I skyrius. DIRVOTYRA IR AGROCHEMIJA

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2000, 72, 3-13

UDK 631. 821.1

EFFECT OF LONG-TERM LIMING ON SOIL ACIDITY INDICATORS AND STRUCTURE

Danutë OÞERAITIENË

Vëþaièiai Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agricultu

re

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëda district

E-mail: filialas@gargzdai.omnitel.net

Abstract

The present paper summarises the data of field and laboratory trials conducted at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s in Vëþaièiai Branch during the period of 1996-1998

. The effect of liming applied at different intensity (at a rate 0.5 every 7 years, 1.0 every 3-4 years, 2.0 every 3-4 years and 2.5 every 7 years) on reaction (pHKCl) and topsoil structure was investigated in the profile of acid authomorphic sod-podzolic moraine loam soil. The data show that systematic periodical liming for 49 years by dust limestone at a rate 2.0 every 3-4 years and 2.5 every 7 years on the background of primary and repeated liming by slaked lime and minimal manuring has significantly changed the reaction of topsoil pHKCl from 4.1 to 6.5. The soil acidification was hindered in the topsoil and subsoil up to the 50 cm depth. However, periodical intensive liming did not give any essential positive effect on the soil structure. It is not enough to saturate the soil with bases for the improvement of soil structure. It is necessary to enrich the soil with organic colloids as well.

Key words: liming, soil reaction, soil structure

Chapter 1. SOIL SCIENCE AND AGROCHEMISTRY

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2000, 72, 3-13

UDK 631.821.1

ILGALAIKIO KALKINIMO POVEIKIS DIRVOÞEMIO RÛGÐTINGUMO RODIKLIAMS IR STRUKTÛRAI

D. Oþeraitienë

Santrauka

Straipsnyje apibendrinti 1996-1998 metais LÞI Vëþaièiø filiale atlikti lauko ir laboratoriniø tyrimø duomenys.

Tirtas skirtingo intensyvumo periodiðko kalkinimo (0,5 n. kas 7 metai, 1,0 n. ir 2,0 n. kas 3-4 metai ir 2,5 n. kas 7 metai) dulkiais klintmilèiais pirminio ir pakartotinio kalkinimo gesintomis kalkëmis fone poveikis automorfinio velëninio jaurinio moreninio priemolio dirvoþemio viso profilio rûgðtingumo rodikliams ir armens struktûrai. Nustatyta, kad, intensyviai periodiðkai kalkinant, ið esmës pasikeièia dirvoþemio armens sluoksnio reakcija pHKCl nuo 4,1 iki 6,5. Stabdomas dirvoþemio rûgðtëjimas ariamajame ir EB horizontuose iki 50 cm gylio. Tuo tarpu intensyvus ilgalaikis kalkinimas neturëjo esminio teigiamo poveikio dirvoþemio armens struktûrai. Norint pagerinti dirvoþemio struktûrà, nepakanka pasotinti já bazëmis – bûtina praturtinti ir organiniais koloidais.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: kalkinimas, dirvoþemio reakcija, dirvoþemio struktûra.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 73, 14-26

UDK 631.862:631.582:[631.41+631.468.514.239]

ÁVAIRAUS MËÐLO POVEIKIS DIRVOÞEMIO DERLINGUMUI IR SËJOMAINOS PRODUKTYVUMUI

Liudmila TRIPOLSKAJA

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filialas

Trakø Vokë, Vilnius

El. paðtas: vokefil@takas.lt

Santrauka

1986-1997 metais Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filiale velëniniame jauriniame priesmëlio dirvoþemyje buvo atlikti durpiø, ðiaudø kraiko ir bekraikio mëðlo efektyvumo tyrimai. Nustatyta ávairaus mëðlo átaka sëjomainos produktyvumui, dirvoþemio agrocheminëms savybëms, makrofaunos (sliekø

A. caliginosa caliginosa) gausumui.

Sëjomainos produktyvumui didesnæ átakà turëjo bekraikis mëðlas. Ðiaudø ir durpiø kraiko mëðlo efektyvumas buvo maþesnis ir tarpusavyje ið esmës nesiskyrë. Visos mëðlo rûðys maþino dirvoþemio rûgðtumà ir jø poveikis buvo panaðus. Durpiø kraiko mëðlas labiau didino sorbuotø baziø

ir judriojo fosforo, o bekraikis – judriojo kalio kieká. Po 12 metø intensyvaus træðimo mëðlu pasikeitë ir poarmeninio sluoksnio (20-40 cm) agrocheminës savybës: sumaþëjo rûgðtumas, padidëjo sorbuotø baziø, judriøjø fosforo ir kalio kiekiai. Durpiø kraiko mëðlas turëjo didesnæ átakà humuso sukaupimui ir jo humifikacijos koeficientas buvo didesnis nei kitø mëðlo rûðiø. Sliekai ið esmës padidino sëjomainos produktyvumà (461 pað. vnt/ha) ir keitë mëðlo irimo procesus humifikacijos linkme.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: mëðlas, dirvoþemio agrocheminës savybës, humusas, sliekai.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 73, 14-26

UDK 631.862:631.582:[631.41+631.468.514.239]

INFLUENCE OF VARIOUS MANURE TYPES ON SOIL FERTILITY AND EFFICIENCY OF CROP ROTATION

L. Tripolskaja

Summary

Investigations of the efficiency of peat, straw and solid manure were carried out at the Vokë Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in 1986-1997 on a soddy-podzolic sandy loam soil. The influence of various types of m

anure on the crop rotation efficiency, agrochemical properties of soil, number of earthworms A. caliginosa caliginosa was established.

Semiliquid manure had greater effect on the crop rotation productivity. The efficiency of straw and peat manure was lower and did not differ significantly. All manure types reduced soil acidity. Peat manure increased the amount of absorbed bases and mobile phosphorus, semiliquid manure – the amount of mobile potassium more significantly. Intensive fertilising of soil in the course of 12 years essentially changed agrochemical properties of the subsoil (20-40 cm): it decreased acidity and increased the amount of absorbed bases, mobile phosphorus and potassium. Peat manure had a greater effect on humus accumulation, and its humification factor was higher, than that of other manure types. The enrichment of soil with earthworms A. caliginosa caliginosa (200 earthworms/m2 every 6 years) significantly increased the crop rotation efficiency (+461 Fu/ha) and changed the processes of manure decomposition towards humification.

Key words: manure, agrochemical properties of soils, humus, earthworms.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 73, 27-48

UDK 633:631.582:[631.83+631.84+631.85]:631.816.1

AZOTO, FOSFORO IR KALIO TRÀÐØ SANTYKIO IR NORMØ OPTIMIZAVIMAS LAUKO SËJOMAINOS AUGALAMS

Zigmas VAIÐVILA

Lietuvos þemës ûkio universitetas

Noreikiðkës, Kauno rajonas

El. paðtas: af@nora.lzua.lt

Jonas MAÞVILA, Tomas ADOMAITIS, Antanas ANTANAITIS, Jadvyga LUBYTË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Agrocheminiø tyrimø centras

Savanoriø pr. 287, Kaunas

El. paðtas: lzi_atc@komdera.lt

Santrauka

Darbo tikslas – vyraujanèiame pagal maisto medþiagø kieká dirvoþemyje palyginti sistemingo skirtingø azoto, fosforo ir kalio tràðø normø ir maisto medþiagø santykiø naudojimo efektyvumà svarbiausiems þemës ûkio augalams lauko sëjomainoje, ávertinti tràðø átakà

þemës ûkio augalø derliui, jo cheminei sudëèiai, tràðø sunaudojimui ir maisto medþiagø balansui.

Bandymai daryti 1971-1997 metais moreniniame velëniniame glëjiðkame smëlingame lengvo priemolio dirvoþemyje, kurio armuo neutralios reakcijos, vidutiniðkai azotingas ir kalingas, maþai fosforingas bei vidutiniðkai humusingas.

Iðanalizavus duomenis iðryðkëjo maisto medþiagø tarpusavio sàveikos reikðmë. Azoto tràðø sàveikoje su fosforo ir kalio tràðomis kvieèiø grûdø derlius padidëjo 0,96, mieþiø – 0,69, cukriniø runkeliø ðakniavaisiø – 4,65, daugiameèiø varpiniø þoliø sausøjø medþiagø – 3,38 t/ha, o kasmetis sëjomainos produktyvumas – 1120 pað. vnt/ha. Fosforo tràðø sàveikoje su azoto ir kalio tràðomis minëtø augalø derlius padidëjo atitinkamai 1,06; 0,31; 3,90; 2,27 t/ha ir 1053 pað. vnt/ha, o kalio tràðø sàveikoje su azoto ir fosforo tràðomis – 1,27; 0,91; 0,27; 0,97 t/ha ir 547 pað. vnt/ha.

Nuo mineralini

ø NPK tràðø þieminiø kvieèiø grûdø derlius padidëjo nuo 2,37 iki 5,14 t/ha, mieþiø – nuo 3,08 iki 5,51 t/ha, cukriniø runkeliø ðakniavaisiø – nuo 27,2 iki 43,5 t/ha, vienameèiø miðiniø ir daugiameèiø varpiniø þoliø sausøjø medþiagø atitinkamai nuo 2,66 iki 5,99 t/ha ir nuo 2,25 iki 10,70 t/ha, o vidutinis sëjomainos produktyvumas per 27 metus – nuo 3382 iki 7405 pað. vnt/ha.

Didþiausias þieminiø kvieèiø grûdø derlius gautas patræðus N

120P120K120, vasariniø mieþiø – N60P120K120, cukriniø runkeliø ðakniavaisiø –N240P240K240, vienameèiø miðiniø – N120P120K120, daugiameèiø varpiniø þoliø – N262P150K150, o vidutiniðkai kasmet paðariniø vienetø – N228P192K192. Nuo 1 kg NPK tràðø derlius padidëjo 6,56 paðarinio vieneto.

Gauta daugiau kaip 6500 pað. vnt/ha ir uþ 1 kg NPK gauta per 10 paðariniø vienetø, patræðus tokiomis tràðø normomis: N

114P96K96, N152P64K64, N152P64K128 ir N152P64K128.

Apie 45 % paðariniø vienetø padaugëjo nuo azoto, per 30 % – nuo fosforo ir per 20 % – nuo kalio tràðø.

Padidinus azoto tràðø normas iki 150-180 kg/ha gausëjo baltymø ir ðlapiojo glitimo grûduose. Nustatyta teigiama azoto ir fosforo bei azoto ir kalio tràðø sàveika grûdø baltymingumui. Dël azoto tràðø cukriniø runkeliø ðakniavaisiø cukringumas nemaþëjo, kai ðiø tràðø norma nevirðijo 80 kg/ha, o normà padidinus iki 240 kg/ha, cukringumas sumaþëjo 2 proc. vnt.

