104(1)_str3

 

ISSN 1392-3196 / e-ISSN 2335-8947
Zemdirbyste-Agriculture, vol. 104, No. 1 (2017), p. 15–22
DOI  10.13080/z-a.2017.104.003

Reaction of winter spelt cultivars to reduced tillage system and chemical plant protection

Sylwia ANDRUSZCZAK

Abstract

A three-factor field experiment evaluated grain yield, yield components and some grain quality traits (Zeleny sedimentation value and the contents of protein, gluten, starch, carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin and amino acids) of eight winter spelt cultivars as influenced by the tillage system (conventional and reduced tillage) and chemical plant protection (application of two herbicides: Mustang 306 SE and Attribut 70 WG, a fungicide Alert 375 SC and a growth regulator Stabilan 750 SL). Plots without the use of plant protection chemicals were the control treatment.

Yield and chemical composition of spelt grain were most dependent on the genetic determinants of the individual cultivar, but it is possible to affect yield quantity and quality through agronomic factors. The highest grain yields were produced by the cultivars ‘Badengold’, ‘Ceralio’, ‘Frankenkorn’ and ‘Ostro’, while in terms of grain quality the most valuable were cvs. ‘Ceralio’ and ‘Ostro’. Under the conditions of reduced tillage system, the spelt grain yields were significantly lower than under the conventional tillage, but the evaluated cultivars responded differently to this factor. The highest reduction in yield compared to conventional soil tillage was found for the cvs. ‘Oberkulmer Rotkorn’, ‘Spelt I.N.Z.’ and ‘Schwabenkorn’, while the lowest one for cv. ‘Ceralio’. On the other hand, the ploughless tillage contributed to a significant increase in Zeleny sedimentation value as well as in grain protein and gluten content, whereas the starch content decreased. At the same time, the grain amino acid content was at a similar level under both tillage systems. Chemical plant protection significantly increased the Zeleny sedimentation value and the grain protein content. The number of ears per 1 m2 and grain yields also increased and the highest yield increase compared to the treatment without chemical plant protection products was achieved by the cvs. ‘Schwabenkorn’, ‘Spelt I.N.Z.’ and ‘Frankenkorn’.

Key words: amino acids content, grain quality, herbicides, ploughless tillage, yield structure.

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