Zemdirbyste-Agriculture, vol. 100, No. 1 (2013), p. 45–56
UDK 633.111:631.47:631.8 / DOI 10.13080/z-a.2013.100.007
Evaluation of productivity and quality of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and spelt (Triticum spelta L.) in relation to nutrition conditions
Danutė JABLONSKYTĖ-RAŠČĖ, Stanislava MAIKŠTĖNIENĖ, Audronė MANKEVIČIENĖ
Field experiments were conducted at the Joniškėlis Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry during 2009–2012. The study was aimed to explore the effects of the ecological fertilizer Ekoplant and the bio-activators Biokal 01 and Terra Sorb Foliar on the formation of the productivity elements, grain yield and quality of spelt (Triticum spelta L.) cv. ‘Franckenkorn’ and common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. ‘Toras’ in an organic cropping system on an clay loam Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol (CMg-n-w-can). The weather conditions, especially those during crop wintering, differed between years and this affected the grain yield of both winter wheat species and resulted in different fertilizer efficacy. In 2010 and 2012, the winter wheat crops overwintered well and the yield of common wheat was by 27.6% and 30.1%, respectively higher than that of spelt. In 2011, due to the contrasting winter conditions with a spell of unusually high temperatures in January followed by a sharp drop of temperature to −25°C the crop of common wheat thinned out more than spelt, which resulted in a significantly lower common wheat grain yield. In 2010 and 2011, the application of ecological fertilizer Ekoplant as well as in combination with Biokal 01 and Terra Sorb Foliar led to an increase in the values of biometric indicators, i.e. stem mass, ear length and mass, grain number per ear significantly increased having used Ekoplant fertilizer in combination with Terra Sorb Foliar. However, in 2012, Biokal 01 exerted the most marked positive effect on the biometric indicators of wheat. The highest yield increase for both wheat species was observed when Ekoplant fertilizer had been used in combination with the bio-activator Biokal 01. The Ekoplant fertilizer as well as in combination with the bio-activator Biokal 01 did not have any significant effect on grain quality indicators, while the bio-activator Biokal 01 increased the protein and gluten content by 2.2% and 3.4%, respectively.
Key words: bio-activators, common wheat and spelt, ecological fertilizer, productivity elements, quality, yield.
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