Zemdirbyste-Agriculture, vol. 100, No. 1 (2013), p. 25–32
UDK 631.4:631.582:632.51 / DOI 10.13080/z-a.2013.100.004
The influence of primary soil tillage on soil weed seed bank and weed incidence in a cereal-grass crop rotation
Regina SKUODIENĖ, Danutė KARČAUSKIENĖ, Steponas ČIUBERKIS, Regina REPŠIENĖ, Dalia AMBRAZAITIENĖ
A field experiment was carried out at Vėžaičiai Branch of Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry during the period 2008–2011. The study was aimed to determine the effects of various soil tillage methods: deep ploughing (20–25 cm), shallow ploughing (10–12 cm), shallow ploughless tillage (8–10 cm) and soil fertility improvement measures (plant residues, plant residues + straw, green manure 1st cut + straw, green manure 2nd cut + straw, farmyard manure 40 t ha-1 + straw) on the soil weed seed bank and weed incidence in a cereal-grass crop rotation. The soil of the experimental site is Dystric-Epihypogleyic Albeluvisol (ABg-p-w-dy) with a texture of sandy loam.
In all experimental years, primary soil tillage had a significant influence on weed incidence in the crops of the rotation and on soil weed seed bank. The greatest amount of weeds, both in numbers and dry mass, in the crops of winter triticale and spring rape was determined in the shallow ploughless tillage treatment, in the crops of spring barley in the shallow ploughing treatment, and in the sward of red clover in deep and shallow ploughing treatments. All soil fertility improvement measures and their interaction with soil tillage methods did not have any substantial influence on the weed incidence in the rotation crops. The soil weed seed bank was 1.5 and 2.2 times greater in the shallow ploughing and shallow ploughless tillage treatments, compared with the conventional tillage treatment (deep ploughing). The influence of soil tillage methods manifested itself not only directly, but also through its interaction with soil fertility improvement measures. Regardless of the chosen soil fertility improvement measure, in all the treatments of shallow ploughless tillage, the soil weed seed bank was significantly greater, compared with the conventional soil tillage treatments.
In the shallow ploughing and shallow ploughless tillage treatments there were found 25.5% and 41.5% more weed seed species in the soil, compared with the conventional tillage treatment. The seeds of Chenopodium album L., Persicaria lapathifolia L., Fallopia convolvulus L. and Viola arvensis Murray were found in all tillage treatments. The distribution of F. convolvulus L., P. lapathifolia L. seeds was significantly influenced by soil tillage only, that of V. arvensis Murray by soil tillage and its interaction with soil fertility improvement measures, and that of Ch. album L. by soil fertility improvement measures only.
Key words: amount and mass of weeds, autumn soil tillage, crop rotation, seed bank, soil fertility improvement measures.
Full text: 100_1_str4.pdf