Fosforo ir kalio tràðos beveik neturëjo átakos cukriniø runkeliø ðakniavaisiø cukringumui, taèiau dirvoþemyje, kuriame buvo azoto perteklius, didëjo ðakniavaisiø peleningumas, dël ko padidëjo cukraus liekana melasoje ir sumaþëjo balto cukraus iðeiga.

Daugiameèiø varpiniø þoliø sausosiose medþiagose þaliø proteinø kiekis priklausë nuo træðimo azotu intensyvumo. Kai metinë azoto tràðø norma buvo iki 100 kg/ha, þaliø proteinø kiekis beveik nedidëjo, o padidinus azoto normà iki 315 kg/ha, jø kiekis padidëjo apie 4 proc. vnt. Nuo NPK tràðø kalcio ir fosforo santykis daugiametëse varpinëse þolëse, priklausomai nuo pjûties, sumaþëjo nuo 3,1-4,0 (variantas N

0P0K0) iki 1,8-2,1 (variantas N315P180K180). Kalio koncentracija þolëse didëjo nuo træðimo kaliu. Daugiausia jo susikaupë tada, kai buvo træðta daugiau kaip N150. Taèiau patræðus ir 180 kg/ha norma, kalio kiekis þolëje nevirðijo 3 proc. vnt.

Sëjomainoje, kurios metinis produktyvumas didesnis kaip 7 tûkst. pað. vnt/ha ir þemës ûkio augalai netræðiami mëðlu, derliuje sukauptø maisto medþiagø kiekiui kompensuoti kasmet azoto reikia skirti daugiau kaip 190 kg/ha, fosforo – 60-70 kg/ha ir kalio – daugiau kaip 190 kg/ha.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: dirvoþemis, tràðos, þemës ûkio augalai.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 73, 27-48

UDK 633:631.582:[631.83+631.84+631.85]:631.816.1

THE OPTIMIZATION OF RATIO AND RATES OF NITROGEN PHOSPHORUS AND POTASSIUM FERTILIZERS FOR AGRICULTURAL PLANTS OF FIELD CROP ROTATION

Z. Vaiðvila, J. Maþvila, T. Adomaitis, A. Antanaitis, J. Lubytë

Summary

The objective of the present work was to compare the efficiency of systematic use of different rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers and nutrient ratios in the prevailing according to the amounts of nutrients soil for the major agricultural plants in the field crop rotation, by assessing the effect of fertilizers on agricultural crop yield, chemical composition and balance of nutrients.

The tests were carried out over the period 1971-1997 on a sod-gleyic light loam soil whose arable horizon was of neutral reaction, containing medium amount of humus, low of available phosphorus and medium amount of available potassium.

The obtained data revealed in particular the significance of nutrients interaction. In the interaction of nitrogen fertilizer with phosphorus and potassium fertilizers the yield of wheat grain increased by 0.96 t/ha, barley – 0.69 t/ha, sugar beetroots – 4.65 t/ha, perennial grasses DM – 3.38 t/ha, and yearly crop rotation productivity by 1020 feed units per 1 ha.

In the interaction of phosphorus fertilizer with nitrogen and potassium fertilizers the yield of wheat grain increased by 1.06 t/h, barley – 0.31 t/h, sugar beetroots – 3.90 t/h, perennial grasses DM – 227 t/ha and yearly crop rotation productivity by 1053 feed units per 1 ha.

In the interaction of potassium fertilizer with nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers the yield of wheat grain increased by 1.27 t/ha, barley – 0.91 t/h, sugar beetroots – 0.27 t/h, perennial grasses DM – 0.97 t/h and a yearly crop rotation productivity by 547 feed units per 1 ha.

When soil contained a medium amount of mineral nitrogen, and little mobile phosphorus and average potassium, in the long term tests, without dressing with manure, mineral fertilizer increased the yield of winter wheat grain from 2.37 t/h to 5.14 t/ha, barley from 3.08 t/ha to 5.51 t/ha, sugar beetroots from 27.2 t/h to 43.5 t/ha, one – year mixture and perennial grasses correspondingly from 2.66 t/ha to 5.99 t/ha and from 2.25 t/ha to 10.70 t/ha, while the average crop rotation productivity within 27 years – from 3382 to 7405 feed units per 1 ha.

The highest yield of winter wheat grain was obtained, having dressed the soil with N120P120K120, spring barley – N60P120K120, sugar beetroots – N240P240K240, one – year mixtures – N120P120K120, perennial grasses N262,.5 P150 K150, while on the average each year feed units – N228P132K192. 1 NPK kg increased the yield by 6.56 feed units.

There were grown more than 6500 fodder units from 1 ha and for 1 kg NPK there were obtained more than 10 fodder units, having dressed with the combination of these fertilizer rates: N114P96K96; N152P64K64, N152 P64K64; N152P64 K128; N152P64K128.

About 45 % of feed units increased from nitrogen, more than 30 % – from phosphorus and more than 20 % – from potassium fertilizers.

By increasing nitrogen fertilizer rates to 150-180 kg/ha the amount of protein and wet gluten in grain was increasing. There was determined a positive interaction of nitrogen – phosphorus and nitrogen – potassium on the amount of protein in grain. Nitrogen fertilizer did not reduce sugar content of the sugar beetroots when the rate of these fertilizers did not exceed 80 kg/ha. By increasing the rate to 240 kg/ha, sugar content decreased by 2 per cent per unit.

The phosphorus and potassium fertilizer had almost no effect on the sugar content of the sugar beetroots, however, they increased ash content, in particular in the soil in which there was nitrogen surplus, and due to it there increased sugar residue in molasses and decreased the yield of white sugar.

In the herbage of perennial grasses the amount of raw protein depended upon the intensity of fertilizing with nitrogen. When a yearly rate of nitrogen fertilizer was less than 100 kg/ha, the amount of raw protein almost did not increase, and having increased nitrogen rate to 315 kg/ha, its amount increased to about 4 per cent per unit. NPK fertilizers reduced calcium and phosphorus ratio in perennial grasses, depending upon the cut, from 3.1-4.0 (treatment N0P0K0) to 1.8-2.1 (treatment N315P180K180). Fertilizing with potassium increased potassium concentration in grass. Most of it was accumulated when the potassium fertiliser rate was higher than 150 kg/ha. However, having fertilized even with the 180 kg/ha rate, the amount of potassium in grass did not exceed 3 per cent per unit.

In the crop rotation, whose yearly productivity was more than 7000 feed units per 1 ha, and agricultural crops were not fertilized with manure, to compensate for nutrient amount accumulated in the yield, it was necessary to use more than 190 kg/ha of nitrogen, 60-70 kg/ha phosphorus and more than 190 kg/ha of potassium.

Key words: soil, fertilizers, agricultural crops.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 73, 49-63

UDK 631.811.94+631.893.1’2’3’]:633.521:631.559

ÁVAIRIØ CINKO SULFATO NORMØ BEI SKIRTINGØ TRÆÐIMO FONØ ÁTAKA PLUOÐTINIØ LINØ DERLIUI BEI JO KOKYBEI

Zofija JANKAUSKIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Upytës bandymø stotis

Upytë, Panevëþio rajonas

El. paðtas: lzi.upyte@post.omnitel.net

Santrauka

1996-1998 m. Upytës bandymø stotyje vykdytuose bandymuose buvo tiriamos skirtingø cinko sulfato normø (0,35 kg/ha ZnSO

4; 0,35 kg/ha ZnSO4 + citovetas 0,04 %; 1,0 kg/ha ZnSO4; 2,0 kg/ha ZnSO4; 3,0 kg/ha ZnSO4; 4,0 kg/ha ZnSO4) ávairiuose træðimo fonuose (netræðta, N15; P20; K60; N15P20; N15K60; P20K60; N15P20K60) átaka pluoðtiniø linø derliui ir jo kokybei.

Linai auginti po þieminiø kvieèiø velëniniame glëjiðkame priesmëlyje, kurio pH – 7,2±

0,11–7,6± 0,12, mineralinio azoto (Nmin.) kiekis – 8,52± 1,028–9,94± 2,005 mg/kg, judriojo fosforo – 142± 49,4-220± 42,8 mg/kg, judriojo kalio – 118± 31,3–185± 43,2 mg/kg, judriojo boro – 0,74± 0,0,188–1,17± 0,217 mg/kg, judriojo cinko – 1,43± 0,322–2,24± 0,557 mg/kg, bendrojo cinko – 16,4± 3,36–37,9± 7,56 mg/kg dirvoþemio.

Cinko trûkumo poþymiai buvo pastebimi tik 1998 m., kai vidutinë oro temperatûra linams esant daigø tarpsnyje buvo 7,8-9,5

0C.

Cinko tràðø efektyvumas linø derliui buvo didesnis netræðtame fone 1996 ir 1998 m. (kai dirvoþemyje buvo maþesni bendrojo cinko kiekiai).

Ekonomiðkai ir ekologiðkai tikslingiausia naudoti 0,35 kg/ha ZnSO4

normà. Kai daigø tarpsnyje oras vësus (þemiau 7,8-9,50C), patartina purkðti linus 1,0 kg/ha ZnSO4 norma.

Trejø metø vidutiniais duomenimis, tik stiebeliø derlius ið esmës buvo didesnis N

15P20K60 træðtame fone nei kontroliniame variante, kur tràðos nenaudotos.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: sëmenø derlius, stiebeliø derlius, pluoðto derlius, pluoðtiniai linai, træðimas NPK, cinko sulfato normos, derliaus kokybë.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 73, 49-63

UDK 631.811.94+631.893.1’2’3’]:633.521:631.559

THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT RATES OF ZINC SULPHATE AND FERTILISING BACKGROUND ON FIBRE FLAX YIELD AND QUALITY

Z. Jankauskienë

Summary

The trial was carried out in 1996-1998 at the Upytë Research Station. The effect of different rates of zinc sulphate (0.35 kg/ha ZnSO

4; 0.35 kg/ha ZnSO4 + citowett 0.04 %; 1.0 kg/ha ZnSO4; 2.0 kg/ha ZnSO4; 3.0 kg/ha ZnSO4; 4.0 kg/ha ZnSO4) in differently fertilised plots (not fertilised, N15; P20; K60; N15P20; N15K60; P20K60; N15P20K60 fertilised) on the fibre flax yield and quality was investigated.

