ISSN 1392-3196 / e-ISSN 2335-8947
Zemdirbyste-Agriculture, vol. 105, No. 4 (2018), p. 323–330
The productivity, quality and bread-making properties of organically and conventionally grown winter rye
Malle JÄRVAN, Lea LUKME, Ilme TUPITS, Ann AKK
Rye in combination with wheat is the major bread grain in northern Europe. Consuming rye whole grain products provides a rich source of dietary fibre as well as several bioactive compounds with potentially positive health implications. Due to limited research data concerning rye growing under different cultivation systems, there is also a lack of information on the influence of these systems on the quality properties of rye breads. The goal of the research was to compare the responses of rye to the conditions of organic and conventional management. The analysed properties included grain yield and quality, followed by the quality properties of whole grain flour, and ending with those of the end-product. Baking tests were carried out by using sourdough fermentation, and the pasting behaviours of rye flours were assessed using the Brabender Viscograph. Rye was grown on a sandy loam Albic Stagnic Luvisol (LVab-st) in a five-year crop rotation. Red clover was ploughed into the soil as green manure before rye sowing. For the organic treatment, no agrichemicals were used. For the conventional treatment, mineral fertilizers (N83P30K75 kg ha-1 in total) and herbicides were applied.
The results of this seven-year experiment showed that the grain yield by the organic treatment was 64% of that obtained by the conventional treatment. For the conventional treatment, the protein content was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than for the organic treatment. An inverse correlation (r = −0.596) was determined between protein and starch contents of rye whole grain flour. Although several differences occurred in the flour properties and fluctuations in the viscograms for the organic and conventional treatments, no significant differences in the properties of breads were established between the treatments. Consequently, the breads baked by using whole grain flour derived from organically and conventionally cultivated rye were practically of the same quality.
Keywords: falling number, grain yield, loaf volume, protein, sourdough, starch.
Full text: 105_4_str41.pdf