITY OF GASTRIC JUICE

Algirdas BALTUĐKEVIÈIUS, Alvydas LAIĐKONIS

Kaunas Medical University

A. Mickevièiaus 9, Kaunas

E-mail: infekt@KMU.lt

Dalia VYÐNIAUSKIENË

Kaunas Infection Hospital

Josvainiø 1

, Kaunas

E-mail: infekt@lig.lt

Violeta ÈEKSTERYTË, Jurgis RAÈYS

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture

Akademija, Dotnuva

parish, Këdainiai district.

E-mail: bitinsk@lzi.lt

Abstract

At the Kaunas Medical University unifloral clover and rape honey was used for hepatitis A treatment and dandelion honey for the reduction of gastric juice acidity.

Three groups of patients including 89 people between the age of 17-43 suffering from acute hepatitis A, were selected for the study. 15 patients from the control group received a treatment including 5 % glucose infusions, polyvitamins, and other medications. One group of patients was treated with clover, while the other group – with rape honey. Medical treatment was not given to them. After treatment with clover and rape honey the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) decreased 9.0-12.7 times, bilirubin 2.6-3.1 times

Intravenous glucose infusions were not necessary for the patients treated for hepatitis A with 10 % clover or rape honey solution.

The highest increase in the pH of gastric juice – 56.5 % (from pH 1.39 before treatment, to pH 2.18 after treatment) occurred in the group of patients treated with dandelion honey collected in 1996.

Key words: hepatitis A, gastric juice pH, honey, melissopalynology.

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 76, 173-180

UDK 638.16:615:616+581.33.001.4

SKIRTINGØ RÛÐIØ MEDAUS NAUDOJIMAS HEPATITUI A GYDYTI IR SKRANDÞIO SULÈIØ RÛGÐTINGUMUI MAÞINTI

A. Baltuðkevièius, A. Laiðkonis, D. Vyðniauskienë, V. Èeksterytë, J. Raèys

Santrauka

Kauno infekcinës ligoninës pacientai, kuriems buvo nustatytas hepatitas A, buvo gydyti medikamentais (kontrolinë grupë) ir monofloriniu dobilø ir rapsø medumi (tiriamos grupës).

Kauno 3-oje klinikinëje ligoninëje, gastroenterologijos skyriuje, siekiant sumaþinti didelá skrandþio sulèiø rûgðtingumà, kontrolinës grupës ligoniams buvo skirti medikamentai, o tiriamos – monoflorinis kiaulpieniø medus.

Dobilø, rapsø, kiaulpieniø medus buvo surinktas Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Bitininkystës skyriaus bityne, jo botaninë sudëtis iðtirta melisopalinologijos metodu. Nustaèius medaus botaninæ sudëtá ir jo cheminius rodiklius, medus pristatytas á Kauno infekcinæ ligoninæ ir Kauno 3-iàjà klinikinæ ligoninæ.

Dvi ligoniø grupës buvo sudarytos hepatito A gydymui 10 % dobilø ir rapsø medumi. Hepatito A gydymo pabaigoje dobilø ir rapsø medumi kepenø funkcijà atspindintys rodikliai – alanininë transferazë (ALT) sumaþëjo 9,0-12,7, o bilirubinas 2,6-3,1 karto. Po gydymo visose ligoniø grupëse ALT ir bilirubinas sumaþëjo

ið esmës. Kiti serganèiøjø kraujo rodikliai (hemoglobinas, leukocitai, gliukozë) tiek prieð gydymà, tiek po gydymo nebuvo pakitæ. Intraveninës gliukozës infuzijos ligoniams, gydomiems 10 % dobilø ir rapsø medaus tirpalu, nenaudotos.

Didţiausias teigiamas

poveikis, maþinant skrandþio sulèiø rûgðtingumà, gautas grupëje ligoniø, kurie buvo gydyti 10 % kiaulpieniø medaus tirpalu 1996 metais. Vidutiniais duomenimis, ðios grupës ligoniams skrandþio sulèiø rûgðtingumas sumaþëjo 56,5 %, o skrandþio sulèiø pH pasiekë normalius dydþius (2,02-2,36).

Reikðminiai þodþiai: hepatitas A, skrandþio sulèiø pH, medus, melisopalnologija.

 

 

 



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