Flax was grown in a 7-field rotation after winter wheat. The soil type was sod gleyic drained loam. Depth of arable layer 30 cm. Agrochemical soil properties of the trial plots fluctuated as follows: pH – 7.2 ± 0.11 – 7.6 ± 0.12, content of mineral nitrogen (Nmin.) – 8.52± 1.028–9.94 ± 2.005 mg/kg, content of available phosphorus – 142 ± 49.4 – 220 ± 42.8 mg/kg, content of available potassium – 118 ± 31.3 – 185 ± 43.2 mg/kg, content of available boron – 0.74 ± 0.188 –1.17 ± 0.217 mg/kg, content of available zinc – 1.43 ± 0.322 – 2.24 ± 0.557 mg/kg, content of total zinc – 16.4 ± 3.36 – 37.9 ± 7.56 mg/kg of the soil.

The deficiency of zinc was notable only in 1998, when the mean air temperature at the flax seedling stage was 7.8-9.50C.

The efficiency of zinc fertilisers on seed, stem and long fibre yield was higher in not fertilised plots in 1996 and 1998 (when the amount of total zinc in the soil was lower).

The best way (from the viewpoint of economy and ecology) is to use 0.35 kg/ha ZnSO4. When the mean air temperature at the flax seedling stage is low (less than 7.8-9.50C), it is useful to use 1.0 kg/ha ZnSO4.

According to average data of 3 years, only stem yield was significantly higher on the N15P20K60 background as compared with the untreated plots.

Key words: seed yield, stem yield, fibre yield, fibre flax, NPK fertilising, zinc sulphate rates, yield quality.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 73, 64-90

UDK 631.416.8+633:546.4/.8

SUNKIEJI METALAI LIETUVOS DIRVOÅ¢EMIUOSE IR AUGALUOSE

Jonas MAÞVILA, Tomas ADOMAITIS, Leonas EITMINAVIÈIUS,

Jadvyga LUBYTË, Antanas ANTANAITIS, Kristinas MATUSEVIÈIUS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Agrocheminiø tyrimø centras

Savanoriø pr. 287, Kaunas

El. paðtas: lzi_atc@linet.lt

Santrauka

Tirti sunkieji metalai: chromas (Cr), kadmis (Cd), ð

vinas (Pb), nikelis (Ni), varis (Cu), cinkas (Zn), manganas (Mn), geleþis (Fe) ávairiuose ðalies dirbamø laukø, Kauno ir Panevëþio miestø, prie kai kuriø pramonës ámoniø, pakeliø, Nemuno uþliejamø pievø, ilgà laikà skirtingai træðiamø ir intensyviai pesticidais purðkiamø plotø dirvoþemiuose (2M HNO3 iðtraukoje), o kai kur ir augaluose bei maisto produktuose (bendrieji kiekiai). Bandyta iðaiðkinti, kokia yra dirvoþemio granuliometrinës sudëties, dirvodariniø uolienø kilmës, humuso kiekio, dirvoþemio reakcijos, kalingumo, fosforingumo, karbonatingumo, glëjëjimo bei antropogeninio poveikio átaka sunkiøjø metalø (SM) kiekiams dirvoþemyje.

Nustatyta, kad ðalies dirbamø laukø dirvoþemiø humusingajame sluoksnyje (0-20 cm) Cr yra vidutiniðkai 10,7, Cd – 0,46, Pb – 11,9, Ni – 9,9, Cu – 6,9, Zn – 28,5, Mn – 253, Fe – 8209 mg/kg. Jø kiekiai labiausiai priklauso nuo fizinio molio daleliø (< 0,01 mm) kiekio, kiek maþiau – nuo uolienos kilmës, maþiau – nuo reakcijos, humuso bei kalio kiekiø. Pietryèiø Lietuvos lygumos, Að

menos aukðtumos ir Lydos plynaukðtës, Kazlø Rûdos, Karsakiðkio ir Smalininkø senøjø deltø lygumø tirtuose dirvoþemiuose, kurie yra lengvesnës granuliometrinës sudëties, SM yra maþiau negu kitur.

Pramoniniø sodø (Pasvalio r. Naradavos ir Aukðtikalniø) dirvoþemyje vario ir cinko yra þymiai daugiau negu aplinkiniame panaðios granuliometrinës sudëties dirbamø laukø dirvoþemyje – 0-5 cm sluoksnyje vario kiekis siekë 46,8-84,2 mg/kg.

Net gausiai kasmet træðiant mineralinëmis tràðomis (N

240, PK192 kg/ha), sunkiøjø metalø kiekis dirvoþemyje bei ganyklø þolëje po 23 metø maþai pasikeitë.

Kauno ir Panevëþio miestø dirvoþemiai daugiausia uþterðti antropogeninës kilmës ðvinu, cinku ir variu. Juose SM yra gerokai daugiau negu uþmiesèio dirvoþemiuose. Miestuose auginamose darþovëse SM gausiau kaupia krapai, bulvës, burokëliai ir svogûnai.

Prie autostrados Kaunas-Klaipëda SM daugiausiai kaupiasi skiriamosios þaliosios juostos ir iki 15-25 m atstumu abipus kelkraðèio dirvoþemyje bei þolëje.

Akmenës cemento ir Maþeikiø naftos perdirbimo gamyklø poveikio zonoje Pb, Ni, Cd, Cr bei Cu labiausiai kaupësi jø teritorijø ir 5-10 km atstumu nuo tarðos ðaltiniø dirvoþemiuose, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni – jø teritorijø þolëje.

Lietuvoje pagamintuose maisto produktuose sunkiøjø metalø kiekiai ávairûs, taèiau daugeliu atvejø nevirðija didþiausio leidþiamo kiekio (DLK). Tik 8-11 proc. tirtø pieno ir sûrio bandiniø pranoko ðvino bei penktadalyje pieno bandiniø – kadmio leistinas normas.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: dirvoþemis, granuliometrinë sudëtis, þemës ûkio augalai, sunkieji metalai.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 73, 64-90

UDK 631.416.8+633:546.4/.8

HEAVY METALS IN LITHUANIA’S SOILS AND PLANTS

J.Maþvila, T.Adomaitis, L.Eitminavièius, J.Lubytë, A.Antanaitis, K.Matusevièius

Summary

Investigations of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe) were carried out in different areas: arable land, Kaunas and Panevëþys, near some industrial enterprises, roadsides, the Nemunas water-meadow, land with long term different fertilizati

on and an intensive pesticide application, in some places – factories. We determined the influence of soil texture, the origin of soil formation, humus, soil reaction, amount of potassium and phosphorus in soil, soil calcareousness, gley–formation process and the influence of human activity on the amount of general forms of heavy metals (HM) in the soil.

It was determined that average amount of heavy metals in humus layer in the 0-20 cm depth was as follows: Cr – 10.7, Cr – 0.46, Pb – 11.9, Ni- 9.9, Cu – 6.9, Zn – 28.5, Mn – 253, Fe – 8209 mg/kg. These amounts mostly depend on the quantity of clay particles (<0,01 mm), a little less on the origin of soil formation, less on soil reaction, amount of humus and potassium.

Amount of copper and zinc is higher in the soil of industrial orchards than in surrounding arable land. Amount of copper in 0-5 cm the layer is 46.8-84.2 mg/kg.

Even a heavy annual fertilisation (N240 PK192) slightly changed the amount of heavy metals in soils and pasture grass during 23 years.

The soils in the cities of Kaunas and Panevëþys are polluted mostly by human activity with lead, zinc and copper. There are much more HM than in out-of-town areas. Among different kinds of vegetables grown in the cities, HM are accumulated by dill, potat

oes, beets and onions more than by other vegetables.

Along the highway Kaunas –Klaipëda HM have been accumulated in the green zone and in the soil, also grass, at the distance 15-25 m on both sides of the road.

In the pollution effect zone of the Akmenës Cement and Maþeikiai Oil Processing

Plant Pb, Ni, Cd, Cr, Cu are accumulated in the soils in the territory of the factory at the 5-10 km distance from the source of pollution and Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni – in the grass of the factory’s territory.

The amount of heavy metals in food-stuffs produced in Lithuania is different, however, in many cases it does not exceed MLC (Max Limit Concentration). Only lead in milk and cheese (8-11 % from the investigated samples) and cadmium in milk (1/5 from the investigated samples of milk) exceeded MLC.

Keywords: soil, soil texture, agricultural crops, heavy metals.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 73, 91-103

UDK 633.853.494:631.582:631.416.322

RAPSØ PLOTO SËJOMAINOJE ÁTAKA SIEROS KIEKIUI DIRVOÞEMYJE IR AUGALUOSE

Rimantas VELIÈKA, Marija RIMKEVIÈIENË, Kostas TREÈIOKAS

Lietuvos þemës ûkio universitetas

Akademija, Kauno rajonas

El. paðtas: au@nora.lzua.lt

Santrauka

Árengiant bandymus, kuriuose buvo tiriamas rapsø plotas sëjomainoje, bendrosios sieros dirvoþemyje nustatyta 137-147 mg/kg, judriosios – 5,4-5,7 mg/kg. Po pirmos rotacijos, t.y. praëjus ketveriems metams, dirvoþemyje humuso sumaþëjo 10-16

%, bendrosios sieros vasariniø rapsø bandyme – 7-9 %, o þieminiø – 25-35 %. Tuo tarpu ið esmës padidëjo judriosios sieros visø tirtø sëjomainø dirvoþemyje: vasariniø rapsø – 3,1-4,2 karto, þieminiø – 3,3-3,6 karto. Judriosios sieros nustatyta ið esmës daugiau dirvoþemyje sëjomainos, kurioje rapsai uþëmë didþiausià (75 %) plotà, negu maþiausià (25 %). Rapsø skirtingo ploto sëjomainoje átaka bendrosios sieros kiekio pokyèiams dirvoþemyje neesminë. Sieros kiekis dirvoþemyje priklausë nuo augalø kaitos sëjomainoje. Kai sëjomainos rotacija baigësi rapsais, dirvoþemyje nustatyta daugiau bendrosios sieros – 4-10 % (padidëjimas neesminis), judriosios – 16-35 % (padidëjimas esminis), nei po kitø augalø. Daugiausiai judriosios sieros (24,98 mg/kg) nustatyta dirvoþemyje, kuriame 75 % sëjomainos ploto sudarë þieminiai rapsai, atsëliuoti trejus metus.

Velëninio glëjiðko iðplauto lengvo priemolio ant molio dirvoþemio profilyje humusas ir bendroji siera maþëjo nuo ariamojo sluoksnio einant gilyn á podirvá. Judrioji siera migravo iki 80 cm gylio (molis) ir 80-100 cm gylyje nusistovëjo pastovûs dydþiai. Tokio gylio dirvoþemyje rapsø ðaknys sierà gali asimiliuoti.

