106(2)_str21

 

ISSN 1392-3196 / e-ISSN 2335-8947
Zemdirbyste-Agriculture, vol. 106, No. 2 (2019), p. 159–166
DOI  10.13080/z-a.2019.106.021

SSR analysis based on molecular characterisation of apple germplasm in Lithuania

Ingrida MAŽEIKIENĖ, Jūratė Bronė ŠIKŠNIANIENĖ, Danas BANIULIS, Dalia GELVONAUSKIENĖ, Birutė FRERCKS, Aurelijus STARKUS, Audronė ŽEBRAUSKIENĖ, Vidmantas STANYS

Abstract

The survival of apple trees in old and abandoned orchards over 100 years indicates their adaptation to the local environment. These plants have passed an economic and ecological selection over the years. The structure of genetic diversity of apple germplasm in the old orchards of Lithuania is largely unknown. We applied a common set of 7 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to genotype 292 accessions across more than 50 geographic locations representing all Lithuanian geographic regions with the aim of analysing the distribution and structure of variation of the apple genetic resources. Eighty-one polymorphic alleles were identified. Of these, 5 alleles were unique, identified only in four individual genotypes. The COL locus was the most homozygous (44.7%) among the cultivars and clones of the apple; however, the part of the germplasm may be heterozygous for null-alleles and those individuals cannot be distinguished from the homozygous ones. The CH02c11 locus was the most heterozygous (90.0%) in the reference cultivars; meanwhile the CH04e05 locus was the most heterozygous (84.4%) among the analysed genotypes. Triploid genotypes constituted 12.5% among the analysed genotypes. A cluster analysis revealed 5 distinct clusters among the 182 diploid apple genotypes collected from the old orchards. According to molecular marker data, the names of 12 apple cultivars were attributed to 45 analysed unknown genotypes. It was found that traditional apple cultivars ‘Popierinis’, ‘Paprastasis antaninis’ and ‘Pilkasis molinis’ were the most prevalent cultivars in the old orchards. The apple genotypes that have survived in old orchards are valuable sources of traits for breeding as well as of high ecological, economic and heritage importance. Their use in breeding programs would significantly extend the diversity of adaptive genes of the domestic apple.

Key words: genetic resources of apple, identification of cultivar, Malus × domestica, microsatellite markers.

Full text: 106_2_str21.pdf