Rapsø sëklose sieros yra vidutiniðkai 3-3,5 karto daugiau negu kvieèiø grûduose. Rapsø sëklose santykis N:S

= 17,5, o kvieèiø grûduose – 36,5; rapsø stiebuose – 2,63, o kvieèiø ðiauduose – 3,63; rapsø ðaknyse – 3,62, o kvieèiø – 3,01. Kvieèiø ir rapsø ðaknyse yra beveik vienodai sieros (1,62-1,96 ir 1,59-2,04 mg/kg), o stiebai jos turi 27 % daugiau, negu kvieèiø ðiaudai. Padidinus rapsø plotà sëjomainoje, ið esmës didëjo sieros rapsø sëklose, ðaknyse – svyravo paklaidos ribose, o stiebuose – maþëjo.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: vasariniai ir þieminiai rapsai, sëjomaina, bendroji ir judrioj

i siera, humusas, azotas.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 73, 91-103

UDK 633.853.494:631.582:631.416.322

INFLUENCE OF THE RAPE AREA IN THE CROP ROTATION ON THE CONTENT OF SULPHUR IN THE SOIL AND PLANTS

R. Velièka, M. Rimkevièienë, K. Treèiokas

Summary

While carrying out trials in which the rape in a crop rotation was investigated, 137- 147 mg/kg of total sulphur and 5.4-5.7 mg/kg mobile sulphur was found in the soil. After the first four years’ rotation the humus content in the soil decreased by 10-16 % and the total sulphur content in the spring rape trial by 7-9 % and in the winter rape trial by 25-35 %. At the same time the content of mobile sulphur increased significantly in all the investigated crop rotations: in the spring rape 3.1-4.2 times, the winter rape – 3.3-3.6 times. In the crop rotation in which the rape area was 75 % the content of mobile sulphur was significantly higher than in the crop rotation with the rape area of 25 %. The influence of different rape area in the crop rotation on the change of the total content of sulphur was not essential. The content of sulphur in the soil depended on the alternation of crops in the crop rotation. When the crop rotation was completed by rape, in the soil 4-10 % more total sulphur (the increase was not essential) and 16-35 % more of mobile sulphur (the increase was essential) was found than after the other crops. The highest content of mobile sulphur (24.98 mg/kg) was found in the soil in which 75 % of crop rotation made the winter rape sown three years in turn.

In the sod gley washed light loam on alumina soil profile the amount of humus and total sulphur decreased going from the arable layer deeper to the subsoil. Mobile sulphur migrated to the depth of 80 cm (alumina) and in the depth of 80-100 cm constant quantities settled. In this depth the rape roots could take the sulphur.

The amount of sulphur in the rape seeds was 3-3.5 times higher than in the wheat grain. In the rape seeds the proportion N:S = 17.5 and in the wheat grain – 36.5; in the rape stems – 2.63, and in the wheat straw – 3.63; in the rape roots – 3.62, and in the wheat roots 3.01. The content of sulphur in the wheat and rape roots was nearly the same (1.62-1.96 and 1.59-2.04 mg/kg) and the rape stems had 27 % more sulphur than the wheat straw. Increasing the rape area in the crop rotation the sulphur content in the rape seeds increased significantly, in the roots it fluctuated in the error limits and in the stems it decreased.

Key words: spring and winter rape, crop rotation, total and mobile sulphur, humus, nitrogen.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 73, 104-125

UDK 631.482.1:631.417

POTVYNIO ATNEÐTØ BIOGENINIØ ELEMENTØ LOKALIZACIJA IR JØ TARPUSAVIO RYÐYS NEMUNO ÞEMUPIO SALPOS DIRVOÞEMIUOSE

Vytautas GIPIÐKIS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Nemuno pievø sektorius

Ðilutës rajonas

El. paðtas: jonasgut@lzi.lt

Santrauka

Nemuno þemaslënyje tipingose 52 000 ha ploto vietose, pagal dirvoþemiø klasifikacijà, paimtas 61 dirvoþemio bandinys. Nustatyta dirvoþemio rûgðtumas, tûrio masë, organinës medþiagos, judriøjø Ca, Mg, P ir K kiekiai. Duomenys pateikti mg/kg, kai tûrio masë didesnë uþ vienetà, ir mg/1000 cm

3, kai tûrio masë maþesnë uþ vienetà. Deltos dirvoþemiuose organiniø medþiagø yra nuo 1 % iki 84 %.

Deltos upëms ðakojantis salpa platëja, atðakø vandeningumas ir potvynio tëkmiø intensyvumas maþëja, maþiau nusëda aliuvio. Taip pat platëja ir prieþemyninë zona. Jos dirvoþemiuose biogenø yra 2,1-4,4 karto maþiau, negu tëkmiø zonoje. Dirvoþemyje esanèiø cheminiø elementø kiekis priklauso ir nuo upës vandens mineralizacijos laipsnio. Biogenai lokalizuojasi pagal upes, potvynio tëkmiø trasose. Dirvoþemio granuliometrinei sudëèiai sunkëjant, tëkmiø zonoje biogenø daugëja, o prieþemyninëje, iðskyrus kalcá,

maþëja. Tolstant nuo vagos (didëjant organinës medþiagos procentui) kalcio santykinai daugëja, o magnio, kalio ir fosforo maþëja. Gausëjant organiniø medþiagø, didëja dirvoþemio rûgðtumas. Turtingiausias biogeniniø elementø yra iki 2-3 cm sluoksnis – gilëjant jø maþëja. Judriojo kalio diferenciacija buvo ryðkesnë uþ fosforo.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: delta, aliuviniai dirvoþemiai, organinë medþiaga, granuliometrinë sudëtis, biogeninës medþiagos.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 73, 104-125

UDK 631.482.1:631.417

DISTRIBUTION OF ACTIVE Ca, Mg, P2O5, K2O AND DEPENDENCE UPON ORGANIC MATTER OF THE SOIL WITHIN THE NEMUNAS RIVER DELTA

V. Gipiðkis

Summary

61 soil samples were taken in typical sites of the Nemunas river delta in the area of 52.000 ha according to soil classification. We determined the acidity / reaction of the soil, the composition of organic matter, mass of volume, content of active Ca, Mg, K2O5. The data of nutritious mater in the article are provided as mg/kg, if mass of volume is higher than one, and mg/1000 cm3, if mass of volume is less than one. The quantity of organic matter in the flood land is fluctuating between 1 % and 84 %.

The quantity of alluvium settling down decreases when the flow of the flood becomes less intensive, when the delta becomes wider and the river is dividing into bigger quantity of the streams. Down to the delta the zone of stagnant water becomes wider too. The nutritiousness of the soil in this zone is 2.1-4.4 times lower than in the zone of flood stream. Depending on higher content of clay substance in the soil, the nutritiousness of the soil in the zone of flood stream becomes higher or on the contrary, is less in the zone of stagnant water, except of Ca. Moving away from the river bed, the quantity of organic substance is increasing. At the same time the amount of Ca is increasing, and on the contrary the amount of Mg, K2O5 is decreasing. The highest nutritiousness of the soil is in the layer of 0-2.5 cm from the surface and decreasing with deepness.

Key words: delta, flood land, alluvium, organic matter, granulometric structure.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 200

1, 73, 126-146

UDK 633.2.032(252):631.416

BIOGENINIØ MEDÞIAGØ APYKAITA UÞLIEJAMUOSE NEMUNO ÞEMUPIO DIRVOÞEMIUOSE

Kazimieras KATUTIS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Ðilutës rajonas

El. paðtas: pievos@Silute.omnitel.net

Santrauka

Straipsnyje pateikti ilgameèiø Nemuno deltos potvynio neðmenø kiekio, augalijos biologinio naðumo, pagrindiniø biogeniniø elementø sunaudojimo bei jø apykaitos 1987-1997 m. tyrimø duomenys. Nemuno þemupyje ávertintas biogeniniø elementø apykaitos intensyvumas bei jø balanso ypatumai uþliejimo sàlygomis.

Tyrimø metu stebëtas pievø derlingumas, pievø þolës cheminë sudëtis, potvynio neðmenyse, dirvoþemyje ir vandenyje esantis N, P, K, Ca ir Mg jonø kiekis bei jø dinamika dël uþliejimo, apskaièiuotas jø balansas.

Daugiausia biogeniniø elementø á uþliejamà slëná patenka su nusëdusiais potvynio neðmenimis, daugiau jø nusëda vidurinëje ir virðutinëje, o maþiau apatinëje slënio dalyse.

Potvynio metu ið uþlieto vandens dirvoþemis absorbavo 4-25 kartus maþiau biogeniniø elementø nei jø nusëdo su potvynio neðmenimis. Biogeniniø elementø ið potvynio vandens absorbavo daugiau þemutinëje nei vidurinëje ar virðutinëje slënio dalyse.

Biogeniniø elementø ið slënio dirvoþemiø daugiausia paimama su pievø derliumi. Jø daugiau paimama ið dirvoþemio virðutinës ir vidurinës, o maþiau – ið apatinës slënio daliø.

Potvynio metu su augalø liekanomis paimamas biogeniniø elementø kiekis, palyginus su kiekiu, paimamu su derliumi, sudaro tik 6-17 % priklausomai nuo biogeninio elemento.

Biogeniniø elementø balansui átakos turëjo elementø judrumas dirvoþemyje. Tirtø elementø balansai pagal absoliutø kieká sudarë tokià eilæ: Ca > Mg

> K >P > N.

Biogeniniø elementø balansui Nemuno þemupyje apskaièiuoti pateikta empirinë formulë [1].

Reikðminiai þodþiai: uþliejimas, biogeniniai elementai, balansas.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 73, 126-146

UDK 633.2.032(252):631.416

FLOW OF BIOGENIC MATTER IN THE FLOODLAND OF THE LOWER NEMUNAS

K. Katutis

Summary

In 1987-1997 at the Nemunas Sector of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture experiments were conducted with the purpose to determine the efficiency of flood water concentration on the yield of flood meadows and biogenic matter, soil agrochemical properties and flow of biogenic matter in flood soils. Tests were carried out on various types of soils in the Lower Nemunas in the natural conditions.

With that end in

view the Nemunas flood-lands were relatively divided into four sites: 1. The upper site (self-flowing) – meadows of the river Jûra valley (in the table marked by a symbol Jûra). 2. The middle site – during the flood the Nemunas clows out into meadows for the first time and returns to its channel (Mikytai-Plaðkiai). 3.The lower site – the Nemunas floods the meadows for the second time (Sausgalviai-Skirvytë). 4. The meadows of the rivers Minija and Tenenys valleys (Minija).

Formation of alluvial soils was dependent on the regimes of flood hydrodynamics in these areas. After spring floods more suspended sediments in the soil cover was established in the meadows of the summer polders in the central area of the Lower Nemunas, as compared with the upper and lower areas.

The balance of biogenic matter was negative, except phosphorus and calcium and magnesium. A significant relationship between the balance of biogenic matter and location in the Lower Nemunas was determined for potassium, calcium and magnesium, but less significant for nitrogen and phosphorus. The balance of biogenic matter in nature made up the following sequence: Ca > Mg > K > P > N.

Key words: flood water, grass yield, balance of biogenic matter.

 

II skyrius. ÞEMDIRBYSTË IR AUGALININKYSTË

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 73,

147-158

UDK 633.63:631.51.022:631.43

PRIEÐSËJINIO DIRVOS PURENIMO BÛDØ ÁTAKA FIZIKINËMS DIRVOS SAVYBËMS IR CUKRINIØ RUNKELIØ SËKLØ SUDYGIMUI

Kæstutis ROMANECKAS, Regina ÞULIENË, Regina ROMANECKIENË

Lietuvos

þemës ûkio universitetas

Akademija, Kauno rajonas

El. paðtas: Rkestas@nora.lzua.lt

Santrauka

LÞÛU bandymø stotyje lengvo priemolio dirvoje 1995-1998 m. buvo tiriama prieðsëjinio dirvos purenimo bûdø (purenta sudëtiniais purentuvais FK-305 ir RAU-300, áprastu purentuvu KPS-400) átaka dirvoþemio fizikinëms savybëms bei cukriniø runkeliø sëklø sudygimui. Geriausiai sëklos guoliavietæ paruoðë vertikaliø rotoriø purentuvas FK-305. Ðiuo purentuvu dirva buvo ádirbta 3,9 cm gyliu, supurentame sluoksnyje buvo maþiausiai smulkesniø nei 10 mm dirvos agregatø (62,5 proc.) ir grumstø (0,8 proc.) bei daugiausiai 10-25 mm skersmens grumsteliø. Tai lëmë geresná cukriniø runkeliø sëklø sudygimà. Geriausiai dygo ‘Freja’ ir ‘Univers’ cukriniø runkeliø sëklos – 62,1 ir 61,9

procento.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: cukriniai runkeliai, prieðsëjinis dirvos purenimas, dirvos fizikinës savybës, sëklø sudygimas.

Chapter 2. AGRICULTURE AND CROP PRODUCTION

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 73, 147-158

UDK 633.63:631.51.022:631.43

THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT PRESOWING SOIL TILLAGE METHODS ON AGROPHYSICAL SOIL PROPERTIES AND ON SUGAR BEET SEED FIELD GERMINATION

K. Romaneckas, R. Þulienë, R. Romaneckienë

Summary

Over the period of 1995-1998 at the Experimental Station of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture we investigated the influence of different soil mellowing methods (the soil was cultivated by cultivators FK-305, RAU-300 and KPS-400) on agrophysical soil properties and on sugar beet seed field germination. The cultivator of vertical rotors FK-305 prepared the best seedbed and the germination of sugar beet seed was better. The best germination of sugar beet seeds was by demonstrated varieties ‘Freja’ and ‘Univers’.

Key words: sugar beet, presowing soil mellowing, agrophysical soil properties, seed germination.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 73,

159-171

UDK 633.13:632.954:632.51

HERBICIDO RAUNDAPO ÁTAKA AVIÞØ BRENDIMUI IR PIKTÞOLËTUMUI VAKARØ LIETUVOS KALVOTO RELJEFO DIRVOSE

Irena KINDERIE

NË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Kaltinënø bandymø stotis

Kaltinënai, Ðilalës rajonas

El. paðtas: kaltbs@lzi.lt

Santrauka

1995-1997 metais LÞI Kaltinënø bandymø stotyje kalvoto reljefo dirvose tirta herbicido raundapo vartojimo laiko ir normø átaka aviþø brandos paankstinimui ir piktþolëtumui.

Raundapu 2, 3 ir 4 l/ha purkðta prieð aviþø derliaus nuëmimà grûdø drëgmei esant 30 % ir derliø nuëmus aviþienose. Jo veikimas prieð derliaus nuëmimà palygintas su reglono 3,5 l/ha ir glifoso 3,0 l/ha veikimu.

Nus

tatyta, kad raundapas piktþolëms buvo veiksmingesnis aviþienose dël geresnio kontakto su augalais ir didesnës dirvos drëgmës. Aviþienose, kuriose gausu daugiameèiø vienaskilèiø piktþoliø, efektyvesnës buvo 3 ir 4 l/ha raundapo normos – jø sumaþëjo 77,1-81,8 %.

Aviþø grûdø derliui raundapas ir kiti preparatai átakos neturëjo. Aviþø grûdø drëgmë derliaus nuëmimo metu nuo raundapo normø sumaþëjo 0,7-0,9 %, o nuo reglono ir glifoso – 1,1 %. Raundapas nesumaþino sëklø daigumo ir gyvybingumo.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: aviþos, raundapas, piktþolës, grûdø drëgmë.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 73, 159-171

UDK 633.13:632.954:632.51

THE INFLUENCE OF ROUNDUP APPLICATION ON OATS MATURITY AND WEEDINES ON THE SOILS OF HILLY RELIEF

I. Kinderienë

Summary

The field experiments were carried out at the Kaltinënai Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during the period 1995-1997. The goal of this research was to determine the most suitable rates and time of application of the herbi

cide Roundup for oat maturity acceleration and for weed control.

The herbicide Roundup (2, 3 and 4 l/ha) was used before the crop harvesting at a grain moisture content of 30 %, and after harvesting when the couch grass had regrew. Reglon and Glyfos 3.0 l/ha were used for comparison of their action with Roundup.

Data revealed that the effect of Roundup was better when it had been used after the crop harvesting as compared with the treatment when it had been applied before the crop harvesting. This is explained by a better contact of this herbicide with weed leaf area. The best rate of herbicide Roundup for the control of perennial monocotyledonous weeds was 3-4 l/ha. The number of weeds reduced by 77.1-81.8 %, respectively.

Moisture content in the grain decreased by 0.7-0.9 % at the rates of Roundup and by 1.1 % due to the application of Reglon and Glyfos. The herbicides investigated had no negative influence on sprouting and germinating ability of the grain and on the yield as well.

Key words: oats, Roundup, weeds, moisture, seeds.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 73, 172-184

UDK 632.954:633.12

HERBICIDO BUTIZANO 400 NAUDOJIMAS GRIKIUOSE

Antanas ÐALNA, Irena KAVOLIÛNAITË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filialas

Trakø Vokë, Vilnius

El. paðtas: vokefil@takas.lt

Santrauka

1995-1997 metais LÞI Vokës filiale velëniniame jauriniame silpnai nujaurëjusiame priesmëlyje, kuriame humuso yra 1,8-1,9 %, pH – 5,6-5,8, tirta herbicido butizano 400 normos ir purðkimo laikas grikiø ‘Astra’ pasëliuose. Naudota 1,5, 2,0 ir 2,5 l/ha prieð grikiø sudygimà ir iðaugus pirmajam tikrajam lapeliui.

Nustatyta, kad butizanas 400, iðpurkðtas prieð grikiø sudygimà, þymiai daugiau iðnaikino piktþoliø, negu purðkiant vëliau, kai grikiai ir piktþolës sudygo. Iðpurðkus 1,5, 2,0 ir 2,5 l/ha butizano 400 prieð grikiø sudygimà, bendras piktþoliø skaièius po mënesio sumaþëjo atitinkamai 78, 80 ir 85 %. Jautriausios buvo baltosios balandos (

Chenopodium album L.), trikertës þvaginës (Capsella bursa pastoris (L.) Medik.), bekvapiai ðunramuniai (Tripleurospermum inodorum (L.) Sch. Bip.), dirvinës veronikos (Veronica arvensis L.), ðelmeninës kreisvës (Crepis tectorum L.), dirviniai keþiai (Spergula arvensis L.), paprastosios rietmenës (Echinochloa crus galli (L.) P.Beauv.) ir vienametës miglës (Poa annua L.).

Ðio herbicido veikimas ilgalaikis, nes iki derliaus nuëmimo tuose laukeliuose piktþoliø sunyko dar daugiau – atitinkamai 85, 86 ir 92 %; jø orasausë masë sumaþëjo net 90, 91 ir 94 %; grikiø grûdø derlius padidëjo 56,5, 58

,3 ir 46,3 %.

Butizano 400 vartojimo laikas, grikiams iðauginus pirmà tikràjá lapelá, buvo maþiau tinkamas. Iðpurðkus herbicidà tomis pat normomis, po 1 mën. piktþolëtumas sumaþëjo tik 36, 42 ir 47 %, prieð derliaus nuëmimà – 35, 36 ir 44 %, piktþoliø orasausë masë – 47, 50 ir 62 %. Grikiø grûdø derliaus priedas irgi maþesnis – 23,1, 18,5 ir 21,3 %.

Nuo piktþoliø labiausiai apsimokëjo purkðti butizanu 400 1,5 l/ha prieð grikiø sudygimà.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: grikiai, herbicidai, piktþolës, derlius.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 73, 172-184

UDK 632.954:633.12

RATES AND TIME OF BUTISAN 400 APPLICATION in buckwheat

A. Ðalna, I. Kavoliûnaitë

Summary

The influence of different rates and time of Butisan 400 application in buckwheat we

re investigated at the LIA Vokë Branch in 1995-1997.

1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 l/ha rates of Butisan 400 were applied pre-emergence at the stage of full first leaf of buckwheat.

The data of investigations showed, that pre-emergence application of Butisan 400 was more effective than its application at the stage of full first leaf. In this case Butisan 400 decreased the number of weeds by 85, 86 and 92 % and increased the yield of grains by 56.5, 58.3 and 46.3 % respectively.

The influence of Butisan 400 application at the stage of full first leaf in buckwheat was considerable lower. The yield of grains increased by 23.1, 18.5 and 21.3 % and the number of weeds decreased by 35, 35 and 44 % respectively.

For weed control in buckwheat we recomend pre-emergence application of Butisan 400 at a rate of 1.5 l/ha.

Key words: buckwheat, herbicide, weeds, yield.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 73, 185-193

UDK 633.853.494«324»631.526.32:631.559

ÞIEMINIØ RAPSØ VEISLIØ VYSTYMOSI IR PRODUKTYVUMO YPATUMAI

Robertas MONTVILAS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuvos sen., Këdainiø rajonas

El. paðtas: virgis@lzi.lt

Santrauka

1994-1998 metais Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute, Dotnuvoje, silpnai pajaurëjusiame velëniniame glëjiðkame lengvo priemolio dirvoþemyje, kurio pH

KCL 5,7-7,1, judriøjø P2O5 ir K2O 108-162 ir 148-213 mg/kg dirvoþemio, atlikti tyrimai. Jø tikslas – ávertinti þieminiø rapsø (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera biennis Metzg.) naujø veisliø augimo ir vystymosi ypatumus Vidurio Lietuvos sàlygomis. Bandymuose buvo tirtos 00 tipo ‘Accord’ (standartas), ‘Apex’, ‘Casino’, ‘Valesca’ ir ‘Kazimir’ þieminiø rapsø veislës. Vidutiniais 3 metø duomenimis, didþiausià – 3,06 t/ha sëklø derliø subrandino ‘Apex’ veislës þieminiai rapsai. Ðios veislës augalai uþmezgë 7,1-30,4 % ankðtarø daugiau ir buvo 7,6-36 % produktyvesni, nei ‘Accord’, ‘Casino’, ‘Valesca’ ir ‘Kazimir’ veisliø þieminiai rapsai. Geriausiai (93,5 %), arba 12,1 % geriau uþ standartà, þiemojo ‘Valesca’ veislës þieminiai rapsai. Daugiausia – 44,4-44,8 % neapdorotø riebalø buvo rasta ‘Accord’, ‘Apex’ ir ‘Kazimir’ veisliø þieminiø rapsø sëklose. Tirtø veisliø rapsø sëklose rastas 11,2-11,7 m mol/g gliukozinolatø kiekis nevirðijo 20 m mol/g standarto (LST 1323:1993) ribos.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: þieminiai rapsai, veislës, augalø vystymasis, þiemojimas, sëklø derlius, sëklø kokybë.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 73, 185-193

UDK 633.853.494”324”631.526.32:631.559

DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTIVITY PECIULIARITIES OF THE WINTER RAPE VARIETES

R. Montvilas

Summary

Experiments were conducted over the period 1994-1998 at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in Dotnuva on a soddy weakly podzolized gleyic sandy loam soil containing pHKCL 5.7-7.1, available P2O5 and K2O 108-162 mg/kg and 148-213 mg/kg of soil respectively. The objective of this research was to estimate new double low winter rape growth and development peculiarities under weather and soil conditions of Central Lithuania. The double low winter rape cv. ‘Accord’ (standard), cv. ‘Apex’, cv. ‘Casino’, cv. ‘Valesca’ and cv. ‘Kazimir’ were investigated. According to averaged three years’ findings the highest rapeseed yield (3.06 t/ha) was produced by the winter rape cv. ‘Apex’. Plants of this variety had by 7.1-30.4 % more pods per plant and demonstrated by 7.6-36.0 % higher productivity per plant as compared with the winter rape cv. ‘Accord’, cv. ‘Casino’, cv. ‘Valesca’ and cv. ‘Kazimir’. The best overwinter survival (93.5 %) was demonstrated by the plants of the winter rape cv. ‘Valesca’. It was by 12.1 % higher as compared with the standar variety. The highest crude fat content was found in the seeds of winter rape cv.’Apex’, cv. ‘Accord’ and cv. ‘Kazimir’ – 44.4-44.8 %. Glucosinolate content found in the tested varietes was 11.2-11.7 m mol/g, and was lower than 20 m mol/g limiting amount according to the standard (LST 1323:1993).

Key words: winter rape, varietes, overwinter survival, seed yielding capability, seed quality.

 

III skyrius. AUGALØ CHEMINË SUDËTIS

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 73, 194-209

UDK 633.16:631.526.32:631.559:581.19

VEISLËS ÁTAKA VASARINIØ MIEÞIØ GRÛDØ KOKYBËS IR DERLINGUMO VARIACIJAI BEI ÐIØ RODIKLIØ TARPUSAVIO PRIKLAUSOMUMUI

Audron

ë MAÐAUSKIENË, Vanda PAPLAUSKIENË, Algë LEISTRUMAITË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuvos sen., Këdainiø rajonas

El. paðtas: lzeminst@lzi.lt

Santrauka

1994-1998 metais Dotnuvoje iðtirti vasariniø mieþiø selekcinës medþiagos grûdø kokybës rodikliai: þaliø baltymø, krakmolo kiekiai, 1000 grûdø masë, natûrinis grûdø svoris bei derlingumas. Tirtose vasariniø mieþiø grupëse – standartiniø veisliø, kolekcijos veisliø, kuriamø veisliø ir linijø – grûdø derlingumo ir kokybës rodikliø kasmet varia

cijà sàlygojo meteorologinës sàlygos, agrotechnikos ir dirvoþemio mikroávairovë. Didþiausia variacija, iðreikðta variacijos koeficientais, pasiþymëjo grûdø derliaus duomenys: kolekcijos – 11,9-26,5 %, kuriamø veisliø ir linijø – 7,0-12,7 %, standartiniø veisliø – 2,9-6,7 %. Mieþiø grûdø krakmolingumo ir natûrinio grûdø svorio duomenø variacija maþa – 0,9-3,3 %, o variacijos skirtumai tarp kolekcijos ir kuriamø veisliø bei linijø nedideli.

Þaliø baltymø kiekis mieþiø grûduose esant ðiltiems ir sausiems liepos mënesio orams 1995 ir 1997 metais buvo atitinkamai 10,6-14,9 % ir 11,3-16,9 %, o 1998 metais, kai liepos mënuo buvo vësus ir lietingas – 9,6-13,6 %. Mieþiø grûdø baltymingumui ir derlingumui didesnës átakos turëjo meteorologinës sàlygos, o ne genetinis v

eislës potencialas.

Vidutinio stiprumo, daþniausiai statistiðkai patikima neigiama koreliacija sieja baltymø ir krakmolo kaupimo procesus vasariniø mieþiø grûduose. Daþniausiai neigiama, silpna arba vidutinë baltymø kiekio grûduose koreliacija su grûdø derliumi, 1000 grûdø mase ir natûriniu grûdø svoriu. Didëjant grûdø derliui, natûrinis grûdø svoris ir 1000 grûdø masë daþniausiai taip pat bûna didesni.

Atskirose bandiniø grupëse tø paèiø rodikliø koreliacijos stiprumas nebuvo vienodas: 01 tikimybës lygá atitinkanti vidutinio stiprumo neigiama koreliacija kasmet pasireiðkë tarp baltymø ir krakmolo kiekio kolekcijos ir kuriamø veisliø bei linijø serijose, o vienos veislës ribose ðios koreliacijos tikimybë buvo þymiai maþesnë; vienos veislës ribose 05 ir dides

nës tikimybës lygio neigiama vidutinio stiprumo koreliacija buvo tarp grûdø baltymingumo ir natûrinio grûdø svorio.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: vasariniai mieþiai, veislës, selekcinës linijos, grûdai, kokybë, derlingumas, variacija, koreliacija.

Chapter 3. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PLANTS

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 73, 194-209

UDK 633.16:631.526.32:631.559:581.19

THE EFFECT OF CULTIVAR ON THE VARIATION OF SPRING BARLEY GRAIN QUALITY AND YIELD, AND CORRELATION AMONG THESE INDICATORS

A. Maðauskienë, V. Paplauskienë, A. Leistrumaitë

Summary

In 1994-1998 quality indicators of spring barley breeding material such as crude protein, starch, thousand kernel weight, hectoliter weight, yield were investigated in Dotnuva. In the groups of samples of check varieties, collection, new varieties and breeding lines the variation of grain yield and grain quality depended on meteorological conditions, technological and soil micro diversity. Grain yield had the greatest variation coefficient collection varieties – 11.9-26.5 %, new varieties and breeding lines 7.0-12.7 %, check varieties 2.9-6.7 %. The variation of grain starch, and volume weight was small 0.9-3.3 %, and the differences between collection varieties and breeding lines in these variations were rather small.

The impact of meteorological conditions on the grain yield and protein content was of greater importance is compared with the influence of gene peculiarity.

Protein content in spring barley grain was different every year. The highest protein content was accumulated in 1995 and 1997, when the weather in July was warm and dry: 10.6-14.9 % and 11.3-16.9 % respectively, and lower when July was cool and rainy in 1998 – 9.6-13.6 %.

A medium negative correlation was established between the protein content and starch content. A strong correlation (LSD05

) was established in the group of check varieties ‘Roland’ and ‘Ûla’ negative between protein content and volume weight, and in the group of collection varieties, new varieties and breeding lines negative between protein and starch contents.

Key words: spring barley, cultivars, breeding lines, grain, quality, yield, variation, correlation.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 73, 210-221

UDK 633.16«321»:631.526.32:581.19

VASARINIØ MIEÞIØ VEISLIØ IR SELEKCINIØ LINIJØ GRÛDØ SALYKLINIØ SAVYBIØ ÁVERTINIMAS

Vanda PAPLAUSKIENË, Audronë MAÐAUSKIENË, Algë LEISTRUMAITË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuvos sen., Këdainiø rajonas

El. paðtas: lzeminst@lzi.lt

Santrauka

1995-1998

m. Dotnuvoje iðtirti selekciniuose pasëliuose augintø mieþiø grûdø ir salyklo kokybës rodikliai. Ið kasmet tiriamø 45-49 mieþiø bandiniø salykliniams mieþiams keliamus grûdø kokybës reikalavimus atitiko pagal stambiø grûdø iðeigà – 52,4-95,6 %, pagal neapdorotø baltymø kieká – 2,3-76,0 % bandiniø. Grûdø kokybës variacijà sàlygojo meteorologinës sàlygos. Didesni baltymø kiekiai mieþiø grûduose sukaupti esant ðiltiems ir sausiems orams. Padidintas baltymø kiekis mieþiø grûduose neigiamai átakojo salyklo ekstraktingumà, koreliacijos koeficientas tarp minëtø rodikliø patikimas neigiamas, r = -0,30 ¸ -0,51. Tarp krakmolo kiekio grûduose ir salyklo ekstraktingumo koreliacija silpna, bet statistiðkai patikima, r = 0,39-0,43. 1997 metais ryðys tarp ðiø rodikliø nenustatytas.

Vidutiniais tyrimø duomenimis, gerø salykliniø savybiø buvo standartinës veislës ‘Auksiniai 3’ ir selekciniø linijø Nr.6121-2 ir Nr.6782-33 mieþiø grûdai.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: vasariniai mieþiai, veislës, selekcinës linijos, salyklas, baltymai, krakmolas, stambiø grûdø iðeiga, ekstraktingumas, Kolbacho skaièius, misos spalva.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 73, 210-221

UDK 633.16«321»:631.526.32:581.19

EVALUATION OF GRAIN AND MALT QUALITY OF SPRING BARLEY VARIETIES AND BREEDING LINES

V. Paplauskienë, A. Maðauskienë, A. Leistrumaitë

Summary

In 1995-1998 grain and malt quality indicators of spring barley varieties and breeding lines were investigated in Dotnuva. Out of the annually evaluated 45-49 samples of spring barley, the quality reguirements were met by: 52.4-95.6 % according to coarse grain output, 2.3-76.0 % according to crude protein content. The variation of grain and malt quality depended on meteorological conditions. The highest protein content was accumulated when the weather was warm and dry. The increase of protein content in spring barley grains negatively correlated with malt extract, coefficient of correlation between those indicators r = -0.30 ¸ -0.51. Starch content positively correlated with malt extract r = 0.39 - 0.43. In 1997 no connection between these indicators was established.

According to the average data of four years (1995-1998) ‘Auksiniai 3’ and breeding lines No.6121-2 and No.6782-33 were distiguished as having good malting qualities .

Key words: spring barley, variety, breeding line, malt, protein, starch, grain grading, extract content, Kolbah index, wort colour.

 

IV skyrius. ÞOLININKYSTË

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 73, 222-238

UDK [633.321+633.24]:631.584.5

RAUDONØJØ DOBILØ IR PAÐARINIØ MOTIEJUKØ VEISLIØ BEI SËKLOS SANTYKIO DERINIAI DVINARIUOSE MIÐINIUOSE

Vytautas ÞEMAITIS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuvos sen., Këdainiø rajonas

El. paðtas: jonasgut@lzi.lt

Regina GIPIÐKIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filialas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

El. paðtas: filialas.gargzdai@omnitel.net

Santrauka

1993-1999 m. Liet

uvos þemdirbystës institute (naðûs velëniniai glëjiðki priemolio dirvoþemiai) ir jo Vëþaièiø filiale (maþiau naðûs velëniniai jauriniai pakalkinti priemolio dirvoþemiai) daryta po 3 bandymus. Juose po 2 ir 3 metus tirtas raudonøjø ankstyvøjø diploidiniø dobilø ‘Liepsna’ ir tetraploidiniø ‘Vyliai’ bei vëlyvøjø diploidiniø ‘Arimaièiai’ gausumas ir derlingumas dvinariuose miðiniuose su paðariniais motiejukais ‘Gintaras II’ ir 2 savaitëmis vëlyvesniais ‘Vëlenis’. Dobilø ir motiejukø santykis miðiniuose - atitinkamai 80:20 ir 50:50, arba 12,0:2,4 kg ir 7,5: 6,0 kg/ha 100 % ûkinës vertës sëklos.

Vidutiniais duomenimis, naðesniuose dirvoþemiuose þolës sudygo þymiai tankiau ir pirmà þiemà dobilø iðnyko maþiau, visø miðiniø sausøjø medþiagø derlius pirmais naudojimo metais buvo vidutiniðkai 2,8 t/ha, arba 29 % didesnis, jame buvo daugiau dobilø ir maþiau ávairiaþoliø. Taèiau svarbiausiø rodikliø skirtumø tarp þolynø pobûdis abiejuose dirvoþemiuose buvo panaðus.

Per dvejus metus derlingiausi buvo gausiau iðsilaikiusi

ø dobilø ‘Vyliai’ ir ‘Arimaièiai’ miðiniai. Abiejose vietose jø 1 ha sausøjø medþiagø derlius buvo nuo 5 iki 16 % didesnis negu ‘Liepsna’ miðiniø. Motiejukai ‘Vëlenis’, palyginti su ‘Gintaras II’, maþiau konkurencingi - su jais dobilø, ypaè ‘Arimaièiai’, ir ávairiaþoliø derliuje buvo daugiau, o paèiø motiejukø maþiau ir bendras sausøjø medþiagø derlius buvo maþesnis. Dobilø ‘Vyliai’ ir ‘Liepsna’ paðaras buvo maistingesnis negu ‘Arimaièiai’. Pastarøjø dobilø su motiejukais ‘Vëlenis’ geriau negu su ‘Gintaras II’ sutapo branda pjûties metu - paðaras buvo geresnis.

Komponentø sëklos santykis miðinyje labiau átakojo motiejukø negu dobilø dalá derliuje, o derliaus dydá ir kokybæ maþai keitë. Þieminiø kvieèiø derlius, auginant juos po dvejø ar trejø naudojimo metø ávairiø miðiniø, skyrësi nedaug. Dvejiems naudojimo metams geresniuose dirvoþemiuose augintini dobilø ‘Vyliai’ ir ‘Arimaièiai’ miðiniai su motiejukais ‘Gintaras II’, prastesniuose - ‘Vyliai’ su ‘Gintaras II’, o dobilø ‘Arimaièiai’, siekiant geresnio paðar

o - su motiejukais ‘Vëlenis’. Dobilø ‘Arimaièiai’ miðiniai naudotini pagal 1999 m. parengtà rekomendacijà /17/.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: raudonieji dobilai, paðariniai motiejukai, veislës, sëklos santykis, iðsilaikymas, derlius, botaninë sudëtis.

Chapter 4. GRASSLAND HUSBANDRY

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 73, 222-238

UDK [633.321+633.24]:631.584.5

COMBINATIONS OF VARIOUS VARIETIES AND SEED RATIO OF RED CLOVER AND COMMON TIMOTHY IN BINARY MIXTURES

V. Þemaitis, R. Gipiðkienë

Summary

Over the period 1993-1999 in the Vëþaièiai Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture field trials were carried out with the aim to comparing the persistence in the grassland and productivity of various red clover varieties. The early varieties ‘Liepsna’ and ‘Vyliai’ and the late variety ‘Arimaièiai’ were sown in mixtures with the common timothy varieties ‘Gintaras II’ and ‘Vëlenis’ at a ratio of 80 : 20 and 50 : 50.

It was established that on soddy podzolic light loam limed soils the red clover

varieties ‘Vyliai’ and ‘Arimaièiai’ in mixture with common timothy abundantly persisted for two years of use. They produced a higher dry matter yield (by 16 and 18 %), amount of metabolisable energy (by 19 % and 15 %) and digestible protein (by 20 and 5 %), than the clover variety ‘Liepsna’.

Different seed ratio of red clover and common timothy had the same effect on the stand density of red clover and on botanical composition of clover-timothy mixture but had no essential impact on the yield of clover-timothy mixture.

The tetraploid red clover ‘Vyliai’ is best to sow in mixture with common timothy ‘Gintaras II’, late variety ‘Arimaièiai’ in mixture with timothy ‘Vëlenis’.

Key words: red clover, common timothy, combination, mixture, variety, seed ratio, persistence.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 73, 239-251

UDK 633.2.033.004.69:631.559

SKIRTINGØ ÞOLYNØ ATSËLIAVIMO ÁTAKA GANYKLØ PRODUKTYVUMUI IR FITOCENOZIØ KAITAI

Nijolë DAUGËLIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filialas

Gargþdø 29, Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

El. paðtas: filialas@ gargzdai. omnitel.net

Santrauka

Straipsnyje nagrinëjami

1979-1998 metais vykdyto ilgalaikio stacionarinio bandymo duomenys. Bandyme buvo pasëti ávairûs ankðtiniø ir varpiniø bei varpiniø þoliø miðiniai, kurie periodiðkai kas penkeri metai persëti. Neatsëliuoti þolynai derëjo geriausiai: raudonøjø dobilø ir varpiniø þolynas davë 4,89, baltøjø dobilø ir varpiniø – 5,37, o varpiniø, gausiai (N240) træðiant azotu, – 7,16 t/ha sausøjø medþiagø derliø. Atsëliavus du kartus, sausøjø medþiagø derlius maþëjo tokia eile: baltøjø dobilø ir varpiniø – 1,37, varpiniø – 1,79 ir raudonøjø dobilø ir varpiniø – 2,41 t/ha. Didþiausià átakà krituliai turëjo treèiojo ganymo sausøjø medþiagø derliui (h = 0,75). Ankðtiniø ir varpiniø þolynuose derlingesnis buvo treèiasis, o varpiniø - antrasis ganymas. Tikrieji eraièinai geriausiai plito neatsëliuojami. Pievinës miglës ir paðariniai motiejukai gerai augo ir vienà kartà atsëliuoti. Daugiametës svidrës ir paðariniai motiejukai, atsëliuojami du kartus, vyravo tiktai pirmaisiais ir antraisiais naudojimo metais.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: þolynai, atsëliavimas, derlius, botaninë sudëtis.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 73, 239-251

UDK 633.2.033.004.69:631.559

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SWARDS RE-SOWING ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF PASTURES AND CHANGE OF PHYTOCENOSES

N. Daugëlienë

Summary

The article presents the results of a long-term experiment conducted over the period 1979-1998. In the experiment we sowed various legume-grass and grass-legume mixtures, which were periodically re-sowed (every five years). Non re-sown swards produced the highest yield: red clover - grass sward produced a dry matter yield of 4.89 t/ha, white clover-grass sward - 5.37 t/ha and grass sward heavily fertilised with nitrogen (N240) - 7.16 t/ha. When the sward had been re-sowed twice the dry matter yield declined in the following order: white clover-legume - 1.37 t/ha, grass - 1.79 t/ha, red clover and grass - 2.41 t/ha. Precipitation had the greatest effect on the dry matter yield of the third grazing h = 0.75. In legume and grass more productive was third grazing, and in grass swards the second grazing. Meadow fescue spread best when it had not been re-sown. Smooth stalked meadow grass and common timothy grew well even when re-sown once. Perennial ryegrass and common timothy when re-sown twice were prevalent only in the first and second years of use.

Key words: pasture grass, re-sowing, yield, botanical composition.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 73, 252-260

UDK 631.584.4:633.2.033.004.69

TARPINIAI AUGALAI PERSËJAMOSE GANYKLOSE

Elvyra BUTKUVIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vëþaièiø filialas

Vëþaièiai, Klaipëdos rajonas

El. paðtas: filialas@gargzdai.omnitel.net

Santrauka

Kokie tarpiniai augalai labiausiai tinka persëjamose ganyklose, tirta 1991-1998 m. LÞI Vëþaièiø filialo 6-8 metø ganykloje. Ganykla buvo persëjama be tarpiniø augalø ir po tarpiniø augalø: kaupiamøjø, javø ir þaliøjø paðarø. Tarpiniai augala

i auginti vienerius metus.

Nustatyta, kad vidutiniðkai per penkerius metus (dveji rengimo ir treji naudojimo metai)

didþiausias derliaus priedas (1094 paðariniai vienetai) gautas, kai ganykla buvo persëjama po tarpiniø augalø þaliam paðarui. Taèiau ganyklø persëjimas po þaliø paðarø buvo nuostolingas. Kiek maþesnis (993 paðariniai vienetai) derliaus priedas buvo auginant tarpinius augalus bulves. Persëjus ganyklà po javø patikimo derliaus priedo negauta. Negauta patikimo priedo ir persëjant ganyklà be tarpiniø augalø.

Ganyklas persëjus tiek po tarpiniø augalø, tiek ir be jø, didëjo ankðtiniø þoliø þolyne. Skirtingi tarpiniai augalai neturëjo þymesnës átakos ankðtinëms þolëms plisti. Po tarpiniø augalø persëtos ganyklos þolynas buvo maþiau piktþolëtas, negu persëjus be jø.

Atlikus tyrimus paaiðkëjo, kad naudingiausia ganyklà persëti po tarpiniø augalø bulviø. Ganyklø persëjimas po javø prilygsta ganyklø persëjimui be tarpiniø augalø. Tarpinius augalus þaliam paðarui reiktø auginti tik bûtiniausiu atveju, kai trûksta gyvuliams paðarø.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: sena ganykla, persëta ganykla, tarpiniai augalai, bulvës, javai, þali paðarai.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 73, 252-260

UDK 631.584.4:633.2.033.004.69

CATCH CROPS IN RESOWN PASTURES

E. Butkuvienë

Summary

Trials were carried out in 1991-1998. The trials were arranged in the pasture of six to eight years of use with 35 to 75 % of grasses, about 5 to 20 % of legumes and 15 to 40 % of forbs.

The pasture was resown without catch crops or after catch crops: potatoes, cereal crops, green forages crops. The best results were obtained when the pasture was resown after catch crops potatoes. In this case the yield of dry matter was by 0.58 t/ha higher. The resowing of pasture after cereal crops was equal to resowing of pasture without catch crops. The resowing of pasture after green forage crops was unprofitable.

The resowing of pasture without catch crops or after catch crops increased the amount of grasses and decreased the amount of forbs.

Key words: nonresown pasture, resown pasture, catch crops, potatoes, cereal crops, green forage crops.

 

V skyrius. AUGAL

Ø SELEKCIJA

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 73, 261-266

UDK 633.491:631.527

BULVIØ VEISLË ‘GODA’

Almantas RAÞUKAS

, Juozas JUNDULAS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filialas

Trakø Vokë, Vilnius

El. paðtas: vokefil@takas.lt

Santrauka

Bulviø veislë ‘Goda’ sukurta Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filiale. Veislës savininkas – LÞI Vokës filialas. Bulviø veislë ‘Goda’ registruota Valstybiniame augalø veisliø tyrimo centre.

Veislë ankstyva, atspari bulviniams nematodams ir vëþiui, maistinës paskirties. Straipsnyje nurodomos ûkinës veislës savybës, pateikiamas jos kûrimo procesas, biologinë charakteristika.

Reikð

miniai þodþiai: bulvës, bulviø selekcija, atsparumas ligoms.

Chapter 5. PLANT BREEDING

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 73, 261-266

UDK 633.491:631.527

POTATO CULTIVAR ‘GODA’

A. Raþukas, J. Jundulas

Summary

The potato cultivar ‘

Goda’ was bred at the Vokë Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture. A hybrid cross was done beetween perants ‘Franzi’ x ‘Ausonia’.

The cultivar ‘Goda’ is an early table potato. Tubers are round oval, skin is light yellow, flesh is yellow, with shallow eyes. Tubers have little reducing sugars, good taste. It is suitable for processing industry. Starch content – 17 %.

The cultivar is immune to potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis Ro1 patotype and wart Synchtrium endobioticum (Schilb.). Foliage as well as tubers have a good field resistance to late blight (Phytophtora infestans). The cultivar ‘Goda’ is slightly susceptible to virus infection, it has a high resistance to other fungal and bacterial diseases. Storage characteristics are good.

Key words: potatoes, potato breeding, resistance to diseases.

 

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë. Mokslo darbai, 2001, 73, 267-274

UDK [633.262+633.264+633.361]:631.527

BEGINKLIØ DIRSUOLIØ, NENDRINIØ ERAIÈINØ, RAUDONØJØ ERAIÈINØ IR ESPARCETØ SELEKCIJA

Gediminas ALMANTAS

Lietuvos þemdirbystës instituto Vokës filialas

Trakø Vokë, Vilnius

El. paðtas: vokefil@takas.lt

Santrauka

Daugiameèiø þoliø – beginkliø dirsuoliø, nendriniø eraièinø ir raudonøjø eraièinø – selekcija LÞI Vokës filiale buvo vykdoma 1974-1997 m., esparcetø – 1957-1997 m. Per ðá laikotarpá beginkliø dirsuoliø iðtirti 1103, nendriniø eraièinø – 435, raudonøjø eraièinø – 452 ir esparcetø – 924 pavyzdþiai pagal svarbias biologines ir ûkiðkai naudingas savybes. Sukurta beginkliø dirsuoliø veislës ‘Skalva’, ‘Barta’ ir ‘Galinda’, nendriniø eraièinø – ‘Sëlis’, ‘Jotvingis’ ir ‘Navas’, raudonøjø eraièinø – ‘Gojus’ bei sëjamøjø esparcetø – ‘Þilvinai’ ir ‘Meduviai’. 1997 m., nutraukus ðiø þoliø selekcijà, minëtos veislës bei vertingiausi selekciniai numeriai saugomi Nacionaliniame augalø genetiniø iðtekliø koordinavimo centre.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: beginklës dirsuolës, nendriniai eraièinai, raudonieji eraièinai, esparcetai, selekcija, atranka, hibridizacija, veislës.

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 73, 267-274

UDK [633.262+633.264+633.361]:631.527

BREEDING OF SMOOTH BROME GRASS, TALL FESCUE, RED FESCUE AND SAINFOIN

G. Almantas

Summary

Over the period 1974-1997 smooth brome grass, tall fescue, red fescue and over 1957-1997 sainfoin bree

ding was carried out at the Vokë Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture. 1103 accessions of brome grass, 435 of tall fescue, 452 of red fescue and 924 ones of sainfoin were tested for the main biological and economic properties. The cultivars ‘Skalva’, ‘Barta’ and ‘Galinda’ of smooth brome grass, ‘Sëlis’, ‘Jotvingis’ and ‘Navas’ of tall fescue, ‘Gojus’ of red fescue also ‘Þilvinai’ and ‘Meduviai’ of sainfoin have been developed. In 1997 breeding of the above mentioned grasses was discontinued. These varieties and the best accessions have been placed in the Lithuanian Gene Bank.

Key words: smooth brome grass, tall fescue, red fescue, sainfoin, breeding, selection, hybridization, varieties.

 

VI skyrius. MIKROBIOLOGIJA

ISSN 1392-3196

Þemdirbystë.

Mokslo darbai, 2001, 73, 275-284

UDK 631.461:631.51:631.582

DIRVOÞEMIO BIOLOGINIO AKTYVUMO KAITA ÁDIRBANT ÞEMÆ SUNKIUOJU KULTIVATORIUMI KÈ-5,1

Aldona SVIRSKIENË

Lietuvos þemdirbystës institutas

Akademija, Dotnuvos sen., Këdainiø rajonas

El. paðtas: inform_sk@lzi.lt

Santrauka

1989-1997 m. Lietuvos þemdirbystës institute, Dotnuvoje, sukultûrintame maþai piktþolëtame velëniniame glëjiðkame pajaurëjusiame lengvame priemolyje, devynlaukëje sëjomainoje, dviejuose stacionariniuose lauko bandymuose tiriant pagrindinio þemës dirbimo minimalizavimà (rudeniná þemës arimà 22-25 cm gyliu pakeitus beverstuviniu purenimu kultivatoriumi KÈ-5,1 (èizeliu) 20-22 cm gyliu kasmet, 1, 2, 3 ir 4 kartus) buvo atliekami ir dirvoþemio mikrobiologiniai tyrimai. Nustatyta, kad, ru

dená þemæ ádirbus sunkiuoju kultivatoriumi KÈ-5,1, armens bendras biologinis aktyvumas, vertinant mikroorganizmø paplitimà ir fermentø aktyvumà, nesumaþëjo, bet 0-10 cm sluoksnyje daþnai ir padidëjo, ypaè kai purenta kasmet ir 4 kartus sëjomainoje, o 10-20 cm sluoksnyje jis turëjo tendencijà maþëti, palyginus su arimu 22-25 cm gyliu. Armens biologinis aktyvumas, ypaè su azoto reþimu susijusiø azotobakteriø ir mineraliná azotà asimiliuojanèiø bakterijø paplitimas bei ureazës aktyvumas, taip pat mineralizacijos koeficientas buvo truputá didesni skustoje verstuviniu skutiku dirvoje, palyginus su skusta ir lëkðèiuota dirva. Mikrobiologiniø tyrimø duomenys leidþia spræsti apie cukriniø runkeliø derliaus maþëjimo tendencijos, naudojant kultivatoriø KÈ-5,1, prieþastis.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: dirvoþemis, mikroorganizmai, fermentai, sëjomaina, arimas, purenimas.

Chapter 6. MICROBIOLOGY

ISSN 1392-3196

Agriculture. Scientific articles, 2001, 73, 275-284

UDK 631.461:631.51:631.582

EFFECT OF THE USE OF A HEAVY CULTIVATOR

KÈ-5.1 AT DIFFERENT FREQUENCY IN A CROP ROTATION ON THE BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SOIL

A. Svirskienë

Summary

Soil microbiological tests were carried out over the period 1989-1997 at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in Dotnuva on a cultivated, soddy gleyic podzolized light loamy soil with a low weed incidence. Two long-term field experiments were set up with a view to ascertaining possibilities of minimisation of primary soil tillage by replacing autumn soil tillage at the 23-25 cm depth by mouldboar

dless loosening by a cultivator KÈ-5.1 (chisel) at the 20-22 cm depth annualy, 1, 2, 3 and 4 times in a nine-course crop rotation. It was determined that when a heavy cultivator KÈ-5.1 was used for autumn soil tillage, the total biological activity of the arable layer, in terms of occurrence of microorganisms and enzyme activity, did not decline, but in many cases increased in the 0-10 cm layer, especially when the soil was loosened annualy 4 times in a rotation, while in the 10-20 cm layer as tended to decline. Biological activity of the arable layer, especially the occurrence of azotobacters linked with the regime of nitrogen, and that of mineral nitrogen assimilating bacteria and the activity of urease, as well as mineralisation coefficient was slightly higher in the soil stubble-broken by a mouldboard stubble-breaker than in the stubble-broken and disked soil.

Key words: soil biological activity, occurrence of microorganisms, enzymic activity, soil ploughing, mouldboardless chisel loosening, crop rotation.

 

·Raðykite mums: lzi@lzi.lt